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Making Them Indonesians: Child Transfers out of East Timor

Index

Aceh   xxxiv, 12, 15, 58, 175

Aditjondro, George J   10, 30, 38, 101, 117, 119, 121, 121 n. 30, 154

adoption

in Argentina, see Argentina

of children of resistance   37–39, 173

Indonesian law on, see Indonesia

by Indonesian civilians   33–34, 40, 48–50, 61

by Indonesian soldiers   xxii–xxiii, xxv–xxvi, 20–65, 148, 166–170, 173

and international law   xxxv–xxvi, 174

Islam and   xxiv

of Papuan children   75–77, 175

permission documents procured by soldiers, see soldiers

problems in relation to adoption of East Timorese children   xxiv, xxxv, 41, 47, 53, 56, 174

reasons for families giving children for   xxiv–xxvi, xxx,86

as traditional practice   xxiii–xxv, 163

see also transfers

ADSK (Abdi Dalem Sang Kristus)   68, 83, 178, 187

Afghanistan, child transfers from   xxxiv, 174

Al Mukmin Pesantren, Ngruki   132

Al-Anshar Foundation, see Johari

Alatas, Ali   xxii, 3, 8, 144

Alex Haryanto Freitas (Lukman), see Haryanto Freitas

Alfredo Alves, see Reinado

Alkatiri, Mari   113

Alola Foundation   v, 149, 165

Aluc Descart, see Descart

Alves da Silva, Domingas (Bilou-Mali)   39

Amnesty International   xxi n. 2, 6

anak angkat  xxiii

see also adoption as traditional practice

Anderson, Benedict RO   6, 19, 46, 95–96, 100

An-Nur mosque   112

An-Nur Mosque Foundation   107, 117, 126, 142

Antonio (from Manatuto)   26, 28 n, 36–37, 44, 51, 54–55

Apodeti (Associacão Popular Democratica Timorense) political party   5, 8, 45 n. 33, 57–58, 75, 77, 81, 84, 90, 94, 146, 153, 178–179, 185, 187–189

Arab East Timorese   95–96, 96 n, 110, 112–113, 113 n. 10, 115, 117–118, 122, 126, 137, 185

Arabah, Yunus   121 n. 31, 129

Araujo, Arnaldo dos Reis   11, 14, 67–68, 81, 85, 87, 184

Araujo, Fernando de   176

Araujo, Henrique   70, 73, 89

Araujo, Orlando de   117, 123 n. 37, 148 n. 12

Archer, Robert   112

Arenas, Alberto   18, 100

Argentina, stolen babies   xxxv, 40, 168, 173, 177

Arist Merdeka Sirait,   see Sirait

Asia Watch   101–103

Asvi, Warman   8

asylum in embassies   62, 103

Atauro Island   3, 43, 59, 95, 105, 187

Australian Aboriginal children   ix, xxxii–xxxiii, xxxvi, 173

Awali   xxii

Azis Hasyam, Lieutenant Colonel, see Hasyam

Babo Soares, Francisco, Madelina dos Santos and Dominggas Babo Soares   32, 50, 53 n. 41

Babo, Maria Margarida   29 n. 5, 46 n. 35, 72, 87, 148 n. 10

Bahari, Syamsul   99 n. 37, 125, 128 n. 48, 132 n. 64, 133–134, 152 n. 19, 165 n. 46

BAKIN (Badan Koordinasi Intelijen Negara)   98, 184, 187

Balibo Declaration   8 n, 153, 187–189

ballot, popular see also referendum   5, 143–144, 148

Banoe, Cornelius   135–136, 150, 163 n

Basri, Hasan (Roberto Freitas)   140–142, 149, 151, 184

and Lemorai Foundation   149, 151–153, 164–166

motivation for transferring children   151–152, 164

and non-co-operation with UNHCR for return of children   153, 161–162, 164–166

Bazher, Ambarak A   96, 113–118, 120, 127

Beding, Marcel   13

Belo, Bishop Carlos Felipe Ximenes   xxvii, 101, 112, 119, 126, 154

on child transfers   xxvii, 119, 126

and Department of Manpower (Depnaker) work program   101

and Indonesia   112

and Nobel Peace Prize   112, 154

Bexley, Angie Clare   xxi, 60, 99

Bhaskara, Harry   96

Biliki   xiv–xvii, xix, 25, 27, 31–32, 34, 50, 53, 60–61, 167

Bilou-Mali, see Alves da Silva

Borromeus, Carolus Catholic order   84, 155

Bourchier, David   1, 9, 13 n. 13, 16, 154

Bringing them home report,   see HREOC

British children, sent to Australia   xxxii, xxxii n

Bruinessen, Martin van   115 n. 18, 116, 116 n, 117 n. 22

Budiardjo, Carmel   35–36

Campbell-Nelson, Karen   146, 149, 158

Cardoso Gomes, Faustino   37, 154 n

Carey, Peter   xxi–xxii, xxvii, 16, 100, 109, 112, 119

Carnoy, Martin   18

Carrascalão, Mario   xxvi n. 14 and 15, xxvii, 24, 26, 38, 45, 92, 96, 101, 107, 115–116, 125, 184

Catholic Church

child care institutions   xxvi n. 15, 39

Dili cathedral   111 n. 7, 114 n. 14

in East Timor   30, 109, 111–112, 113 n.10, 114–116, 136

and education in East Timor   39, 83, 94, 109

in Indonesia and position in relation to integration   56, 84, 93, 111, 156, 160, 171, 184

number of adherents   111

Catholic Institute for International Relations (CIIR)   xxi, 114, 119

CAVR (Comissão de Acolhimento, Verdade e Reconciliação)   ix–x, xv–xvi, xxii, xxii n, xxx–xxxi, 3–8, 14–15, 17, 26–30, 35–43, 56, 60, 74–75, 95, 98–102, 112, 114, 135, 143–146, 149–150, 176 n

on child transfers   xxii, xxviii, xxxi n. 19, 45, 45 n. 32, 135, 163, 167

on discipline of soldiers for transfers   45, 45 n. 32

see also Commission of Truth and Friendship (CTF)

CAVR, public hearings

children and conflict   xxix, 44, 72, 80 n. 6

forced displacement and famine   43 n. 29

political prisoners   43 n. 29

women and conflict   xxvi n. 15

Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS)   6, 82, 111, 184, 187

Céu Lopes Federer, see Lopes Federer

Chaidir, Anwar Sani   12

Chandrasekaran, Rajiv   159

child/children

definition of   xxvii

destitute and abandoned because of war in East Timor   xxvi, xxvi n. 14 and 15, xxvii, 29, 31, 34, 41, 43, 64, 174–176

East Timor/East Timorese characterised as   8–9, 9 n. 8, 13, 174

Chizuyo, Sr Inoue   161 n. 41

Christian mission organisations   xxxiii–xxxiv, 109

Cinta Damai Foundation   135–136, 150–151, 162–163

Cipriano   89

Clementino dos Reis Amaral,   see Reis Amaral

Cold War   xxiii, 6

colonialism

definition of   xix–xx, 18, 18 n. 17, 109

see also development

Indonesian colonialism in East Timor, see Indonesia

Indonesian struggle against   2, 100

Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor, see CAVR

Commission of Truth and Friendship (CTF)   xxii n, 187

Communist Party of Indonesia   2, 5–6, 189

communists, communism (in Indonesia)   2–3, 5–9, 41, 110–111, 186, 188

Conboy, Kenneth   4, 14

Conceição, Abilio da, and members of the da Conceição family   80–81, 87, 92, 94, 178–179

Conceição, Floriana   91–94

Conceição, Luciano   33 n. 13, 56 n. 44

Concelcao, Al-Bana   126, 128 n. 48, 131 n. 61, 135 n. 72

concentration camps

children in   30–34, 47, 74, 86, 88, 91, 95, 175, 179

life in   7, 30, 35, 65, 74, 111, 113, 127, 187

Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), see United Nations

Conway, Jude   xxii

Costa Lopes, Monsignor Martinho da   52, 111

Costa Pinto, Vitor da   33, 48

Costa, Anwar da   119 n. 26, 129 n. 52, 132 n. 63

Costa, João da   101 n, 102–103

Costa, Maria da   29

Costa, Rev Paulus da   135–136, 136 n, 150

Cribb, Robert   2, 6–7

Cristalis, Irena   xxii

CSIS, see Centre for Strategic and International Studies

Cuba, see Pedro Pan Operation

Darul Istiqomah Pesantren (Maccopa institution)   120, 122–123, 127, 162

Day, David   17, 18 n. 16, 115

DDII (Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesia)   116–117, 120, 122–123, 126–128, 134, 148, 187, 190

Department of Foreign Affairs   77, 144, 160

Department of Foreign Affairs and Department of Information (publications)    xxvi n. 15, 8, 15, 54, 79, 85, 88, 93, 95–98

Department of Manpower   100–101, 103, 123, 164, 187

Department of Religious Affairs   95, 96 n, 107, 114 n. 14, 118, 137

Department of Social Welfare   xxvi n. 15, 46, 50, 70, 80, 83, 94, 146 n. 6, 147 n. 8, 155, 178, 189

Department of Social Welfare, PPATN   83, 86–87, 89, 91–94, 178, 189

Depnaker (Departemen Tenaga Kerja), see Department of Manpower

Descart, Benvindo (Shalih Zeromon Miranda Rahman)   38, 61, 167–170

Descart, Lieutenant Colonel Aluc   38–39, 167–169

development

and education   xx, xxi n. 4, 16–19, 40, 64–65, 74–78, 119

and Indonesian colonialism in East Timor   16, 96, 143, 174

Indonesian development in East Timor   xx, xxi n. 4, 1–2, 12, 16–17, 19, 25, 40, 43, 64–65, 74–75, 96, 109, 119–120, 125 n, 143, 174, 176

see also integration

and political stability   16

Dhakidae, Daniel   109

Dharmais Foundation   xxvi n. 15, 15, 78, 82–83, 86–90, 104, 122, 129, 178, 187

Dinas Sosial, see Department of Social Welfare

Dirdjasusanto, Alex SJ   83–84

Djojohadikusumo, Lieutenant General (retired) Prabowo Subianto   38, 58–60, 154, 157, 167, 184–185

Domingas Alves da Silva (Bilou-Mali), see Alves da Silva

Dominggus de Deus Maya, see Maya, Dominggus de Deus

Dominggus, Ismail   29, 64

Domingos, Savio   58

Dowson, Hugh   6

Doy, Valens   12

Dunn, James   xx n. 2, 1, 3–5, 111, 144 n. 1, 145 n. 4

Dutch

Catholic missionaries in Indonesia   xxxiii

colonialism in Indonesia   2, 100, 109 n. 1, 176

East Timorese student associations, see Impeltim and Impettu, Ipmitim

education

Catholic education in East Timor, see Catholic Church

and development, see development

Indonesian education   xix–xx, 16–19, 40, 74–76, 78, 94–96, 99–100, 176,

informal education for East Timorese in Indonesia   74, 96–101

and integration of East Timor   17–18, 40, 74, 88, 94, 99–100, 104, 109, 136, 176

Islamic education, see Islam

Portuguese education in East Timor, see Portugal

and progress in Indonesian   17

scholarships for East Timorese students to study in Indonesia   xxvii, 24, 55, 57–59, 94–100, 120 n. 28, 135, 164

work experience and training programs in Indonesia   xix, xxxvii, 57, 100–103, 189

Elcid Li, Dominggus   x, 146 n. 6 and 7, 147 n. 8, 163

Elegant, Simon   149

Elito (Bobi Rahman)   38–39

Elson, RE   2, 7–10, 16, 18, 78, 84, 100, 113

Enoch, Jusuf   95

Ericsson, Kjersti   xxxiii

Faizal, Elly Burhaini   151–153

Farid, Hilmar   45 n. 33

Fernandes, Hermenegildo   128 n. 45 and 47

Fernandes, Marcos X   154, 156

fostering   xxiii

France, West African colonies   child transfers   xxxii

Freitas Soares, Fernando Jose   128 n. 46, 148 n. 11

Freitas, Antonio   165 n. 47, 166

Freitas, Helio   103 n. 43

Freitas, Jose Maria Costa de   75 n

Fretilin, Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (Frente Revolutionaria de Timor-Leste Independente)   3–8, 14–15, 80, 110, 146, 186, 187, 189

children of   xxvii, 34–35, 37–40, 48, 57–59, 86, 96, 173

resistance to Indonesia   11, 19, 23, 30–33, 33 n. 12, 41, 87–88, 95, 143

victims of killings by   75, 80–81, 83–85, 91, 153, 179

Fuad Mohammad Fachruddin   xxiv

Gafur, Abdul   84

Gandara, Egidio dos Santos   34, 49, 57, 61–63

Gandara, Sonia   33–34, 48–49, 56–57, 61–63

Gandara, Thomas Alfredo (Sorotu)   33–34, 48–49, 56–57, 61–63

Geertz, Hildred   xxv

GKTT (Gereja Kristen di Timor Timur)   112, 135

Gonçalves, Tomás   45 n. 33

Greenlees, Don   xxii, 5, 144

Guilherme dos Reis Fernandes, see Reis Fernandes

Gunn, Geoffrey C   4

Gusmão, Kirsty Sword   v, 165, 168

Gusmão, Xanana   xxii, 4, 33 n. 12, 38–39, 184, 186

Guterres, Isabel   95 n. 28 and 29, 99 n. 36

Guterres, Leonel   123

Guterres, Manuel Luis   127 n. 43

Habibie, BJ   5, 144

HAK Association   36 n, 45 n. 33

Halim, Haji Paita   115 n. 16, 122 n. 34, 123 n. 36, 126 n. 41, 148 n. 13

Haryanto Freitas, Alex (Lukman)   120 n. 27 and 28, 125, 128 n. 48, 130 n. 57 and 58, 131 n. 60, 151 n. 18

Haryanto, Abidin   123, 125–126, 165

Hasan Basri, see Basri

Hasyam, Lieutenant Colonel Azis   125, 125 n

Hati Foundation (Yayasan Harapan Timor or Yayasan Hati)   146, 153–161, 185, 188

and Catholic Church in Indonesia   156,

and child transfers   153–161, 185, 188

ideology   146, 153–154

links with military and elites   154, 157

motivation for transferring children   153–155, 158

non-co-operation with UNHCR for return of children   157–161

Hercules, see Marcal, Rozario

Herlianto, Budi   156 n. 29

Hidayatullah Al-Ishlah Foundation   117–119, 126–127

Hill, David   19

Hill, Hal   16, 17

Hill, Helen M   94, 113

Hornai, Paulino and Faustina   129

Horta, Jose Ramos   60, 112, 154, 184

HREOC (Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission)   xxxii

Hughes, Carolyn   xxi

Human Rights Watch   xxi n. 3, 99 n. 34, 114, 146, 161

Humanitarian Project for West Irian, see adoption of Papuan children

IACHR (Inter-American Commission on Human Rights)   xxxv

ideology

and transfers    40, 74–75, 93, 174–175

see also New Order

see also Pancasila

Idi Subandy Ibrahim   145

Impettu and Impeltim (Ikatan Mahasiswa Pemuda/Pelajar Timor Timur)   98–99, 188

Inasio, Petronela Maria   86, 89

indigenous (non-East Timorese) children

and transfers   xxxi

see Australian Aboriginal children

indoctrination, see New Order

Indonesia

colonialism in East Timor   xix–xxii, xxviii, 2, 12, 19, 103–104, 109, 143–144, 168–169, 172–173, 176

education in East Timor, see education

as family   8–13, 19, 169, 175

and the integration of East Timor, see integration

laws relating to children   xxiii, xxvii, xxxv, 35 n. 16, 107, 174

occupation and invasion of East Timor   xix, xx n, 1–5, 13–14, 184, 186

relationship with East Timor   ix, xix–xxii, xxvi, xxviii, 25, 143–144, 167, 173–177

Operation Flamboyan   14 n, 189

Operation Komodo   184, 189

Operation Seroja   14 n, 81, 184, 189

Indonesian Red Cross   29–30, 64, 80 n. 6, 115

integration

xxi n. 4, xxi, xxvii, 3–5, 8, 12–15, 40, 64–65, 143, 173, 187, 189–190

demonstrations for and against   19, 102–103, 112, 114, 123, 154, 157, 162, 175 n

and development   xxi n. 4, 1, 17, 19, 25, 40, 43, 64, 143, 176

and education in East Timor, see education

failure of   xxii, 16–17, 19, 144–147, see also Mubyarto

justification of   xxxvii, 1–5, 8–9, 13–19

support for integration after 1999   146, 158, 161–162, 170–171, 174

and the United Nations   3–5, 13, 19, 112

International Force for East Timor (InterFET)   145, 148, 188

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)   xxviii, xxxi, 7 n, 60–61, 188

invasion of East Timor, see Indonesia

Ipmitim (Ikatan Pelajar Mahasiswa Islam Timor Timur)   134, 151, 164 n. 44, 188

Iqbal, see Menezes, Mohammad Iqbal

Irian Jaya, see Papua, West Irian

Islam

in East Timor   105, 110–114

Islamic education in East Timor, see also Yakin   48, 106–108, 110, 114, 116–119, 174

Islamic mission in East Timor, see also DDII   113–119

numbers of Muslims in East Timor   113, 113 n. 12

relations with Catholics   105–107, 114, 118, 148, 175

Ismartono SJ, Ignatius   98 n. 33, 110 n. 3

Jeronimo, Eusibio   96, 124

Jesuit Refugee Service   147, 150, 155 n. 26, 162–163

Jesus, Aderito de   37

Johari, Mohammad (Bonifacio Moreira)  122, 128, 130, 134, 164, 184

Al-Anshar Foundation   134–135, 148, 151–153, 162, 164

motivation for transferring children   134–135, 151–152, 162, 164

non-co-operation with UNHCR for return of children   153, 161–162, 164–165

Jolliffe, Jill   xx n. 2, 3, 5

Jones, Sidney   101, 102, 103 n. 41

Kalbuadi, Lieutenant General Dading   14–15, 25, 57, 82–83, 184

Kanisius, Petrus Antonio Algeria   11–12, 66–73, 86, 87 n. 21, 88 n, 89–93

Katoppo, Aristides   26, 39, 42

Khodijah, Siti (from Luro)   128, 130

Khodijah, Siti (Olinda Soares)   125, 165, 166

Kholiq, Abdul   132–133

Kiki Syahnakri, see Syahnakri

Kinderdorf, SOS Desa Taruna   15, 83 n. 12, 84–85, 87, 90, 92–94, 148, 178, 188

Kinderdorf, SOS-Kinderdorf International   xxxiv–xxxv, 84, 84 n. 16 and 17, 90, 178

Klinken, Gerry van   5, 42 n. 28, 54 n, 100, 109 n. 1, 154

Kohen, Arnold S   109, 111

Kopassus Special Forces  xiv–xv, 27, 58–59, 154, 184, 188

and child removals   xiv–xv, 27

Kormantim (Koordinator Mahasiswa Muslim Indonesia)   135

Kota political party (Klibur Oan Timur Aswain)   8 n, 188

KPP HAM   145–146

Kroef, Justus M van der   76

L’Arche de Zoé   xxxiv–xxxv

Latief   xxiv

Lay Kalbuadi, Francisco   57

Layade, Fr Felix   27

Lebensborn program, see Nazi regime

Legge Mesquite, Maria   50

Leinaweaver, Jessaca B.   xxv

Lemorai Foundation, see Basri

Leo, Muslim   129 n. 52, 132 n. 63

Leonia   20–24, 30, 56, 60–61, 64

Lere Anan Timur, Brigadier General   39, 166, 168

‘letter of surrender of a child’ (surat keterangan menyerahkan anak)   xxv, xxxi n. 18, 45–48, 50, 56, 57, 157

Lewis, Norman   39

Linda, Sr   156, 160 n. 37

Loekman Soetrisno   125

Lopes Federer, Maria do Céu   43 n. 29, 59, 95, 98 n. 32

Lourdes Martins, Sr Maria   xxx, 56

Loveard, Keith   58

Maccopa institution, see Darul Istiqomah Pesantren

Machel, Graça   34 n. 15

Mackie, Jamie   16

Madjiah, Lela E   9 n. 8, 12

Maia, Rogerio and Joana   31

Makarim, Major General Zacky Anwar   59–60, 157

Marcal, Arlindo   113

Marcal, Rozario ‘Hercules’   59–60

Martinz, Lino   46

Maya, Armindo   70, 83 n. 11

Maya, Dominggus de Deus   26–27, 47, 52, 70

McDonald, Hamish   3, 5, 146

Mearns, David   xxi

Memmi, Albert   18

Menezes, Mohammad Iqbal   99 n. 37, 105–108, 116, 119 n. 25, 120 n. 27, 121 n. 31, 125–126, 129 n. 52, 131 n. 60, 132 n. 63, 133 n. 66, 164 n. 43

Miolo, Mohammad (Fernardo Hornai)   122, 127–128

miscegenation   xxxii

mixed-race/mestizo children   xxxii, 30

Moestapa, Hadji Hasan   xxiii, xxv

Monk, Paul   3, 6

Morais, Olinda   38, 61

Moreira, Agustinho   129 n. 54, 130 n. 56

Mubyarto   xxi n. 4, 12, 16–19, 100, 111

Muhammadiyah   56 n, 115, 120, 120 n. 28, 121 n. 29, 133, 135, 164

MUI, Council of Islamic Scholars (Majelis Ulama Indonesia)   xxiv n. 8, 96 n, 116–117, 119, 128, 134, 188

Mujiburrahman   111

Mujiran, Paulus   156

Murdani, General Benjamin (Benny)   4, 14, 82, 111, 184, 189

Murdoch, Lindsay   149, 154, 156–160

Murtopo, General Ali   3, 4, 6–7, 184, 187, 189

myth-making, see New Order

Naipospos, Coki   12

Nandy, Ashis   13, 18

Nazaruddin Sjamsuddin   8, 15, 75–76

Nazi regime   xxxii–xxxiii, xxxv

Neonbasu, Gregor   12

Neuberger, Ralph Benyamin   xx

New Order   ix, xv, xxxvii, 1–19, 39–41, 64, 74–76, 82–84, 88, 91, 99–100, 104, 109–112, 114–116, 124, 136–137, 143–145, 154, 165, 167, 172, 174–175, 186, 188

ideology, see Pancasila

propaganda   xxi, 1, 7–8, 16, 18, 40–41, 82, 87–88, 91, 99–100, 104, 143, 172–173

Newberry, Janice   xxiv–xxv

Niner, Sara   61

number of

abandoned and destitute children   xxvi

children sent to Indonesia

after 1999   xxviii

by Cinta Damai Foundation   135–136 n, 150

by Dharmais Foundation   178

by Hati Foundation   156, 158

by Islamic institutions   xxvii–xxviii, 110, 125–126

by soldiers   25–28, 61

by Tiara and the Department of Manpower   101

in total   xix, xxiii, xxvii–xxviii

by Yakin   125–126, 129–130

deaths and displaced East Timorese during the war   41

East Timorese living in Indonesia after 1999   143–147, 147 n. 8 and 9

Muslims in East Timor after 1999   147–148, 164–166

outsiders living in East Timor   113, 113 n.12

Protestants and Muslims in East Timor   112–113, 113 n.12, 174

O’Shea, David   142, 161

occupation of East Timor, see Indonesia

Oliveira, Jose Luis de   36 n

Olle, John   116

Olsen, Kare   xxxiii

oral history   xxviii–xxxi

orphans

care of   xxiv, xxvi n. 15, 45–46, 50

definition of   31, 78, 189

‘representative orphans’   86–90, 93, 178–179

PA van de Steur institution   57

Pancasila ideology   9, 18, 74, 95, 110, 115, 189

Panjaitan, Lieutenant General (retired) Luhut   39, 47

Panti Asuhan Seroja, see Seroja child care institution

Papua/West Irian   3, 12, 15, 58, 75–77, 123, 175, 188, 189

adoption of children – see adoption

Paz é Possivel em Timor-Leste   xxi n. 3, 61

Pearson, Noel   xxxvi

Pedro Pan Operation   xxxiii–xxxiv

pembangunan, see development

Pereira Pasqual, Agustinho   152 n. 20

Pereira, Vicente   129

Pereira, Zacarias   139–142, 149, 152, 161–162

Petrus Kanisius Alegria, see Kanisius

Pinto, Constancio   xxi n. 3, 18, 99, 112

PKI, see Communism

Pokastim   149, 150 n. 14, 158, 189

Portelli, Alessandro   xxviii–xxx

Porter, Donald J   111, 116

Portugal

Portuguese colonialism in East Timor   xx, 2–6, 81–82, 109, 112

Portuguese education in East Timor   16, 94,

Pour, Julius   4, 14

PPATN (Panti Penyantunan Anak Taruna Negara), see Department of Social Welfare, PPATN

Prabowo, see Djojohadikusumo

President’s children, see Suharto and family

Protestant Church in East Timor, see GKTT

Protestant missionaries   xxxiii, xxxiii n, xxxiv

Protestants

and child transfers   33, 48, 56, 135–136, 150, 161

see also Cinta Damai Foundation

conversion to (also to Islam)   111 n. 6, 112–113

in East Timor   112–114

Provisional Government in East Timor (PGET)   12–14, 77, 184, 189

Rafael Urbano Rangel, see Rangel

Rais, Amien   115 n. 15, 135

Ramadan, Nicolau   64

Rangel, Rafael Urbano   89 n, 91

referendum, see also ballot   xxviii, 2 n, 60, 143, 145, 147, 185, 190

impact of   xxviii, 143–147, 154–155, 163, 174

Rei, Naldo   xxii

Reid, Anthony   2

Reinado, Alfredo Alves   28 n, 30 n. 6, 36–37, 44–45, 51, 55–56, 60–61

Reis Amaral, Clementino dos   46–47

Reis Fernandes, Guilherme dos   26, 37, 46 n. 34, 80 n. 6

representative orphans, see orphans

resistance movement   xx n, xxi, 33, 33 n. 12, 35–36, 38, 40, 99, 102–104, 145, 173, 176–177, 184, 186

Riberio, Bishop Dom José Joaquim   111

Ricklefs, MC   2

Robinson, Amaranta Wright   168

Robinson, Geoffrey   xxi–xxii, 144–146

Robinson, Richard Alan Hodgson   3

Roosa, John   xxii n, xxviii, xxx n, 6, 6 n, 9

Sagran, Abdullah   96 n

Sagran, Haji Abdullah   115 n. 17, 117 n. 20, 184–185

Sagran, Haji Salim   117 n. 20, 119, 125, 127 n. 44, 129, 133 n. 67, 151, 185

Salanuddin (Raimiru)   122, 128

Saldanha, Joao Mariano de Sousa   16 n, 17, 94, 96, 100, 125 n

Salim Sagran, see Sagran, Haji Salim

Santa Cruz massacre   4, 98–99, 102, 176 n, 186

Santana, Fr R Pereira   61 n

Santos Lobo, Francisca dos and Orlando Ximenes Ley   50

Santos, Abel dos   29 n. 5, 60 n. 48

Santos, Filamena dos   32 n. 11, 53 n. 40, 167 n. 48

Sarmento, Duarte   xxix n. 17, 86 n, 89 n

Sarmento, Fr Joachim   84 n. 14, 95 n. 29, 156 n. 27

Schröder-Butterfill, Elisabeth   xxiii–xxv

scouting   57, 96–97

Semedi, Pujo   97

Seno Joko Suyono   114 n. 14, 115

Seroja child care institution   29, 46, 66, 71–72, 78–89, 92–93, 125, 130, 147–148

Shiraishi, Saya   9

Siagian, Sabam   5–6

Silva, Achmad da   41

Silva, General Morais da   81–82

Simpson, Brad   6

Sinjal, Daud   26

Sirait, Arist Merdeka   150

Soares Lemorai, Sidiq    128 n. 50, 132 n. 63

Soares, Abilio Osorio   124, 153–154, 157, 160 n. 38, 161, 185, 188

Soares, Agustinho   35–36

Soares, Helio   156 n. 28

Soares, Natercia   153, 155

Soares, Octavio   60, 153–160, 185

Soares, Teodoro   103 n. 42, 134 n. 70

Soekanto   14, 81–82

Soewardijo   156

soldiers

and development   25, 40, 43, 64

child helpers, see TBO

education of adopted children   xxv, 40–41, 43–44, 46, 48, 53, 57–59, 64–65, 169, 173

permission documents to transfer children   xxv, 45–49

relationships with adopted children   42, 47, 64

relationships with students   99

special autonomy   5, 144, 174, 186

Special Forces Command, see Kopassus

Spillane SJ, James J   84 n. 14, 156 n. 27

Spurling, H.J.   xxii–xxxiii

Sriono, Edy   xxiii–xxv

St Thomas institution   68–73, 83, 86, 87 n. 20, 89–94, 155–158, 178, 189

Stargardt, Nicholas   xxxi, xxxiii, xxxv, 84 n. 17

Steenbrink, Karel   xxxiii, 109, 111

student scholarships, see education

Sudirman (Alacino)   123–124, 135 n. 71

Suharto   185–186

amnesty offers to Fretilin   6, 11, 87

and development   9–10, 40, 75, 88

and family   9–12

foundations, see also Dharmais   xxxvi, 10, 78, 84, 90, 100–101

Ibu Tien   10–11, 84

President’s children   11, 67, 70, 75–82, 154

and transfers   ix–x, xix, 1–19

Sukarno   2, 185–186

Sukawarsini Djelantik   xxii, 4

Sulthan Alauddin Mosque   148

Supersemar Foundation, see Suharto and foundations

Syafei, Major General Theo   26, 185

Syahnakri, Lieutenant General (retired) Kiki   26, 27, 53, 54 n, 185

Tanter, Richard   1, 54 n, 146

TAPOL   57

Taylor, Jean Gelman   xx n. 1

Taylor, John G   xx n. 2, 3

TBO (Tenaga Bantuan Operasi)   7, 22, 28, 34–37, 40, 42, 44–45, 47, 51–52, 54, 58–60, 122–123, 125, 189

Therik, Dr Tom   xxiv n. 9, xxv, xxviii

Thomas Americo   54

Tiara Foundation   100–103, 189

Tomasoa, Peter   76–77

Torres, Maria de los Angeles   xxxiv

Trabalistha (Labour Party)   8 n, 189

traditional religion in East Timor   111

trafficking, see transfer of children, definition of

training and work in Indonesia   100–103, see Department of Manpower and also Tiara Foundation

transfer of children

definition of   xxii–xxiii

and identity   xxxii, 21–22, 40, 57, 60–61, 64, 93, 129–130, 137, 168, 172–173

and law   xxxv–xxxvi

motivation for   xxxii–xxxiv, xxxvi

in other countries   xxxi–xxxvii

transfer of East Timorese children  ix–x, xix, xxii–xxx

reasons for transfers by institutions   119–122, 135–136

reasons for transfers by soldiers   xxv–xxvi, 39–44

reasons for transfers post 1999   149–155, 158, 162, 165

transmigration   147–148, 151, 189

Traube, Elizabeth G   111 n. 5

Trikora Orphans Foundation, see Suharto, foundations

UDT (União Democratica Timorense)   5, 8, 57 n. 46, 58, 75, 80–81, 179, 188–190

unemployment among East Timorese youth   18–19, 100–102, 114

UNHCR, see United Nations

UNICET, United Islamic Centre of East Timor, established by indigenous East Timorese Muslims   128 n. 52, 132 n. 63, 190

United Nations   2, 2 n, 3–5, 13, 19, 34 n.15, 112, 143–145

children and armed conflict (optional protocol of CRC)   35 n. 16

Convention on Genocide   xxxvi

Convention on International Humanitarian Law   xxxvi

Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)   xxvii, 35 n. 16, 160

General Assembly on East Timor   4, 13,

High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)   xxviii, xxxi, 103, 141–142, 145 n. 4, 146, 148, 150, 152–153, 157–164, 171, 190

and integration of East Timor, see integration

laws relative to adoption, see adoption

Mission in East Timor (UNAMET)   144, 190

Protocol on Trafficking in Persons   xxii

Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET)   158, 158 n, 159, 186, 190

Vasconselos, Rev Agustinho de,   xii, 27, 44

Vatikiotis, Michael RJ   16

Vel, Jacqueline A.C.   xxv

Vickers, Adrian   2

Vincentius institution   67–68, 83

West Irian, see Papua

Western intelligence sources   6

White, Owen   xxxii

Wijayanto, Andi   26, 29 n. 3, 39 n. 23, 41 n, 54 n

work in Indonesia, see Training and work

Working Group for the Welfare and education of East Timorese, see Pokastim

Ximenes, Teodósio Batista   xxii

Yakin institution  106–107, 117–119, 148, 151–152, 162, 164–165, 185, 190

military support for   122–125

motivation for transfers   119–122, 174

numbers of children sent to Indonesia by   125–126, 129–130

transfers by   119–138

Yayasan Dharmais, see Dharmais Foundation

Yayasan Hati, see Hati Foundation

Yosfiah, Lieutenant General (retired) Yusus   54, 54 n, 166

Yu, Elena   xxv

Zacarias Pereira, see Pereira, Zacarias

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Cite this chapter as: van Klinken, Helene. 2011. Index. In Making Them Indonesians: Child Transfers out of East Timor. Melbourne: Monash University Publishing. Pp. 205-212.

Making Them Indonesians: Child Transfers out of East Timor

   by Helene van Klinken