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The Market in Babies: Stories of Australian Adoption

INDEX

A

abortion 3, 77, 78

Adopted Vietnamese International (AVI) 22, 119

adopting parents x, 2, 3, 12, 2122, 25, 26, 30, 37, 3944, 47, 5051, 52, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 68, 6970, 73, 75, 8081, 82, 83, 85, 87, 88, 89, 90, 102, 103, 115, 120122, 123126, 132, 133, 134, 135, 138, 141, 146, see also Australian Adoptive Families Association (AAFA); rights; Rights for Adoptive Families; Rights for Adoptive Parents (RAP)

adoption in Australia

advertisements for 23, 9, 4849, 50, 52, 5354, 55, 66

and activitism 36, 75, 7677, 81, 8485, 86, 87, 88, 102, 106, 108, 109, 110

and childlessness, see infertility

and gender 43, 54, 55, 59, 65, 78

and nation building 55, 101, 133, 147

and public storytelling 910, 16, 18ff, 25ff, 53, 83, 84, 88, 92, 93, 95, 96, 98, 107, 115, 128129, 131, 136137

and sexual exploitation 52

celebrities and 51, see also Furness, Deborra-Lee

‘crises’ in 80, 120, 127, 133135

historical perspectives on 24, 8, 9, 47ff, 95, 102, 104106, 120, 135, 143144

illicit practices 49, 91, 92, 94, 9597, 102, see also infants, trade in

language of x, 25, 48, 75, 86, 87, 88, 91, 146

matching 3, 39, 54, 56, 61, 133

role of midwives 27, 3133, 47, 48, 49, 51

statistics 1, 34, 9, 27, 55, 7879, 126127, 130, 132, 133, 135, see also ‘crises’ in

see also closed adoption; forced adoption; informal adoption; intercountry adoption; open adoption; private adoption; sentimental adoption; special needs adoption; transnational/transracial adoption

Adoption Acts 47, 52, 60, 7071, 72, 73, 8586, 8889, 90n. 75, 97, see also legislation

adoption laws 34, 8, 9, 17, 35, 36, 49, 51, 52, 7071, 73, 88, 134, 143

Adoption Legislation Review

Committee (ALRC) [Victoria] 83, 84, 85

Adoption Liberation Movement of Australia (ALMA) 82n. 58

Adoption.Loss.Adult.Support.(ALAS) 99

Adoptive Families Association (AFA) (Victoria) 89, 121 see also

Australian Adoptive Families Association (AAFA)

Anderson, Daphne 62, 69

Anderson, Emma 4244, 124

Anderson, Grace 4344, 124

Anderson, Susan 62

anonymous stories and story-tellers 10, 12, 1314, 15, 18, 23, 24

‘Catherine’ 20, 21

‘Christine’ 3839

‘Elizabeth’ 79, 93

‘Helen’ 141144

‘Hope’ 5556

‘Little Mother’ 74

‘Matthew’ 128, 129, 131, 138

‘Merle’ 4041

Nepalese 19, 2122

‘Rachel’ 128, 129, 131, 138

Apology Alliance 99

apologies 1, 97101, 145, 146, 147

Australian Association of Social Workers 100

Australian Association of Social Workers NSW 92n. 81

Australia’s Indigenous Peoples (Stolen Generations) 97, 99

church groups 31, 95, 99

Forgotten Australians and former child migrants 98, 99

People affected by forced adoption practices 75, 100101, 143, 145, 146, 147

Queensland 99

West Australia 95, 99, 100

Attorneys-General 70

Commonwealth 70, 123, 132

South Australian 51

Victorian 82

Australian Adoptive Families Association (AAFA) 107, 109

Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW) 72, 92, 100

Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 75n. 48, 80n. 55, 96, 111, 131, 132

Australian Conferences on Adoption, see conferences

Australian Intercountry Adoption Network (AICAN) 121122, 123

Australian Labor Party 83, 85, 88, 96, 97, 99, 118

Australian Medical Association 72

Australian National Council of Women 104, 105n. 96

Australian Relinquishing Mothers Sisterhood (ARMS) (also Association of Relinquishing Mothers) 8690, 91, 97, 99

Australian Society for Intercountry Aid (Children) (ASIAC) 81, 112, 121, 122123

Australian Women’s Weekly 5556, 57, 5960, 61, 68, 74, 75, 79, 8384, 93, 104, 105n. 96

B

babies, see infants

babies’ homes, see homes

baby farming 49, see also infants, death of

Barclay, Celia 107

Barnett, Oswald 55

Barwick, Garfield 70

Bender, Robert 83, 87n. 70

Berry Street Babies’ Home (Melbourne) 58

best interests of the child 62, 70, 72, 89, 121, 122, 132, 134, 146

birth families 2, 3, 10, 17, 18, 22, 23, 52, 58, 84, 90, 123, 124, 131, 141, 142

‘birth mothers’ x, 14, 1516, 2122, 25, 4142, 43, 51, 57, 58, 70, 71, 82, 83, 87, 88, 111n. 91, 125, 136, 138

birth records 18, 22, 60, 89, 107

access to 11, 36, 75, 82, 83, 85, 8687, 8889, 9192, see also open adoption

sealed 3, 4, 18, 73, 75, 81, 83, 85, 88, 90, see also closed adoption; secrecy

black market adoption 58, 59

boarding-out 50, 51, see also foster care

Bolton, George 50

Bond, Sue 1516

Bracks, Steve 97

Brennan, Patricia 58

Briand (Huxley), Rena 107, 110, 111, 112

Briggs, Laura 130

Buckland, Dot 3334

Bylund, Sue 21

C

Calder, Rosemary 81n. 57, 107, 108n. 104, 111

Campbell, Christine 97

care of children 2, 3, 42, 47, 61, 69, 72, 73, 90, 122, 131132, 143

foster 4, 43, 50, 52, 84, 132, 141142, 145146, 147

institutional 50, 60, 75, 98, 99, 106, 123, 132, see also homes; orphanages

permanent 142143, 145146

state 4950, 51, 53, 63, 97

Catholic Welfare Commission (NSW) 80

Chiang-Cruise, Rodney 136137

Child Care Service of the Methodist and Presbyterian (later Uniting) Churches (Victoria) 106, 112

child rescue 19, 43, 55, 60, 103, 107, 109, 111, 126, 135, 146

Cleo 77

closed adoption 18, 85, 134, 138, 143, see also sealed birth records; secrecy

Coates, Von 23

Cohen, Robyn 29

Cole, Christine 9192, 94, 96, 99

Cole-Sinclair, Dorothy 62, 69

committees

Adoption Legislation Review

Committee (Victoria) (ALRC) 83, 8485

Commonwealth Inter-departmental Committee on Intercountry Adoption 112

House of Representatives Standing Committee on Family and Human Services 75n. 48

NSW Standing Committee on Adoption 78

Parliament of Tasmania Joint Select Committee Adoption and Related Services 9596, 97n. 85

Senate Community Affairs References Committee 97, 98, 100

Statute Law Revision Committee (Victoria) 82

Victorian Adoption Conference Subcommittee 112

Victorian Standing Committee on Adoption 83

conferences 88

1994 [Fifth] Australian Adoption Conference 42, 90, 9192

First Australian Conference on Adoption (1976) 8082, 83, 106, 108

Histories of Motherhood (2011) 77n. 51

International Council of Social Welfare 112

National Council for Single Mothers and their Children 84

Second Australian Conference on Adoption (1978) 83, 87n. 70

Sixth Australian Conference on Adoption (1997) 92

Third Australian Conference on Adoption (1982) 26, 39, 8687

contraception 3, 78

co-parenting 133

Council of Single Mothers and their

Children (CSMC) 71, 7677, 81, 82, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88, see also conferences

Council of Social Welfare Ministers (Commonwealth) (CSWM) 8990, 111, 112, 122

Council of Social Work of New South Wales 72

Crown Street Hospital (Sydney) 34

D

Davey, Bill (William) 84

Davidson, Mrs Norman 109

Davis, Neil 111

Department of Child Welfare (NSW) 7273

Department for Community

Welfare (SA) 89, 110

Department of Foreign Affairs 102

Department of Human Services (Victoria) xi, 141

Department of Social Welfare (Victoria) 81

Donaldson, Clarice 51

Donley, Kay 80

E

Edwards, Elizabeth 28

Edwards, William 28

Eve, Linda 32, 34

F

fathers 8, 10, 20, 2627, 28, 35, 38, 40, 48, 54, 57, 59, 62, 74, 97, 106, 115, 131, 134, 137, 139

fees for services 122, 123n. 114

financial aid, see social security benefits

Fitts, Sandy 7677

Fitzpatrick, Jen 1920, 21, 22, 119

Fogarty, Justice John Francis 122, 123n. 114

forced adoption/forced child removal 25, 26ff, 60, 9092, 95ff, 102, 143, 145, 146, 147, see also apologies, inquiries/reports and Origins Australia

Ford, Barry John 79, 10, 16, 2223

Fopp, Peter 110112, 120

Furness, Deborra-Lee 1, 120

G

Gay Dads Australia 134

Greer, Germaine 77

The Female Eunuch 77

Gregory, Graeme 106, 112

Grey, Sharon 128129, 131

Gillard, Julia 75n. 48, 101

H

Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (1993) 123124, 126, 131

Hale, Meg 88

Hamer, Rupert 77, 82

Hendriksen, Judith 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 36, 95

heredity 54

Herring, Sir Edmund 6970

homes

babies’ 30, 54, see also Berry Street Babies’ Home (Melbourne); Methodist Babies’ Home (Melbourne)

for crippled children 60

for orphans 30, 63, see also orphanages

for unmarried mothers (also maternity) 26, 28, 29, 30, 39, 58, 5960, 65, 74, 76, 99, see also Ngala Mothercraft Home and Training Centre (Perth)

retirement (also nursing) 10, 18

Hunter, Louise 74

Hurrell, Hannah 51

Hyland, David 23

I

identity

legal 2, 10, 18, 19

personal 8, 1618, 2022, 24, 26, 84, 89, 124126, 143

illegitimacy 1, 9, 36, 59, 74, 76, 77, 78

as stigma 4748, 57

Indigenous children 2, 61, 67, 84, 94, 97, 99, 147

infant asylums 50, see also babies’ homes

infants

availability of 130, 133

death of 49, 59, 146

protection of 49, 70

trade in 2, 4748, 49, 52, 58, 110112, 120, 122, 130, 143

transfer of 51, 56, 60, 109

unadoptable 61

see also surrogacy

infertility/childlessness 1, 3, 9, 19, 26, 31, 34, 3940, 47, 49, 53, 57, 59, 62, 74, 81, 121, 128129, 138, 141

informal adoption 2, 58, 143, see also private adoption

inquiries and reports

Adoption of children from overseas 75, 123, 125

Bringing them home 98n. 87

Commonwealth Contribution to Former Forced Adoption Policies and Practices 25n. 2, 26, 2728, 30, 31, 32, 34, 71, 79n. 54, 88n. 71, 98n. 87, 99100

Forgotten Australians (Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children) 98n. 87

Lost Innocents (Child migrants) 98n. 87

New South Wales 91n.79, 9697

Removal of Indigenous children (Stolen Generations) 97, 98

Tasmania 9596

Victoria 83, 97

intercountry adoption 4, 1922, 102ff, 126127, 128, 129, 130133, 134, 139, 147

and ethnicity 1822

and nation-building 106, 133, 147

and racism 19, 106

birth families and 2122, 123, 124, 125, 131, 138

China 126127, 132

Ethiopia 4344, 124, 126, 132

historical background to 102, 104106, 113

India 121, 122, 126, 131132

Korea 106, 126127

and preservation of culture 20, 22, 124125

and return 20, 2122, 125

Vietnam 1921, 22, 81, 102103, 106110, 111, 114119, 126, 147, see also Operation Babylift

see also identity

International Adoption Network 112

International Council on Social Welfare 112, see also conferences

in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) 3, 124, 128, 129, 131

J

Jacobs, Marian 124125

Jigsaw 37, 8086, 87, 88, 89, 9091, 95, 97

K

Kashin, Jan ii, 88n. 71, 94

Keogh, Simon 2021

Kowal, Christine 16, 1718, 22, 23

L

Lawarie, Kate de 49

legal challenges 50, 56, 62, 68, 69, 7071, 91, 97n. 86, 134

legal reform 36, 70, 8086, 87, 88, 89, 90, 95, 102, 111, 112, 132, 134

legislation 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 17, 35, 47, 49, 5152, 53, 7071, 7273, 7778, 81, 82, 83, 85, 88, 89n. 73, 97, 112, 120, 123, 135, 137, 143

Limitation Act 97

Lowe, Suzanne 18

M

Mace-Murray case 62, 68, 69

Maczkowiack, Kathy 33

Maison, Barbara 28, 30

market forces 2, 34, 19, 27, 44, 48, 50, 51, 5354, 55, 5859, 61, 73, 102, 110, 121, 127, 130, 133136, 138139, 143, 146

Marre, Diana 130

maternity homes, see homes

McBroom, John 52

McHutchinson, Judy 86, 91

Meckan, Carol 1112

Meggitt, Marie 87, 88n. 71

Meggs, Helen P. 105

Methodist Babies’ Home (Melbourne) 55, 66, 67, 84

Mission of St James and St John (Melbourne) 53

Moir, Elaine 102103, 107, 112, 113

Monash History of Adoption project 7n. 1, 9ff, 22, 25ff, 58, 124, 145, 146

Murphy, Marilyn 2728, 29, 30

N

National Minimum Principles in Adoption 90

New Idea 5354, 5758, 59, 62

Newton, Sir William 52

Ngala Mothercraft Home and

Training Centre (Perth) 64

Nonas, Margaret 28, 3132, 33, 34, 35

O

Oakley, Rev Denis 106

Operation Babylift 19, 20, 81, 109110, 112, 116119, 147

Origins Australia (Forced Adoption Support Network) 9092, 9597, 99

orphanages 8, 19, 21, 30, 42, 43, 50, 63, 103, 106, 107, 110, 114, 115, 121, 123, 131

Osborne, John 121

open adoption 4, 10, 85, 8889, 90, 102, 134, 141, 142, 143, 144

opening of records 4, 11, 17, 18, 36, 7576, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 8889, 90, 9192, 95, 134

Other People’s Children ix, 146

P

‘pain and suffering’ 75, 87, 88, 94, 96, 97101, 143

payments

donations 122

for care of children 2, 9, 49, 50, 58

for care of unmarried mothers 30

for foster parenting 4950, 52

‘premiums’ 48, 49

see also fees for services; infants, trade in

Peter, Liz 124

Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme 77

Picton, Clifford 8081

Potter, Michael and Danielle 125

private adoption 2, 8, 5051, 5759, 61, 79, 99, 120, see also informal adoption

Putin, Vladimir 132

R

‘relinquishing mothers’, see

Australian Relinquishing Mothers Sisterhood (ARMS)

return 20, 21, 24, 35, 62

rights 76ff

adoptees 52, 73, 7778, 83, 86, 143

adopting parents 81, 121

birth family 52

civil 75

gay 137

human 9798, 121

Indigenous land 77

inheritance 52

mothers separated by adoption 70, 71, 7273, 7678, 86, 96, 143

parental 70

reproductive 77

right to a child 80, 138

‘Rights of the Child’, see UN Convention on

Rights for Adoptive Families 121

Rights for Adoptive Parents (RAP) 81

Roberts, Pam 78

Royal Brisbane and Women’s

Hospital 99

Royal Women’s Hospital (Melbourne) 34, 40, 79

Roz, Jill 28, 30, 35, 36, 37

Rudd, Kevin 99

Rogan, Pat 96

S

Salvation Army 30, 65, 78

Schlafrig, Annette 1011, 13

searches and reunions 8, 11, 13ff, 27, 33, 3638, 39, 59, 8285, 8889, 90

Searle, Cheryl Virginia 58

secrecy 1, 3, 7, 1013, 15, 19, 20, 48, 5051, 52, 54, 71, 77, 8788, 90, 119, 134, 146

Senate Inquiry into the Commonwealth Contribution to Former Forced Adoption Policies and Practices, see inquiries

sentimental adoption 49

shame 1, 9, 12, 2627, 29, 35, 36, 40, 57, 90, 96

Siewert, Rachel 100

single mothers 3, 27, 31, 33, 3435, 39, 4748, 54, 57, 59, 62, 68, 75n. 47, 7679, 84, 86, 89, 93, 97, 146, see also Council of Single Mothers and their Children (CSMC)

social security benefits 3, 35, 71, 76, 77, 79

social workers 1, 2, 3, 8, 12, 23, 28, 3435, 39, 4041, 5556, 59, 60, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75, 76, 78, 8081, 83, 85, 8990, 91, 92, 97, 100, 106, 128, 141, 143, 146, see also Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW)

Spanswick, Hannah 3233

special needs adoption 19, 6061, 80, 143

Staley, Tony 108

state apologies, see apologies

Stewart, Mrs Colin 103

‘Stolen Generations’ 9798, 99, 147, see also apologies

Storey, Haddon 82, 83

Strahan, Isabel 56

surrogacy 4, 102, 127, 128130, 133137, 138139

laws 135, 138

Surrogacy for Gay Men Community Forum (2011) 136137

T

Taylor, Kim 91

Thomas, Sylvia 52

Thorpe, Maree 10, 11, 18

Toner, Pauline 85

Tovel, Henri 104, 113

transracial/transnational adoption 22, 61, 120, 124126, see also intercountry adoption

Triseliotis, John 83

Turner, Ethel 104

U

United Nations 112, 122, 123

Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) 123, 146

V

Van Keppel, Margaret 86n. 69, 87, 88n. 71

Verlinden, Cecilia 103

Victorian Adoption Conference 112

Victorian Adoption Network for Information and Self-Help (VANISH) 89

Victorian Council of Social Service 71

W

waiting lists 55, 60, 78, 132

wars 19, 103, 104109

First World War 104, 113

Korean War 106

Second World War 3, 16, 60, 74, 86, 104105, 134

Vietnam War 19, 20, 21, 102, 106109, 114119, 126

Watts, Margaret 105

Wellfare, Dian 91, 92, 96

West, Rosemary 71, 7677

White Australia Policy 106, 126

Whitlam, Gough 77, 109, 118

Willing, Indigo (Williams) 22, 119, 126n. 118

Winkler, Robin 87

Winneke, Mr Justice 69

World Vision 106, 126

Wright, Alison 35, 3638

‘Wyse, Elizabeth’ 57

The Market in Babies: Stories of Australian Adoption

   by Marian Quartly, Shurlee Swain, Denise Cuthbert