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Making Them Indonesians: Child Transfers out of East Timor



Abdi Dalem Sang Kristus (Servants of Christ), an indigenous Javanese Catholic order for women with about 17 branches throughout Indonesia


Indonesian state-owned news agency.


Associacão Popular Democratica Timorense (Timorese Popular Democratic Association), a political party that supported integration with Indonesia.


Dormitory-style accommodation for students or children.

Atauro Island

Island to the north of Dili used from 1980 as a prison for family members of active Fretilin fighters.


Badan Koordinasi Intelijen Negara (the Indonesian State Intelligence Coordinating Agency).

Balibo Declaration

Signed by four political parties declaring integration with Indonesia on 30 November 1975, two days after the Fretilin declaration of independence.


District head


Sub-district head.


Lay person trained to give instruction in Catholic teaching.


A Comissão de Acolhimento, Verdade e Reconciliação (Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor).

concentration camps

Areas where East Timorese were confined until the early 1980s by the Indonesian military after surrender or capture.


Centre for Strategic and International Studies, a think-tank in Jakarta set up by Ali Murtopo, which was involved in developing policy regarding Portuguese Timor.


Bilateral Indonesia–East Timor Commission of Truth and Friendship.


Departemen Tenaga Kerja (Department of Manpower).


Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesia (Indonesian Islamic Propagation (Missionary) Council) .

Dharmais Foundation

Yayasan Dharma Bhakti Sosial (Duty of Social Service Foundation), commonly known as Yayasan Dharmais.


Political party begun as Associacão Social Democratica Timorense (Timorese Association of Social Democrats), which in September 1975, after it gained control in Portuguese Timor, formed Frente Revolutionaria de Timor-Leste Independente (Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor).


Pertahanan sipil (civil guards).

Hati Foundation

Yayasan Harapan Timor (Hope for Timor Foundation), more commonly known as Yayasan Hati, a foundation established by members of the family of Abilio Soares after 1999 to educate East Timorese children in Indonesia.


International Committee of the Red Cross.

Impettu and Impeltim

Ikatan Mahasiswa Pemuda/Pelajar Timor Timur (East Timorese student associations).


International Force for East Timor, the Australian-led force that landed in Dili on 20 September 1999.


Ikatan Pelajar Mahasiswa Islam Timor Timur (Association of East Timorese Islamic University and School Students) in Bandung.

Irian Jaya (West Irian)

Indonesian name for the western half of the island of New Guinea, now known as Papua.


Instituto Secular Maun alin Iha Kristo (Secular Institute of Brothers and Sisters in Christ), based in Dare, East Timor.


SOS Desa Taruna Kinderdorf, a private institution near Bandung in West Java with links to SOS International.


Komando Distrik Militer (District Military Command).


Komando Operasi Pemulihan Keamanan dan Ketertiban (Operational Command for the Restoration of Security and Order), a high-level extra-constitutional intelligence body established by Suharto to rid Indonesia of communists.


Komando Pasukan Khusus (Special Forces Command).


Komando Rayon Militer (Sub-district Military Command).


Klibur Oan Timur Aswain (Sons of the Mountain Warriors), an association of traditional East Timorese leaders (liurai) that joined with Apodeti and UDT to sign the Balibo Declaration.


Traditional leader or elders, sometimes referred to as raja (king).


Islamic religious school.


Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (Indonesian People’s Consultative Assembly), the highest legislative body.


Majelis Ulama Indonesia, the official state-organised Indonesian Council of Islamic Scholars, which opened an office in Dili in 1982.


Small room set aside for prayer, especially important when the mosque is situated too far away to attend regularly.


Non-government organisation (During the New Order era NGOs often took on functions usually carried out by governments in democratic societies).

Operation Flamboyan

Organised by Major General Benny Murdani to prepare for the invasion of Dili, in which the ground troops were led by Colonel Dading.

Operation Komodo

Intelligence operation to achieve the peaceful integration of East Timor, led by Ali Murtopo and commencing its operations in April 1974.

Operation Seroja

Invasion operation that ended in March 1979 when Fretilin was defeated as a fighting force and most East Timorese had been captured or forced to surrender.


State ideology of Indonesia, consisting of Five Principles (Belief in one God; A just and civilised society, including respect for all people; Unity of Indonesia; Democracy led by representatives of the people; Social justice for all).

panti asuhan

Institution for the care of orphans and children of poor families.


inhabitants of Irian Jaya (West Irian), called Papua in recent years.


Institution where Muslim students (santri) live while receiving instruction, with an emphasis on religious teaching.


Provisional Government of East Timor.


Partai Komunis Indonesia (Communist Party of Indonesia).


Kelompok Kerja untuk Kesejahteraan dan Pendidikan Masyarakat Madani (Working Group for the Welfare and Education of East Timorese), an NGO based in Jakarta.


Panti Penyantunan Anak Taruna Negara, an institution in Bandung run by the Department of Social Welfare to care for wards of state and destitute children.

St Thomas

Childcare institution near Semarang, Central Java run by the ADKS order of nuns.


Tenaga Bantuan Operasi (Staff Assisting Operations).


Since independence the official language of East Timor, along with Portuguese.

Tiara Foundation

Owned by Siti Hardiyanti Indra Rukmana, the daughter of Suharto, which supported the Depnaker-organised training and work scheme to send unemployed East Timorese youths to Indonesia in the 1990s.


Labour Party, formed in 1974 in Portuguese Timor, which joined with Apodeti and UDT to sign the Balibo Declaration.


Indonesian government internal migration scheme which sent landless peasants from overcrowded Java and Bali to develop outlying areas of the archipelago, including East Timor (The program often had political overtones as it brought into areas such as East Timor a population assumed to be more loyal to the central government, but conflict often arose because of cultural and religious differences between the locals and transmigrants, and also over land rights).


União Democratica Timorense (Timorese Democratic Union), which initially supported continued association with Portugal and later chose integration.


Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.


United Islamic Centre of East Timor, established by indigenous East Timorese Muslims.


United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor, established 1999 after the referendum to administer the territory until independence May 2002.


United Nations Mission in East Timor, established 11 June 1999 and ended 25 October 1999.


Yayasan Kesejahteraan Islam Nasrulla, the DDII supported foundation that organised the transfer of Timorese children to institutions in Indonesia.

Cite this chapter as: van Klinken, Helene. 2011. Glossary. In Making Them Indonesians: Child Transfers out of East Timor. Melbourne: Monash University Publishing. Pp. 187-190.

Making Them Indonesians: Child Transfers out of East Timor

   by Helene van Klinken