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Making Them Indonesians: Child Transfers out of East Timor

Appendix III. Biographical information

Araujo, Arnaldo dos Reis

Araujo was the first Governor of East Timor, appointed in late 1975 by the Indonesian military as head of the Provisional Government in East Timor (PGET).

Basri, Hasan

Hasan Basri (Roberto Freitas) was taken to Sulawesi in the early 1980s by Salim Sagran. In 1998 he set up the Lemorai Foundation in Bandung.

Carrascalão, Mario

Carrascalão was Governor of East Timor from 1982 to 1992.

Djojohadikusumo, Lieutenant General (retired) Prabowo Subianto (b. 1952)

Prabowo Subianto was a Special Forces (Kopassus) officer in East Timor in the late 1970s and early 1980s. In 1976 he was ranked lieutenant, but quickly rose to become the commander of a unit (Nanggala). In 1983 he married the president’s second daughter and in 1995, as Lieutenant General, he was appointed Kopassus Commander and in 1998 Commander of the Army Strategic Reserve (Kostrad).

Gusmão, Xanana

Xanana Gusmão led the Fretilin resistance from the early 1980s after the death of Nicolau Lobato. He became the first President after independence and in 2007 the Prime Minister of East Timor.

Horta, Jose Ramos

Jose Ramos Horta was the exiled spokesman for the East Timorese resistance during the occupation. He was awarded the Nobel Peace prize in 1996. In 2007 he became President of East Timor.

Johari, Mohammad

Mohammad Johari (Bonifacio Moreira) was sent to a pesantren in Sulawesi as a young man in 1984 and later established Al-Anshar Institution in Makassar.

Kalbuadi, Lieutenant General Dading (1931–1999

Colonel Dading Kalbuadi was the chief of intelligence of Operation Seroja. In early 1976 he became Commander of Komando Daerah Pertahanan Keamanan (Kodahankam), Regional Security and Defence, which gave him, in effect, total command in East Timor, as there was no civilian government.

Murdani, General Benjamin (Benny) (1932–2004)

In 1974 Major General L Benny Murdani headed several intelligence bodies. Together with Murtopo he played a key role in developing policy for the invasion of East Timor in 1975.

Murtopo, General Ali (1924–1984)

In 1975 Major General Ali Murtopo was deputy head of the State Intelligence Coordinating Body, BAKIN, and head of the Special Operations Command, Opsus, which set up the Operation Komodo to infiltrate East Timor. Murtopo established the military think-tank, Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), with strong links with some members of the Catholic Church, especially several Jesuits.

Sagran, Abdullah and Sagran, Salim

Haji Abdullah Sagran set up Yakin. His brother Haji Salim Sagran took over running the institution when he died. They belong to the East Timorese Arab community.

Soares, Abilio

In 1992 Abilio Soares replaced Mario Carrascalão as governor of East Timor. He was a protégé of Prabowo Subianto. He belonged to a well-known Apodeti family. In 2004 he was charged in the Ad Hoc Tribunal in Jakarta for human rights abuses that occurred when he was governor in 1999. He served three months of a three-year sentence, which was revoked on appeal and died in June 2007.

Soares, Octavio

Octavio is the nephew of the last governor of East Timor, Abilio Soares, and was general secretary of Hati Foundation.


Second President of Indonesia.


First President of Indonesia.

Syafei, Major General Theo (1941–2011)

General Theo Syafei was involved in East Timor from 1975. He was a battalion commander and from 1993 to 1998 commanded the Udayana Military Region.

Syahnakri, Lieutenant General (retired) Kiki (b. 1947)

Kiki Syahnakri spent many years in East Timor and speaks Tetun. He was the army’s East Timor expert. In 1994-95 he was the Regional Military Commander for East Timor. After the referendum in 1999, he was the martial law administrator from 7 to 27 September and was then appointed the commander of the Udayana military area. In 2003 he was charged, in absentia, with crimes against humanity before the Dili special panel and indicted with six other senior military officers.

Cite this chapter as: van Klinken, Helene. 2011. Appendix III: 'Biographical information'. In Making Them Indonesians: Child Transfers out of East Timor. Melbourne: Monash University Publishing. Pp. 184-185.

Making Them Indonesians: Child Transfers out of East Timor

   by Helene van Klinken