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Reading Robinson: Companion Essays to George Robinson’s Friendly Mission



Index

A

abalone see muttonfish

abduction 36, 86, 94, 172

abolition of slavery 36, 41, 52, 89-90, 184

abolitionist views on race 51

abolitionists 51, 89

success of humanitarian movement 41

See also slavery

Aboriginal asylum, Hobart 97, 103, 106

Aboriginal Committee 100, 105

Aboriginal dispossession 29, 39, 60, 165, 187

See also settler encroachment on indigenous land; Tasmanian Aborigines

Aboriginal establishments see Bruny Island mission; Wybalenna

Aboriginal identity see kinship; Tasmanian Aboriginal identity

Aboriginal languages geographical distribution 114

Aboriginal legal service 115

Aboriginal missions see Bruny Island mission; Wybalenna

Aboriginal reserve communities (Vic and NSW) 68

Aboriginal women and sealers 131, 153, 175

abduction 94, 172

slavery of Aboriginal women 52, 84-5, 172

Aboriginality see kinship; Tasmanian

Aboriginal identity

Aborigines see Tasmanian Aborigines, etc.

Aborigines Committee see House of Commons Select Committee on Aborigines (British Settlements)

Aborigines Protection Society 38, 39, 50, 92-4, 194n29

against removal of indigenous people 92-3

British APS concerns about Wybalenna 92

Afrikaner farmers, Cape Colony 94

conflict with British settlers 81

conflict with Xhosa, Khoisan 81-2, 85

reliance on indigenous labour 81, 83

Allen, Harry 117

amelioration 31-3, 89, 102, 191n8

Anderson, Benedict 183

Anderson family 61

Anishinaabeg people 92

Anstey, Thomas 102, 108

anthropological views on race 51, 116

anthropologists 64, 113, 116, 120

and fire making by Aborigines 207n51

anthropology 15, 16, 18, 22, 47-54, 56, 114, 185

methodology 16

See also physical anthropology; race; racial hybridity

apartheid 93-4

archaeologists 112, 116, 117, 119, 125

and fire making by Aborigines 119

archaeology in Tasmania 111-13, 119, 127, 137

and Robinson 118

research on scale-fish in Aboriginal diet 112, 117

See also Jones, Rhys

‘archive fever’ 22

Arthur, Sir George 32-4, 48, 99, 100, 102

and slavery 52

and Van Diemen’s Land Co. 129-31, 137

Black Line 178-79

concept of protectorates 37

conciliation of Aborigines 33-4

given authority for NSW protectorate 37

in British Honduras 33

proposes Robinson as Chief Protector 37

sympathetic to humanitarian causes 32-3

view of Robinson 32-4

assigned convicts 98, 101, 108

assimilation policies 24, 70, 79, 91, 96

and cultural genocide 93

asylum see Aboriginal asylum, Hobart

attacks on Aborigines 162, 172, 176, 177, 209n2

See also frontier conflict; massacres

attacks on settlers 99, 100, 132, 178, 175

See also frontier conflict

Attwood, Bain 17

Australian Aborigines 99, 122

See also Tasmanian Aborigines, etc

Australian Agricultural Company 89

Australian historiography see historiography, Australian

B

Backhouse, James

view of Robinson 32, 34, 35, 38, 88-9, 120, 122

Bannister, Saxe 91-2

Barton, Joseph 162

Bass Strait Islands 53, 106, 108, 149

population 65-8

Batavian Republic 88

Bath 168

Bathurst, Henry, Lord Bathurst 97

Baudin, Nicolas 208n76

Beaglehole, JC

compared to Plomley 186

Beattie, JW 121

Bell, Andrew

education system 31, 191n12

Bible 163-64

Bicentenary celebrations, Aboriginal protest 24, 60

Bickford, Anne 116

Big River tribe 152, 172, 175, 176

biological determinism 67

‘Birch’s Tom’ see Kickerterpoller

‘black arm band’ history see historiography, Australian

Black Jack 99, 100

Black Line 19, 33, 35

Aboriginal perspective 179-80

failure 105, 179-80

footwear 178-79

operation described 178-79, 215n43

purpose 178

Robinson’s doubts 179

Black Tom see Kickerterpoller

Black War 46, 147, 148

Blumenbach, JE 164

Bolton, Geoffrey 20

Bond Head, Sir Francis 92

Bonwick, James 47, 48, 50, 52-5

views on race 51-4

Boultbee, John 65

Bowdler, Sandra 116, 117, 128

Breen, Shayne 122, 208n70

British colonialism in Van Diemen’s Land 36, 88

compared to New Zealand 175

compared to North America 175

no colonial rivals 175

no treaties for land 172

Brown, Brendan (‘Buck’) 208n76

Bruny Island mission

motives of Robinson 30, 49, 98

Buckley, William 122

Burnett, John 102, 106

bushmen see San

bushrangers 99

Buxton, Thomas Fowell 34-6, 89-90, 92

antislavery lobby, House of Commons 34

parliamentary inquiry into settler practices 34

C

Calder, James E 120, 122

cannibalism 53

Cape Colony

British settlement 77-8, 81, 83, 88, 198n13

Cape Grim 128

Cape Grim Aborigines see Pennemukeer tribe

Cape Grim massacre

Aborigines’ account 131-32

and Robinson’s journals 128, 131-37, 140-41

and Van Diemen’s Land Co. records 128-30

bones found 133-34

casualty estimates 130, 133, 139

Chamberlain’s account 131-33

contradictions between accounts 133-39

Curr’s report 129-30

Goldie’s letters to Arthur 131

Gunchannon’s account 132

other killings in area 136

reconstructions 132-34, 209n25

Caroline (Ship) 139

Chamberlain, Charles 131-33

children

abducted by shepherds 85

forced labor 83-4, 86-7, 172

Christian evangelism see evangelical humanitarianism

Circular Head 127, 130, 139, 140

land grant 127

‘civilisation’ of Aborigines, Robinson’s plans 42

influence of Caribbean and Cape Colony precedents 31

Clapham sect 37

Clark, Manning 147

on Robinson’s motives 148

Clark, Mr. (Campbell Town) 108

Clausewitz, Claus von 173

Clifford, James 49

Coal River 97

colonial administration 17, 89

colonial economy 33, 77, 83

convict labor 84

NSW poor economic state 41

slavery basis of 80, 83

Van Diemen’s Land 33

Colonial Office 34, 50, 52, 89, 91, 127, 166

records 14, 127

Colonial Times 108

colonialism 17, 32, 36, 42, 88, 159, 184

destructive impact 60, 78

humanitarian model 28

in Van Diemen’s Land 87

Committee for the Care of Captured Aborigines 180

Committee on the Disturbed State of the North Western Districts 40

conciliation 32

convicts 80, 82, 99, 103, 167, 168

Cooee Point 209n25

Cook, Capt. James anthropological significance 186

compared to Robinson 186-87

troubled by morality of contact 186

Cornwall Chronicle 108

Cove, John 56

Cowerterminna 98, 103, 106, 203n39

craniology 51, 53-4, 56

Crowther, William Lodewyk

decapitation of William Lanney 54-5

cultural anthropology 51

cultural genocide 93

Curr, Edward Micklethwaite

source for native title legal judgement 14, 15

Curr, Edward (Van Diemen’s Land Co.) 128-29, 140

and local Aborigines 129-30, 140

as magistrate 129, 138-39

attack on Robinson’s mission 140

brutality 140

casualty estimates 130, 140

power 129

superior pasture of area 130, 140

version of Cape Grim incidents 129-31, 136-41

Curthoys, Ann 91

D

Darwin, Charles 17, 51

Davisons Bay 136, 139

Dening, Greg 124

Derrida, Jacques 22

Diamond, Jared 119, 206n49, 206n50

dispossession see Aboriginal dispossession

Dixon, Robert 19-20

Docker, John 91

Doughboys 132-33

Dove, Thomas 120, 122

Drayton, Richard 78

Dry, Sir Richard 54

Dumont d’Urville expedition 172

Dumont d’Urville, Jules-Sébastien-César 172

Dutch East India Company 31, 77, 80, 93, 199n24

Duterrau, Benjamin

portrait of Robinson, The Conciliation 16-7, 152, 186

Trukanini in The Conciliation 152

E

education, 19th-century models

Bell’s mutual instruction education system 31

monitorial education system 32

Eldredge, Elizabeth 86

Emu Bay 131

Espie, George 177

ethnography 49, 113, 114, 125, 164

missionary ethnography 49-51

Robinson’s 15, 19

salvage ethnography 49

ethnology 16, 51-3, 185

Eugenana 61

evangelical humanitarianism 42, 52, 163, 166

evangelical networks 41, 42

See also Clapham sect

evolutionists 51, 116

explorers 113, 117, 120, 123, 127

extinction see racial extinction

extirpation 33, 36, 91

F

Fanny (ship) 129, 137-40

attack of crew on Aborigines 129, 139

witness account 139

‘fireless men’ 123

Fenton, James 120, 122

Ferriera, – 85

fire making by Tasmanian Aborigines 118-20, 123

early explorers’ observations 120

friction method 120-22, 207n55

percussion method 120, 207n55

Westlake Papers 120-21

writers’ views 119-20

fire making, Lake Eyre 122

fire making, Port Phillip 122

firearms see muskets

firesticks 122

First Reform Act of England (1832) 148

fish in Tasmanian Aboriginal diet see under Tasmanian Aborigines

Fison, Lorimer 16

Fitzroy, Sir Charles 41

Flannery, Tim 119, 206n49

Flinders Island 34, 107, 108, 156, 161, 180

See also Wybalenna

forced fostering of Aboriginal children 42

Forestier Peninsula 178

Franklin, Sir John 109

Frederick, Richard 129

Friendly Mission 56

as example of colonial text 19, 64

differences in script in journal 96

value as historical source 13-25, 27, 47-8, 87, 95, 127, 130, 147, 151, 158-59, 171, 180

frontier conflict 36, 77, 79-82, 94, 130

Aboriginal perspective 180

Cape Colony 80, 82, 85

casualty rates 173

influence of racial contempt 164–65

not seen by British as war 172

scale 173

Van Diemen’s Land 77, 79-82, 94, 115, 130, 171-73

See also settler-indigenous relations; violence

frontier zones 81, 91

Fry, Elizabeth see Gurney, Elizabeth

G

Galton, Francis 116

genocide 46, 112, 115, 116

cultural genocide 93

defined 90-1

Gigjingali tribe 115

Giliomee, Hermann 81

Gipps, Sir George 38, 40, 41, 165, 192n38

Glenelg, Lord (Charles Grant, Baron Glenelg)

and slavery 52

appoints Robinson as Chief Protector 37-38

view of Robinson’s plan 30, 34, 37

Goderich, Viscount 34

Godlonton, Robert 91

Goldie, Alexander 129-30, 136, 209n25

letters to Arthur 131

‘Goldie incident’ 128, 209n2

Gordon, James 99

Gott, Beth 121

Grahamstown Journal 91

Grant, Charles, Baron Glenelg see Glenelg, Lord

Grant, Charles (politician) 191n4

grave-robbing 54, 56

‘Great chain of being’ 163

Grey, Sir George 41

Grey, Jeffrey 173

Gugu Yimidhirr tribe 186

Gunchannon, William 131-32, 176

Gunning, George Western 101

Gurney, Elizabeth 34

Gurney, Joseph John 35, 89

H

Hale, Charles 69

half-caste see mixed race

Hall, Catherine 52

Hallam, Sylvia 122

Hampshire Hills 132

Handt, JC 162

Hare, Rosalie 139

Haydon, Tom 112, 115-16

Hellyer, Henry 136

Herbert, Christopher 50

Hiatt, Betty 112-15, 118, 124, 127, 206n39

High Court 166, 213n20

historical memory 79, 93-4

historical sources, Tasmanian 50

destruction of records 96

extinction myth and credibility of oral history 123

importance of Robinson 18, 123-24

lack of regional history sources 127

lack of written records 14, 96, 124, 127

quality of Tasmanian sources 113

See also Friendly Mission; oral history; Van Diemen’s Land Co. records; etc.

historiography, Australian 20, 39, 112

‘black arm band’ view 20, 61

‘history wars’ 60, 79

historiography, South African 94

historiography, Tasmanian 117, 124-25

impact of extinction myth 60-1, 112, 113, 114, 123-24

value of Friendly Mission see Friendly Mission

history, military see military history

‘history wars’ see historiography, Australian

Hobart Town Courier 99

Hobart Town Mercury 54, 55

Hodgkin, Thomas 38, 92

horses 83, 176-77

Aboriginal fear 176

advantages in conflicts 177

horse dance 176

use in punitive raids 177

Horton, David 117

Horton, Wilmot 89

Hottentot see Khoekhoe

House of Commons Select Committee on Aborigines (British Settlements) 31, 35-8, 41, 83, 90

reports of Van Diemen’s Land and Robinson’s role 36, 78, 92-3

Howe, Michael 99

Howitt, Alfred W 16

Hughes, Robert 57

humanitarian movement

abolition movement 90-1

attitude of settlers 29

Christianisation of Hindus and Muslims in India 28, 191n4

concerns about Wybalenna 92

conciliation with indigenous peoples 28

decline in influence 41-2

emancipation of slaves in the West Indies 28

humanitarian model of colonialism 28

influence on policy in colonies 29, 79, 89

key concepts for civilisation 31

Robinson’s humanitarianism 32, 79

trans-imperial networking 19, 21, 27, 35, 77-9

See also London Missionary Society; missionaries; Wesleyan Missionary Society

humanitarian views on race 51, 164-65

humanitarianism in government officials 42

huts

Aborigines’ huts 137

settlers’ huts fortified 177

shepherds’ hut 136

stock hut construction 177

Huxley, Thomas Henry craniology 51, 53

hybridity see racial hybridity

I

imperialism 17

Indian Pattern Musket 134

indigenous people

humanitarian views 42-3

legal status 79, 81

indigenous sovereignty 79, 91

dispossession 78, 186

humanitarian views 42-3, 92

See also Aboriginal dispossession

inevitability of extinction see racial extinction

infantilisation of indigenous people 79, 198n6

International Year for World’s Indigenous Peoples 60

Iroquois 175

J

John, Thomas 129, 132, 137

Johnston, Anna 163

Jones, Philip 88, 93, 121, 207n51

Jones, Rhys

Aboriginal fire making 118-19, 121, 206n47, 206n48

absence of scale-fish in Aboriginal diet 118-19, 121, 206n47, 206n48

and Diamond 206n50

and extinction myth 112, 114-16, 123-25, 205n27

and historical sources 112

and Westlake 123

archaeological research 111, 128

bone awls absent in middens 111

fish bones absent in middens 111

impact of Arnhem Land travels 115

impact of Robinson’s journals 112

in Aboriginal Tribes of Australia 112, 114

in Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia 114

influence of Plomley 119, 121, 127, 209n1

influence on Tasmanian

historiography 114, 117, 119, 123-25, 147

interpreted by Windschuttle 112, 116-17, 119, 206n51

opposition to regression thesis 112

regression thesis 111-12, 114-19, 123-25

shell middens, NW Tasmania 111

Jorgensen, Jorgen 137, 172

K

Kangaroo Island 87

Keating, Paul 60

Kemp, Anthony Fenn 71

Kennedy, Malcolm 177

Kermode, William 101

Khoekhoe 30, 80-4, 86, 92, 102, 201n52

See also Khoisan

Khoisan 31, 81-5, 91

See also Khoekhoe; San

Kickerterpoller 97-9, 173

on Port Davey mission 103, 105

King Billy see Lanney, William

kinship, and Aboriginal identity 70-2, 74, 76

Kocha, Jürgen 78

Koori 68

L

Las Casas (Bishop) 166

Lake Echo 177

Lake Macquarie 38

Lambert, David 78

land rights 42, 166

See also Aboriginal dispossession; Native Title

land rights legislation 14

See also Native Title

Lang, John Dunmore 38

Lanney, William 54-6

Lascelles, Thomas 103

Last Tasmanian, The (film) 112, 115-16

Launceston Examiner 55, 177

Law, Benjamin 108

Legislative Council, NSW

squatter influence 41

Lemkin, Raphael 91

Lester, Alan 78-9, 89, 91

liminality 68

Ling Roth, Henry 56, 113, 117, 120-21, 204n10

Livingstone, David 50

Lombroso, Cesare 116

London College of Surgeons 54, 55

London Missionary Society 30, 31, 35, 86, 88, 93

See also humanitarian movement; missionaries; Wesleyan Missionary Society

Lowenthal, David 18, 186-87

Lubbock, John 116

Luggeremairrerner tribe 173

Lynoongar 140

M

Macarthur family 89

Macarthur, John 89

McFarlane, Ian 208n76

McGeary, Alexander 108

McKay, Alexander 132, 136

Malinowski, Bronislaw 15, 189n7

Manitoulin Island 92

Mannalargenna 119, 122, 149, 168

and Robinson 149, 153

Mansell, Michael 112

Maori 41, 175

Maori land rights 29, 37

settler antagonism 29

massacres 158

Meander River 158

Myall Creek 38-41

Waterloo Creek 40

See also Cape Grim massacre; Myall Creek massacre

Meehan, Betty see Hiatt, Betty

Meigs, Dr. 53

Melville, Henry 107, 128

Meston, AL 128

middens 111, 117, 134, 136

military historians 171, 180

military history

sources 171

value of Friendly Mission 180

Milligan, Joseph 120, 122

Millis, Roger 40

mining industry and apartheid 94

Miscast exhibition 201n52

missionaries 38, 102, 162-63, 166, 167

as sources of information 36

missionaries’ writings 50

missionaries, Wesleyan 16

missionary networks 88, 184

missionary periodicals 30

missionary views on race 51, 163-64

See also London Missionary Society; humanitarian movement; Wesleyan Missionary Society

mixed race see racial hybridity

mixed race children 31, 42, 86

mixed race people

attitude of Europeans 67

See also racial hybridity

model farming, Bruny Island 31

model villages

Kat River settlement, Cape Colony 31

Nonconformist mission stations, West Indies 31

monogenesis 51, 163, 164

Monpeliatta 172

Morgan, Lewis Henry 16

Morton, Fred 86

Moses, Dirk 91

murder of Aborigines

opposition to trial or execution of settlers 41

Murray, Tim 116

Murray River 14-5

Murri 68

muskets 134, 139, 174

British control of supply 175

See also Tasmanian Aboriginal use of muskets

Musquito 99-100

mutton-birding 132, 209n25

muttonfish (abalone) 132, 209n25

Myall Creek massacre 29, 38-41

trial 29

myth of extinction 73, 115, 149

See also historiography, Tasmanian

N

Nangergoring 140

nationalism, Australian 60-1

Native Americans 175

Native Title 14, 15, 22

neoliberalism 60

New South Wales 15, 28-9, 40-1, 61, 68, 71, 89, 91, 171, 207n55

See also Port Phillip District

New South Wales Aborigines 99, 165

New South Wales Protectorate 37-9, 86, 150

New Zealand 175

newspapers

domination by settler groups 38, 41

humanitarianism 38

reports of Robinson at Wybalenna 108

Newton-King, Susan 83

Ngoongah 68

Nicholson, Richard 131-32

North America 175

North Midlands Aborigines 98

North Motton 72

Nunn, Major 40

O

Olney, J (Federal Court)

found against the Yorta Yorta 14, 15

oral history 14, 17, 75, 113, 124, 184

oral testimony legal status 15, 41

Orange Free State 86

Oyster Bay people 97, 99

P

Palawa (Pallawah) 18, 68, 190n21

See also Tasmanian Aborigines

Panenemoke 140

Paredarerme tribe 173

Parker, James 175

pastoral leases 166

influence on land rights claims 166

Pennemukeer tribe 139

extinction 139-40

population 139

participant observation in research 15

Pevay see Tunnerminnerwait

Philip, Jane 88

Philip, John 31, 35, 36, 88

phrenology 53-4, 163

physical anthropology 54, 163, 185

Pink, Kerry 134

Pittwater area Aborigines 97

Plomley, NJB (Brian) 16, 17, 18, 22-4, 124, 190n28,190n29

and physical anthropology 186

and racial hybridity 61-7, 76

citations of Friendly Mission 24

compared to JC Beaglehole 186

education, career etc. 22-3

impact on sense of Aboriginality 61-7, 75-6

influence on historiography 123-24, 140-41

influence on Rhys Jones 123-24, 127, 209n1

interpretations of Robinson 96, 114, 117, 206n39

on fire making by Tasmanian

Aborigines 119-20, 123

on fish in Aboriginal diet 119-21, 206n39

on Robinson’s motives 148

on settler encroachment 172

on use of firearms 175

on value of Robinson as source 47, 113

political philosophy, 19th-century 30

politics of identity 17

polygenesis 51, 163

population decline of indigenous people

Cape Colony 83

population fertility 65-7

Van Diemen’s Land estimates 139-40, 155

Port Davey expedition 104-05

Port Davey tribe 154

Port Phillip District 28-9, 86, 109, 166, 169

See also New South Wales

Port Phillip Protectorate 29, 38-9, 41

Port Sorell 175

Portland Bay 86

Potter, William 71

Price, Richard 78

Prichard, JC 164

‘propaganda war’

Australia 29

between humanitarian and settler lobbies 27, 29, 191n1

Eastern Cape 29, 41

New Zealand 29

Protectorate (Port Phillip District) see Port Phillip Protectorate

protectorates 41, 90

Punch, – (Stockman) 158, 176

Pybus, Cassandra

on Robinson’s motives 155-56

on Trukanini 152

Q

Quaker interest in colonial governance 34

Queensland 121

Quoy, Jean-René 172

R

race 73

See also anthropology; ethnography; monogenesis; polygenesis; racial extinction

race war 87

See also Black War

racial classification 163

racial extinction 50, 52, 54, 56, 64, 73, 93

inevitability 52, 64

racial hybridity 62-70

and appearance 65

and assimilation 70

and fertility 65-7

and lack of history 64

political use in Guatemala 69

racialisation of identity 68

racism 20

commodity racism 17

Rae-Ellis, Vivienne 30, 45, 119, 151, 156-58

and Aboriginal fire making 119, 206n48

on Robinson 153-55

on Robinson’s motives 154-55

on Trukanini’s motives 151-52

retaliation as cause of Aboriginal attacks 99, 100, 202n19

newspaper reports 99

Reynolds, Henry 28

Aborigines and guerrilla warfare 80, 99

challenges Rae-Ellis’ claims 156-57

on Robinson’s failure 157

on Robinson’s motives 156

on Trukanini’s motives 152, 157

Richmond 97, 178

Richmond Gaol 98

Risdon 172

Robert (Aborigine) 31

Robertson, Gilbert

Aborigines living with 97-9

and conciliation 97, 101, 102, 105, 107

Chief Constable, Richmond 97, 101

conflict with settlers and officials 101-02

defends Aborigines 99-100, 202n20

editor, The True Colonist 106

Governor Arthur 107, 203n39

land grant 97

mixed race 101

proposal of missions 97

relations with Robinson 103, 106-07, 109

roving parties 98, 99, 101

Robinson, George Augustus

and Aborigines

and Aboriginal dispossession 18, 28, 91,148-49, 157, 161, 165-66

and Aboriginal languages 158

and Cape Grim massacre 131-37, 209n25

and cultural genocide 93

at Bruny Island mission 32, 102, 158

at Wybalenna 106-08

attitude to Aborigines 161-62

Chief Protector, Port Phillip 29, 38, 109, 151, 168

failure to understand reciprocal obligation 104, 155

faulty depictions of Aborigines 98, 103, 104-05

gives Aboriginal skull to Franklin 109, 203n49

misinterpretation of Aboriginal beliefs 49

mission education system 31

on fire used by Aborigines 119-22

on fish eaten by Aborigines 117-18, 206n39

Protector of Aborigines in S. Australia 107, 109

relations with Aborigines 104-05, 156

reliance on Aboriginal support 103-04

respects status of Aborigines 167-68

settler opposition 29, 100

viewed by Tasmanian Aborigines 17

historians’ perspectives on Robinson 148-59

See also names of individual historians

influence and significance

and land rights legal judgements 15, 166

compared to Cook 186-88

compared to missionaries w162

impact on land rights 166

in fiction 17

influence on Rhys Jones 112-13, 117, 124

reports of Backhouse and Walker 32

reputation as conciliator 19, 28, 35, 38, 105

viewed by Bonwick 47, 48, 50, 124

personal life and beliefs

Christian beliefs 49, 148-50, 152-54, 156

commissioned bust from sculptor 108

concern with status 166-69

conflict with others 32, 102-03, 167

education and background 163, 166-67

humanitarianism 28, 30, 32, 38, 48-50, 148, 163

personality 39, 40, 46

reaction to press reports 108-09

relations with Gilbert Robertson 103, 106-07, 109

retirement 168

rewarded by Aboriginal Committee 105-06

self-promotion 19, 34, 35, 45, 102-03, 109, 192n19

untrained in recording, interpreting 15, 16, 189n6

views on race 51

views on slavery 51-2, 91

Robson, Lloyd

on Robinson 57, 153

roving parties 98, 99, 100, 103

Royal Society of Tasmania 55-6

Ruether, JG 122

Ryan, Lyndall 55, 112, 115

and Aboriginal fire making 119, 206n48

on kidnap of children 86

on Rhys Jones 114

on Robinson’s motives 148-50

on Trukanini 151-52

Rynuwiddicer 140

S

San 80-4, 86, 93, 201n52

See also Khoisan

Saunders, John 38

scientific racism 51, 53

Scott, Robert 40

sealers 48, 66, 67, 77, 80, 87, 174

abduction of women and children 86, 94, 172

children 63, 67, 86

fertility, Bass Strait 66-7

NW Tasmania 131

slavery of Aboriginal women 52, 84-5, 172

violence 82, 85

segregation see apartheid

settler-aboriginal relations

deterioration 172

initial co-existence 172

settler attitudes, Tasmania 82, 176

settler colonies 14, 21, 28-9, 33, 36, 38, 90, 159, 184, 186

settler encroachment on indigenous land 81

Cape Colony 35, 81

guerrilla warfare 80

indigenous resistance 29, 33, 40, 99

settler-indigenous relations 14, 19, 30, 90, 186

settler attitudes 31

settler attitudes, Van Diemen’s Land 176

settler violence 28, 33, 36, 80

settler violence in Cape Colony 36, 80, 82

settler violence, Van Diemen’s Land 81-2

See also frontier conflict

settler networks 41, 42

settler opposition to humanitarianism 27-9, 30, 38-41

squatter opposition to humanitarianism 38-41, 57, 192n38

settler self-government, impact on

indigenous people 29

settler violence 115

settlers absent in NW Tasmania 127

settlers See also Afrikaner farmers

settlers use of media, Cape Colony 41

Shakespeare, Nicholas 71-5

sheep attacked by Aborigines

NW Tasmania 129-30, 132

shell middens, Northwest Tasmania 111

Shell, Robert 86

shepherds 85

shepherds (Van Diemen’s Land Co.)

abduction of women and children 172

and Aboriginal women 132

attacked by Aborigines 129-30

attacks on Aborigines 129-32, 134, 139

hut 136-37

skulls see craniology

skulls of Tasmanian Aborigines 109

in London 54

slavery 52, 78, 80, 83

basis of colonial economies 80, 83

Cape Colony 83-5

chattel slavery 84-5

forced labour 83-6, 172

slavery of Aboriginal women 52, 84–5, 172

treatment of slaves 80, 83

Van Diemen’s Land 83-6

West Indies 29, 31, 41, 80, 96

See also humanitarian movement; abolition of slavery

slaves, freed, West Indies 41

Smit, Hendrik 83

social Darwinism 51, 116

South Australia 107, 121, 207n55

spearings, traditional 129, 132, 172

spears 174

Spring Bay 178

Steel, Michael 177

Stephen, Sir James 37, 89

Stockenstrom, Andries

opposition to humanitarian policies 41

Stocking, George 50-1, 194n29

stockmen 176

attacked by Aborigines 178

Stoeffels, Andries 31, 83

Stoney Creek people 98

Stross, Brian 70

Suicide Bay 132, 135 ill., 136-37

surveyors 136

Swan Island 106

Sydney Aborigines in Van Diemen’s Land 99

Sydney Herald

squatters influence 38

Sykes, Bobbi 115

T

Tarenorerer (Walyer) 175

Tarkiner tribe 108, 140

Tarnebunner 176

Tasman Peninsula 178

Tasmania 48, 71-2, 75, 114-15, 177

See also Van Diemen’s Land

Tasmania, European image of 71

Tasmania, Northern 61, 72

Tasmania, Northwestern 61

lack of historical sources 127

value of Plomley’s research 140-41

Tasmanian, The 108

Tasmanian Aboriginal Centre 115

Tasmanian Aboriginal identity 59-76, 115

language of identity 115

See also kinship

Tasmanian Aboriginal legal status

implications 172

martial law 172

Tasmanian Aboriginal traditional economy

lack of commodities for trade 175

compared to Maori 175

Tasmanian Aboriginal traditional weapons

ritual spearings 129, 132, 172

spears 174

See also Tasmanian Aboriginal use of muskets

Tasmanian Aboriginal use of muskets

lack of muskets and ammunition 176

lack of use in warfare 175-76

possession and use 174-75

stolen from settlers 175

transfer of knowledge from sealers’ women 175

Tasmanian Aborigines

and bushrangers 99

beliefs about fire 119, 122

dances and songs 175, 176

destruction of records concerning 96

dispossession 17, 18, 33, 144–45, 148, 150, 151, 158

environmental awareness 143

extinction myth 95

extinction myth and sense of Aboriginal identity 59-60, 112

factors contributing to population decline 67

fish in diet 111-13, 117-18, 206n39

fishing with spears 124

fishing with torches 124, 208n76

geographical distribution 114, 205n15

hanged for murder 99

harvesting seafood 133, 209n25

historical sources, paucity of 14, 18

huts, construction 137, 177

intertribal warfare 173

lack of written records 96

landcare systems 143

linguistic boundaries 114

making fire 111, 113, 118-22

mortality 143

on Big River expedition 119

on Port Davey mission 103-05

population estimates 139-40, 155

reciprocal obligation 74, 173

resistance to settler encroachment 33, 99

retaliation to settler violence 46

stone fish-traps 208n76

traditional diet 112, 124

traditional hunting patterns 133

tribal law 145, 172

tribal structure 114, 145, 204n13

use of resources 143

See also related topics e.g. Cape Grim massacre; Van Diemen’s Land Company

Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery 56, 151

teaching of Aboriginal history, Tasmania 95

terra nullius 46

Thomas, Phillip 121, 124

Threlkeld, Lancelot 38, 80, 86, 162, 165, 166, 198n9

Tindale, Norman 112, 114

Tommyginny tribe 175

Toogee people 103-04, 108

Topinard, Dr. Paul 53-4

trans-imperial networks 19, 35, 77-8

Transvaal 86

Treaty of Waitangi 29, 37, 41

trials of Aborigines for murder 99

Truganini see Trukanini

Tru-ger-nan-ner see Trukanini

Trukanini 59, 87, 91, 95, 96, 113

and Robinson 149-52

cremation 151

grave robbed 54, 56

in The Conciliation 152

portraits 150

skeleton exhibited 56, 151

spellings 59

viewed by historians 151-53, 154-57

Tunnerminnerwait (Pevay) 132

Turnbull, Paul 128

Tylor, Edward Burnett 51, 56, 116, 120, 122-23

U

Umarrah 97-100, 153

on Port Davey mission 103, 105

United Kingdom 151

V

Van Diemen’s Land 20, 32-3, 36, 171, 172, 175, 180

compared to Cape Colony 77-93

See also Tasmania

Van Diemen’s Land Company 47, 127-41, 176

Aborigines attacked 209n25

crew of Fanny attack Aborigines 129, 139

directors’ concerns about Cape Grim 140

Goldie’s letters to Arthur 131

history of skirmishes 129

muskets and ammunition used 134

records 127-29, 136, 140

relations with Aborigines 128, 137

Vanderwahl, Ron 117

Ventenat, Louis 120

Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie see Dutch East India Company

Victoria 14, 15, 61, 62, 68, 121, 150

See also Port Phillip District

Victorian era 17, 54

Victory Hill 130, 136-37

violence 78, 80-1, 94

against Khoisan 85

as tool for control 83, 85, 200n29

eliminationist violence, Cape Colony 82

sealers 85

See also frontier conflict

VOC see Dutch East India Company

Vögler, Gisela 118

W

Wairau ‘Affray’ 29, 41

Waitz, Theodor 52-3

Walker, George Washington 34, 88

Wanderer River 118

war

applied to Australian frontier conflict 173

British view 172

defined by Clausewitz 173

Watson, William 162

weapons See also muskets; spears

Weavis, John (Weaver) 131-32, 136

Weber, MJ 53

Wedge, JH 136

Wesleyan Missionary Society 102

See also humanitarian movement; missionaries; London Missionary Society

West Indies 27-28, 31-32, 41, 86

Western Australia 121, 122

Westlake, Ernest

fire making by Tasmanian Aborigines 120-21, 123

research 120-21, 123-24

Robinson’s journals 121

scale-fish eaten by Tasmanian Aborigines 124

Whitcomb, George 166

Wik case 166, 213n20

Williams, John 38

Williams, Thomas 50

Windschuttle, Keith 14, 20, 24, 46, 61

and Aboriginal fire making 119

and Lyndall Ryan 112

justification of colonisation 116

on frontier violence 79-80, 85, 90

on Robinson’s motives and behavior 30, 33, 45, 157

on Trukanini 152

support for Rae-Ellis’ claims 157-58

use of Rhys Jones’s regression thesis 112, 116-17, 119, 207n51

view of Cape Grim massacre 128, 130

‘Woodburn’ 97

Wood, JW 65

Woodburn, Jack see Cowerterminna

Woolaytopinyer 152

Woolnorth 131

Woorrady 87, 119

Wybalenna 30, 33, 75, 92, 109, 113, 120, 180

concern expressed by Franklin 109

criticisms 50, 57, 92, 149-50, 156-57

deaths 149

destruction of records 96

false reports by Robinson 151

reports by Robinson 34-6, 45, 150-51

X

Xhosa 41, 81, 85, 91

attack on Eastern Cape 29, 35

confiscated land returned 37

resistance to settler encroachment 35

Y

York Chasseurs 134

Yorta Yorta, Native Title claim 14, 15

Reading Robinson: Companion Essays to George Robinson’s Friendly Mission

   by Anna Johnston and Mitchell Rolls