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Monash University Publishing: Advancing knowledge

Jean Primrose Whyte




one of the dominant figures in Australian librarianship in the second half of the 20th century1

The story of Professor Jean Whyte at Monash University is not the history of the Graduate School of Librarianship (GSL), although part of the GSL’s story will be told here, as it is bound up with Jean’s story.2

Planning for a post-graduate school of librarianship in Victoria began in the 1960s: Axel Lodewycks, the Melbourne University Librarian, claimed to have been the first person (in 1958) to propose that a graduate school of librarianship be set up at a Victorian university,3 and, with others, he continued to campaign for a school. Monash had begun discussing the founding of a library school by 1964 but had had to wait while the University of Melbourne debated – and eventually decided against – a similar proposal.4 In 1967 the Monash Faculty Board made a tentative proposal to the Australian Universities Commission (AUC) for a library school.5 But Monash, in an about-turn, decided not to proceed, on the grounds that the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) course was adequate for Victoria’s needs; then, on the advice of the La Trobe University Librarian, Dietrich Borchardt, it returned to its earlier proposal.6 This proposal passed through all levels of Monash administration, was supported by the LAA,7 and received funding approval from the AUC in 1972.8 Monash’s Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Professor Guy Manton, who became the chief advocate for a library school, travelled overseas in 1973 to look at library schools, in order to help set up the GSL. Jean thanked him for his assistance, saying that the GSL ‘would not exist if you had not believed that it should do so’.9

Why was Monash the place in which to set up a library school? Monash had been established in 1958 – named in honour of the Australian soldier Sir John Monash (with whom Jean shared a birthday) – set up to cater for the rapidly growing number of students wanting tertiary education. A number of factors made Monash an appropriate place for a library school, including that it was still new and more amenable to fresh ideas and to directions which would differentiate it from the older University of Melbourne; librarianship fitted in with Monash’s technological direction, with the bibliographic work in the English, French, and German departments, and with the new Department of Information Science.10 Other reasons included the need for more graduates than could be produced by RMIT and for a more academic level of study, especially as ‘with the tremendous growth in the amount of information to be dealt with and the diversification in the methods of storing and imparting it, the librarian of the future will need to be familiar with and control a far wider range of activity than in the past’.11 Perhaps, too, Manton and a number of other academics who were married to librarians supported the proposal because they thought of librarianship as a genteel occupation for the wives of academics.

The proposal of the first Monash Librarian, Ernest Clark, that the University establish a school of librarianship was accepted by the University,12 and the quality of the Library contributed to the proposal: Monash was proud of its Library, which was well supported by the Professorial Board, had a big budget, and held the materials needed by its staff and students,13 pointing to Monash’s decision-makers understanding the importance of libraries in education and therefore understanding the importance of graduate education for librarianship (the Library’s quality was important to Jean in her role in accrediting library schools). Perhaps these factors contributed to the old question of whether librarianship should be taught at a university not being raised.

Monash set up a Council Committee with eleven members – including one librarian, Brian Southwell, Clark’s successor as Monash Librarian – presided over by the Pro-Vice-Chancellor, Professor W.A.G. Scott, to appoint a Professor of Librarianship and Director of the Graduate School of Librarianship.14 The position was advertised world-wide in 1974, and there were nine applicants, three of them from overseas, all senior in the library profession. Jean did not apply but lent her support to another applicant.15 The Committee, wisely, consulted three librarians (Margery Ramsay, Laurie Brown and Denis Richardson) for comments on a shortlist of four and for suggestions of others who might be suitable for the position, an indication that the Committee was not happy with the shortlist. The three librarians unanimously rejected the entire shortlist.16 Two of the librarians recommended that Jean Whyte be approached, as they thought that she was better than anyone on the shortlist.17 The Committee followed their advice.

Manton flew to Canberra to urge Jean to apply. She turned him down, giving three reasons: that she had gone to Canberra ‘to help realize a vision of national services’ and was ‘not ready to give up yet’; that she had lent her support to another candidate; and ‘I wouldn’t be my first choice’. She was tempted, she wanted the School to do well, but no, she would not apply.18

Her suitor persisted. He wrote to Jean: ‘Your name has been suggested in several quarters, and I have been asked by the committee to write to you. We would like to know in the first place whether you will allow yourself to be considered’.19 Jean ‘thought for a week & said yes’.20

Jean’s reply to Manton’s invitation is glorious:

Dear Professor Manton,

Your letter of September 25th has caused me some perturbation and many hours of thought. I really cannot see why ‘several quarters’ should suggest my name as a person who should be considered for the Chair of Librarianship.

But they have, and I know that I must say yes – if only so that the Committee really has a chance to be sure that they do not want me.

I shall send you a formal application as soon as possible but for the present I have taken up your suggestion and have asked three people whether they will allow me to give their names as referees. As I have told you before I am well known in the profession in Australia and I think you should ask anyone you please what they think of me. My referees are, of course, all people who will probably give you favourable reports, but I have chosen them carefully because I want the Committee to be as well informed as possible about me. I think it is true to say that the three people listed below know me and my abilities and failings very well. I cannot think of any among the living who know me better. They are [Harrison Bryan, Librarian, University of Sydney, and future Director General of the NLA, Geoffrey Alley, former National Librarian of New Zealand, and Alan Fleming, former Director General of the NLA]

You also asked me when I could be released from my present position, if the Committee should decide to offer me the Chair. The Australian Public Service has no requirements of notice to leave, but I think that I should probably give two months notice. I would also wish to take some leave, possibly with the idea of talking to some of my colleagues in the United States who are Deans of library schools. Naturally there would have to be discussions about what leave I would carry over from this position, but I expect that my long service entitlements would carry over. If not I have about five months of this leave owing at present.

Yours sincerely,

Jean P. Whyte21

Monash flew Jean to Melbourne for a weekend of interviews and discussions. They paid for her economy return airfare on TAA Flight 473 ($52.60) and accommodation at Monash’s North East Halls ($6.60) and stretched the budget to a luncheon with South Australian wines (Mildara dry sherry $1.69; Queen Adelaide Riesling $2.00; McLaren Vale Claret $4.20 – South Australian wines: they were wooing rather than interviewing her – luncheon for eleven people: $40.89).22 The Committee voted unanimously that Jean be offered the position.23 She accepted the offer. Her salary was to be $19,614 per annum, a little higher than that advertised, plus extra amounts, such as up to $1,000 for removal expenses, which would have pleased her24 (her salary at the NLA was $17,776).25 Despite Jean saying that she would not accept any nonsense about medical examinations,26 the appointment was subject to a medical examination (which would have terrified her). However, the medical report proved satisfactory.27

In her letter accepting the Monash appointment Jean said that she would rent out her house in Canberra to someone who would look after Baggins (who was, by now, at least eighteen years old) while she travelled overseas before taking up her appointment.28 ‘I feel Baggins will adjust well to higher learning & absence of irritating Canberra hay-fever dust’, wrote Alan Fleming.29 Jean moved from Canberra to Melbourne in January 1975, to a house in Mount Waverley close to Monash belonging to her friends Audrey and Douglas Muecke. A few months later she bought her own home in Mount Waverley, moving the rest of her possessions there from Canberra, including about 2,000 books – ‘I hate possessions – they trap you (but on the other hand I like my books!)’ she wrote.30

Why did Jean at last agree to Manton’s proposal to be interviewed, knowing that if she did so she would almost certainly be offered the position? She said that she liked teaching and knew that she could teach, that she liked universities and that the position would give her an opportunity to write more about libraries, that it was a new school, without left-over staff, and that Monash had courses in computing, education, sociology and bibliography. The School would have a masters program and students could learn about new technology,31 and she was especially impressed by the amount of cooperation within Monash.32 Most importantly, the School was to be at a university and the course at post-graduate level, implementing Jean’s view of librarianship as a graduate profession and allowing her to put into practice her theories of education for librarianship. She said that she did not want to be influenced by her antipathy towards Chandler but that she would not have considered Monash if Fleming or Bryan had been Director General.33

Jean had a year in which to set up the GSL. She waited until after Auntie’s ninetieth birthday celebrations in March 197534 before travelling overseas for five months, visiting library schools and associations in Continental Europe (the Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Yugoslavia, Denmark, Sweden and Finland), Great Britain (where she bought books at Hay-on-Wye for the Monash University Library – memories of Andrew Osborn), New Zealand, and the United States of America (where she attended the Annual Conference of the American Library Association in San Francisco and caught up with friends from her previous visits).35 She also began interviewing prospective staff overseas, which prompted Manton to arrange for Monash to contribute $500 to her expenses, as she would be acting on behalf of Monash before her official appointment.36

Jean took up the position of Professor of Librarianship and Director of the GSL officially in July 1975. The GSL was given a space on the Fourth Floor South of the Menzies Building (the ‘Ming Wing’) at Monash (Clayton), but this space was inadequate, as space was at a premium because building the necessary extensions had been postponed. The GSL was assigned the academic dress of ‘jet black piping around the Monash Master of Arts cowl’ and colours to be ‘jet black, old rose and turquoise blue’.37

A university department, a master’s degree, academic dress: education for librarianship had changed since Jean’s entry into the profession in 1942: her first librarianship qualification, the Qualifying Certificate in Librarianship, had been replaced by Registration, which by 1975 was being phased out – Jean wrote of the changes in ‘Control and diversity: a short history of course recognition in Australia’.38 By the time that the GSL was set up there were eleven librarianship courses in Australia at seven institutions,39 which, Jean wrote, were close to sufficient for the basic professional level, whereas more advanced courses were needed. One such course, the first (Australian) Master of Librarianship, had been set up at the University of New South Wales in 1964, under the leadership of Professor Wilma Radford.40 But Jean saw the need in Australia for further courses, believing that Australia lagged behind other countries in advanced education for librarians: ‘The U.S. has had advanced courses for librarians for 40 years … It’s possible to gain a Doctorate of Philosophy in the subject there … I also believe Australian universities should offer more advanced courses – the more schools and the more specialists the better’.41 In ‘The Accreditation of Courses in Librarianship’ (1974) she had written that ‘librarianship today is a much more complicated discipline than it was when I studied for the first Preliminary examination ever offered in Australia. There is more to read and learn than there was when I studied at the University of Chicago ten years later. Professional education for librarianship in Australia is today much more concerned with the basic philosophy and purposes of libraries, much more concerned about the problems – social, administrative, technical – that librarians must try to solve, than about the details of cataloguing and reference books’.42

Jean presented a concise statement of her theory of education for librarianship in her 1984 article ‘Librarians and scholars’:

Librarianship is an academic discipline but at present it occupies a basement in the house of intellect. It will climb upstairs when it can present a more firmly based tradition of scholarship, more certain and significant research findings, a less didactic approach to its subject matters so that students in library schools participate in academic questioning and argument rather than concentrating on learning a body of facts that will, inevitably, be out of date; and a more pervading sense of urgency and purpose.43

In this article Jean developed the theme she had first written about in 1956, the need for graduate education in librarianship.44 This time she did not argue that librarianship should be studied at a university; instead she wrote that one of the reasons the question of whether librarianship should be taught at a university arose was that librarianship was too new as an academic discipline to have established traditions of scholarship. She gave many reasons for this lack of scholarship, mostly blaming library schools which emphasized teaching rather than research, had poor academic standards, were isolated from other parts of the university, lacked finance and were under pressure to produce professionals for the workforce; to these she added ‘the domination of the practitioners in every branch of librarianship, including education for librarianship’.45

Jean’s set out her plans for the GSL in Preliminary notes on the School of Librarianship at Monash University: the preamble was self-effacing, noting that she had had little involvement in library education during the previous fifteen years, although she had been interested in the subject and involved in the Board of Examination, and, in an interesting contrast to her views in ‘Librarians and Scholars’, she wrote that her views on education for librarianship had been determined by staffing needs in the libraries, which led her to the opinion that the combined wisdom of the staff was more important than the ideas of ‘the Director’46 (with her involvement with the Board of Education, teaching and examining, and her writings on education for librarianship, little recent involvement may be an exaggeration).47

Under the heading ‘Objectives’ Jean said that she saw the GSL’s ‘first responsibility’ to be a Masters program in librarianship (which became the Master of Librarianship course), to offer ‘librarians of superior academic qualifications the opportunity of advanced studies in their profession so that they are equipped to fill senior positions in libraries and library schools’.48 This program, for experienced librarians, would be designed to make students aware of – and find solutions to – Australian librarianship problems, to introduce students to research skills, and to allow them to specialize in an area of librarianship. She also planned a Diploma course to teach librarianship to graduates who did not have library experience but who wanted to take up ‘junior professional positions in libraries’ (this became the Master of Arts course, not the Diploma course). She thought that students could visit ‘working libraries as laboratories’ (she did not say so, but this was in contrast to the SLIS library), that their librarians could visit the GSL, and that the interaction could benefit both.

The GSL courses were to emphasize professionalism and the future of Australian librarianship. Libraries were seen as ‘service institutions’, and the courses would deal with ‘problems of service to the library’s users’. The philosophy was of librarianship as an entity (SLIS methodology) rather than being broken into many different parts: ‘computing studies’ as part of the traditional courses (i.e. not separated by process), materials not separated by form, as ‘the informational content of all library materials is more important than their physical form’, library environments rather than courses on types of libraries, and administration through the Department of Business Studies, as ‘the administrative problems of libraries are generally not unique’.49 Jean said: ‘I don’t really believe in teaching librarianship in little bits called “acquisition, cataloguing, readers’ services, readers advising, and so on”. I think that you teach librarianship as one thing and you talk about the building of the collection and the use of it and the organisation of it all as one central problem’.50

The GSL would conduct research into Australian librarianship, acknowledging that research interests would include the interests of the staff and of other Monash departments, such as historical bibliography, publishing, Australiana, and services to the disadvantaged, Aborigines and students. And courses for librarians in special subject libraries, similar to those which were available in some American schools, were a possibility. Students would be introduced to the work done by technicians and also learn traditional librarianship skills such as reference and cataloguing.

Jean’s planned teaching methodology, which took into account Monash guidelines, included discussions, seminars and lectures, while assessment would be through seminars, written work and examinations, with students learning to work together on projects (SLIS methodology).51 Each course would be the responsibility of one member of staff but include the participation of other staff. Initially there would be few staff, so it was important that they have a range of abilities, with the possibility of extra staff being brought in to cover subjects such as ‘Archives, Historical bibliography, Information Science, automation and mechanized systems; [and] School librarianship’. A specialist in ‘Information science and library automation’ should be appointed, and the possibility of a visiting ‘American teacher’ could open the GSL to other teachers of librarianship.52

These Preliminary notes on the School of Librarianship at Monash University were written in 1975, and by March 1976 ALJ had published ‘In the mainstream: the Graduate School of Librarianship at Monash University’, in which Jean set out her plans as the GSL opened:53

As a school within Monash University, and a part of the Faculty of Arts, the Master’s Degree must be comparable in admission requirements, course content, amount of work and time required with any other degrees such as the MA degree. My first suggestion was that we would offer an MA, but this seemed to carry with it a greater restriction in admission regulations and time requirements. The MA degree, for example, requires a preliminary year of work for those who are not Honours graduates. The Master of Librarianship degree has arrived at a compromise in having a degree in two Parts. Part 1 is our version of preliminary work. It is designed to test whether those who enrolled can write a research paper complete with an adequate bibliography (if they cannot, there would seem to be little hope that they will ever finish a Thesis). It is also designed to bring students up-to-date with the literature of librarianship and give them a critical attitude to it. This first course on the Literature of Library and Information Science can also serve as model for the study of any other subject field. Once admitted to Part II of the course, the student has a number of choices …

The School is offering an advanced degree. We hope that those who undertake it will be among the potential leaders of the profession. We assume that through academic and professional studies and through experience, they will be reasonably competent librarians already.

We want to make them more than this. We want them to address themselves to the problems of the profession … to worry about the future of library and information services … to develop a critical attitude towards the profession but one that is constructively critical …


Historical Studies in Australian Librarianship. Perhaps I should make it clear that I think that Australian librarians, and their colleagues in other lands, are engaged in one profession. The word Australian appears in the title of this course because the history of Australian librarianship has not yet been written, and our students and staff may contribute to that writing, and because we want to understand our own environment …

We want our students to worry about the problems of the profession – and the course in The Future of Library and Information Services is a key course in the school … should address itself each year to the current challenges and worries of the profession. The other compulsory course is Literature of Librarianship and Information Science B … a research methodology course …

[two courses for students who wish to specialize in an area of librarianship]:

The first is in the area of historical bibliography and textual criticism. Our course on Bibliography and Textual Scholarship will be especially useful for those who want to work in rare book and special collections, but it is also an area of importance to those who work anywhere in scholarly and research libraries. It can even illuminate decisions about the use of microforms and the purchase of art reproductions …

Education for Library and Information Services … to offer those who are or could be involved in the teaching of the subject a chance to study the problems and to think about the directions in which it could go …

Special Topic is … in a subject not otherwise covered in the syllabus. It also allows us to offer courses which we may well have developed by next March or April but which were not ready for the Handbook.

The areas that we hope to cover more adequately are library administration and the implications of computer, microform and telecommunications technology for library and information services. We have already committed ourselves to offering a course on Library and Information Services for Migrants in 1977.

About 30–35 per cent of the work for the Master of Librarianship degree is taken up with a Minor Thesis and this has influenced our courses. They are all, I hope, subjects which offer scope for thesis topics and investigation. I think that this is important because the definition of a thesis topic and its investigation are often the most difficult part of a student’s work. I hope that students will be sufficiently stimulated by the unanswered questions and the problems raised in the courses to want to investigate them …

Our courses will include the considerations of machine information services and automatic and electronic data processing methods whenever they are appropriate …

I see the Graduate School of Librarianship at Monash University as in the mainstream of education for librarianship. Its specific objectives have been stated as being –

(1) To study the problems of library and information services and to contribute towards the solution of those problems through research;

(2) To specialize in a specific area of librarianship and information services and thus to fit themselves for senior positions as specialists in that area;

(3) To undertake studies which will fit them for a career in education for librarianship;

(4) To undertake courses which combine studies in librarianship and related fields such as management, computer science, sociology and education.

Its general objective is of course that of the Library Association of Australia: to promote, establish and improve libraries and library services and (most obviously) to improve the standard of librarianship and the status of the library profession.54

Three lecturers were to be appointed to the GSL. The positions were advertised internationally, but the choice was left to Jean – Elizabeth Morrison said that she was not formally interviewed for the position; instead she had a chat with Jean (whom she had known professionally for some years) and was then taken to meet Manton, who appeared to have given Jean a ‘free hand in choosing staff’.55 The staff, besides Jean, were lecturers Brian McMullin, Radha Nadarajah (Rasmussen) and Elizabeth Morrison, and the secretary was Valda Twaddle56 (succeeded by Irene Bouette and then Mary Lou Maroney). During the first year Richard Stayner, a specialist in economics, joined the staff (Jean’s study of economics at the University of Adelaide led her to believe that librarians should study economics and management). Elizabeth Morrison thought that the original staff were a ‘judicious and cleverly balanced mix’,57 Harrison Bryan that Jean had attracted colleagues who shared ‘her dedication to teaching and research’,58 and Neil Radford that ‘Jean’s clarity of vision, infectious enthusiasm and passionate commitment to the scholarly enterprise enabled her to attract first rate academic staff and students’.59 The staff were augmented by a number of visiting lecturers, including staff from other departments and a number of overseas academics. As the GSL and the number of courses grew, so did the number of staff.

The GSL lecturers travelled widely in 1975, visiting libraries and library schools, taking part in activities beneficial to the future GSL, gaining ideas for setting up their own areas of teaching, and designing their courses with a minimum of oversight, with Jean showing trust, confidence and support. The first courses were inspired, planned by having an initial theme and a catchy acronym (such as LOLIS – Literature of Librarianship and Information Science, FOLIS – Future of Librarianship and Information Science, and BATS – Bibliographical and Textual Studies) and then developed by a staff member.60 According to Elizabeth Morrison, Jean ‘did not allow us [the staff] to take life easy. She, at the same time, made conditions as easy as possible for us. I suspect she not only went into the university political fray with guns blazing but also sheltered us from the flak’.61 Jean expected staff to be available when she wanted them, such as at weekends,62 would ring to see whether people were still at work when she herself was not there, and continued her own long working hours.

Initially a Master of Librarianship degree and a Diploma in Librarianship (which focused on technology and management and also was for experienced librarians) were offered, and additionally, in 1980, the Master of Arts, a two-year full-time basic professional degree, for graduates only, while the Diploma was phased out. There were 40 applicants for the first Master of Librarianship course; all were interviewed and twenty-five offered places, five more than the GSL’s quota. Of the twenty-five, twenty-two began the course in the first year of teaching, 1976; by the end of the year fifteen remained, the most common reason for withdrawal being that ‘despite an explicit statement in the Handbook and despite warning at the interview, some students simply did not accept the fact that part-time study for the degree required 12–15 hours of work each week’.63

The Master of Librarianship students, as Jean expected, were experienced librarians holding middle-to-senior-level library positions,64 and with a variety of academic and professional qualifications, who wanted the opportunity to undertake further study and research.65 Diploma students held less senior positions, many returning to work or moving to larger libraries. The Masters of Arts students were mainly new graduates, without library experience: ‘as they were fresh from demanding academic study but, usually, with no experience of the practical side of librarianship, one often had to dampen academic debate with consideration of practicalities. This was in contrast to the approach in M Lib and Diploma seminars, where often one had to work hard at keeping discussion focussed on concepts and theory’.66

The subjects taught at the GSL, not surprisingly, reflected many of Jean’s interests, such as library services to migrants and education for librarianship and information science. She wrote that ‘Perhaps foolishly I have put myself down to teach a course in Education for Librarianship and the more I think about it, the less I know about it, which is I suppose strange because most of my professional writing has been in this field. I only decided to teach it because it has been completely neglected in Australia and I think the results are only too obvious in the library schools’.67 Other subjects Jean taught in the early years included Historical Studies in Australian Librarianship, The Future of Library and Information Services, and, with other staff, Information Needs and Services in a Specific Subject Field.

Cooperation in many areas was important to Jean: in the University, the Faculty, the library profession and between students. Cooperation within Monash was important, as Jean thought that the GSL had to be part of the University and contribute to its work, in contrast to SLIS, which, Jean said, ‘was in the university but not of it … I do not remember any academics outside SLIS visiting us or vice versa’.68 Students were given the opportunity to study in other disciplines, and there were exchanges of lecturers, such as with Computer Science; and Jean gratefully received assistance from staff from other parts of Monash early in the GSL’s life. The GSL ‘was perceived as an integral part of the university and a valuable contributor to its work’.69

Cooperation within the Faculty was also important. The GSL was set up by, and became part of, the Faculty of Arts, an important decision in line with Jean’s view of education for librarianship, and in contrast to many of the library schools in Australia, which were in colleges that had a vocational orientation. Preparation for the inclusion of the GSL in the Arts Faculty included a paper by Margery Ramsay entitled Librarianship as a field for academic study.70

Jean’s idea of cooperation with the library profession was one of leadership of the profession, rather than being advised by it: she wrote that ‘the teaching of librarianship, like the teaching of any other profession, should not be a “state of the art” survey, but rather should aim to lead professional thinking’71 (she largely ignored an Advisory Committee). Her teaching methodology was based on her understanding of the principles of library education rather than the more applied approach of librarians. Jean wrote that ‘the influence of advisory committees anxious that the product should match specific jobs … work[s] against the development of scholarship and research’.72

Examples of cooperation in the first year included three research seminars held in co-operation with the Departments of English and French; research seminars and public lectures and the visits of twenty-four librarians.73 Monash staff and other librarians were invited to the seminars, which were followed by lunch so that students could meet the librarians and form links with the profession. The students enjoyed the seminars, and the visiting librarians were impressed by the high quality of the lectures, their relevance to librarianship, and the social interaction.74 Jean was always ready with a pertinent comment or question.

Cooperation was also in the form of social interaction between students: projects to work on together, opportunities for students to socialize, with a common room for students, seminars, discussions, library visits, an annual tour to visit Canberra libraries, time to meet other professionals, an annual party at Jean’s home in Mount Waverley, and, later, an Alumni Association. Students were encouraged to travel overseas, with the first study tour, to Denmark, led by Radha Rasmussen, taking place in 1978.75 Students travelled to the United Kingdom on GSL/Blackwell’s study tours, beginning with students Sandra Penny and Brian Hubber in 1982.

Did Jean have carte blanche in how she set up the GSL? It seems so, within the Monash limits. Harrison Bryan wrote that ‘a prescient university gave her her head and got a prestige School of Librarianship in return’,76 Neil Radford that ‘Jean had pretty much a free hand’,77 and Ross Harvey ‘carte blanche with setting up the department’.78 Perhaps Jean would agree: she said that one of the reasons that she had been attracted to Monash was because it was a new school, perhaps meaning that she thought that she would be able to set it up in the way that she wanted.79 And it appears that she did, although there were limits imposed by finances and Monash rules. The ideas, themes, and the emphases on scholarship and research were Jean’s. In another way, Jean had carte blanche: she set up the school according to guidelines which she herself had helped to formulate through her work on the Board of Examination (and its successors), where she was, at the time of her appointment to Monash, Chair of the Board and Convenor of the Accreditation Sub-Committee.

The GSL appears to have been based on Jean’s wisdom collected over her lifetime of librarianship, of educating librarians and of being a member of the Board of Education, with an emphasis on her experience of library schools in North America: the Graduate Library School in Chicago, ‘the best library school in the English speaking world’,80 and SLIS (selectively). There was also the negative influence of the British model of librarianship, which had been the basis for education for librarianship in Australia (and for George Chandler).81 Although Brian McMullin wrote that there was no formal plan to emulate the GLS, but to develop courses as the staff saw fit, Boyd Rayward wrote that the GSL ‘might be called the GLS of the Southern Hemisphere, a school critically focused in all its work like its counterpart, on scholarly investigation’82 (because this link was so strong many people wrongly assumed that Jean gave the GSL its name based on the GLS).83 Similarly, Neil Radford thought that the GSL was

modelled in many ways on her alma mater, the Graduate Library School at Chicago … [the GSL was to be] a genuinely academic school of librarianship where study and teaching would be carried out alongside research, where education would be valued over mere training, and where the principles and philosophies underlying practice would be emphasised … [Jean believed] that research was the way to develop good students into critical thinkers, and to move the profession forward intellectually.84

Finance became a concern. Jean wrote that the GSL ‘was established almost too late’ because of lack of finance.85 Two former members of the GSL staff have written of the poor timing, both linked to finance: Ross Harvey, who called the GSL ‘one of the brave experiments in Australian library education’, referred to the proliferation of courses in librarianship in the 1980s leading to the GSL then being unable to ‘attract sufficient students with acceptable academic entry qualifications’,86 and to concerns that there might be an over-supply of librarians.87 And Elizabeth Morrison wrote that the timing was poor because of funding cutbacks following the greatest expansion of tertiary education in Australian history: ‘in the course of 1975, the Whitlam Labor Government decided that there would be no growth for universities and colleges in 1976 … Triennial funding would be halted and there would be heavy cuts to the funding of research bodies … with modifications triennia were reinstated in 1977, but growth was not’.88 By 1975 Monash was Australia’s fifth largest university, with more than 13,000 students, but now there was little prospect for continuing growth, as there was a declining birth-rate matching the economic pressures. The new Vice-Chancellor, Ray Martin, wanted growth to be replaced by excellence in scholarship.89 Under Jean’s direction this was assured.90

Some help came from a $12,000 grant from the Myer Foundation, spread over two years,91 which was to assist in the Diploma course, but the financial problems continued throughout Jean’s time at Monash. The GSL was affected by the increased student-to-staff ratios and by the loss of coursework scholarships, initially allocated nationally, but diverted by Monash to research students. And the GSL’s first Annual Report noted that about $12,000 spread over three years was needed to provide librarianship resources in the Monash University Library.92 Inevitably, in the competition for the limited funds, the question of whether librarianship should be taught at a university was raised, but there was no great enthusiasm for closing down an established department, though this was a recurring theme, especially when Jean retired.93 Cuts to funding caused problems for the GSL, and throughout Monash, as departments competed for funding: Monash ‘is beginning to show signs of indulging in internal bickering. The pressures caused by government cuts in funding are certainly considerable, and having to make appointments and plans afresh each year really invites nervous breakdowns’.94

This ‘internal bickering’, years after Manton and Matheson retired, led to the Arts Faculty being unhappy about having the GSL among its members. In dealing with this dilemma Jean was politically astute: she called in a consultant archivist, Frank Upward. Her interest in archives had begun with her association with George Pitt, and teaching archives had been considered as the next step in the GSL’s early days, but it had not proceeded because of lack of funds. Upward’s recommendations led to funding for a post-graduate course in archives and records management: Upward was appointed as the lecturer, beginning teaching archives in 1988, shortly before Jean’s retirement, and the GSL survived.95 Perhaps Harrison Bryan was referring to these events when he described Jean as having ‘very real success as an academic in the world of academic administration and policy making’.96

Jean’s other activities at Monash included her membership of the Bookshop Board, the Professorial Board and the Monash University Council (she was elected to represent the professors and served on the Board from August 1983 to March 1985. She was also a member of the Art Advisory Committee and its Chair in 1982, giving her an important role in the future of the Monash art collection, which, although it was originally planned ‘to decorate and enliven the walls’,97 by this time had grown to a large and valuable collection, and the vulnerable University walls were no place for such valuable works (dead walls and graffiti were preferred). While Monash recognized the increasing value of the collection, the Committee received only a small allowance each year, a pittance.98 Discussions proceeded on the need for a University gallery, now the Monash University Museum of Art, which was eventually opened on March 12th, 1987. Jean was also a member of the Vera Moore Fund Committee from 1977 to 1981. This Fund had been set up in 1976 to provide ‘such support for the creative and performing arts as may enhance the teaching of those departments in the Faculty [of Arts] which are concerned with the understanding and criticism of those arts’. The Committee funded events organized by the Faculty, such as piano recitals, film-making, concerts, play readings, seminars, art and photography exhibitions.99

Another of Jean’s Monash activities was involvement with the Monash University Library. Cooperation with the Library had always been important, and many GSL students were able to find work at the Library. Jean, along with other GSL staff, was involved with the Friends of the Monash University Library, and one of her chief interests, hand-printing, took place in the Library basement, where the Ancora Press was set up.

Jean made a number of overseas trips during her time at Monash, which incorporated conferences, study leave, holidays and, importantly, keeping up with overseas friends and maintaining contacts. There is a change from the Jean who found Australia chafing when she returned from her overseas study to the Jean who years later set up her own department along the lines of the ones she had studied and worked in overseas, giving librarians access to post-graduate qualifications in Australia instead of their needing to travel overseas; she now wanted not to return overseas but to encourage others to visit and lecture in her department. She also continued her travel in Australia, much of it for the LAA. She continued to attend the Board of Examination meetings in Sydney and went to Canberra for her work on the Commonwealth Committee on Overseas Professional Qualifications (COPQ)100 and the Council of the NLA.

When Jean reached the compulsory retirement age of 65 in 1988 she did not go willingly (she reminded people that 65 was not the compulsory retirement age in South Australia).101 Retirement plans? ‘I don’t plan. I finish the work in hand and look for the next job’.102 But the accolades were grand. There were a retirement party, honours and a seminar, ‘Librarianship in Australia: a seminar to honour Jean P. Whyte Foundation Professor and Chairman of the Graduate School of Librarianship’, sponsored by the newly formed GSL Alumni Association. A booklet was published from the seminar.103 Looking at the names of the participants in the seminar – many of whom were GSL graduates – we could echo Harrison Bryan’s comments when he looked back on the Metcalf Seminar, saying that the participants looked like a Who was who of Australian librarianship.104 The keynote address was given by Bryan, now the former Director General of the NLA (Jean was later to edit, with Neil Radford, a festschrift in honour of Bryan).105

According to Monash University Council’s Minute of Appreciation, ‘Jean Whyte has launched a department of librarianship which in its short existence has established itself as the leading research body in the country’;106 and Neil Radford wrote that ‘It is no exaggeration to say that the GSL at Monash, under Jean Whyte, was one of the leading schools of librarianship in Australia, fully equal to the best in the world’.107

Elizabeth Morrison saw Jean as a ‘a powerful administrator and planner: pragmatic, with a broad understanding of librarianship and education’.108 She was both authoritarian and democratic, consulting widely.109 This consultation was important: it was a characteristic lacked by Brideson, Osborn and Chandler.

And not only the hierarchy: students over the years have expressed a great deal of appreciation for Jean’s work. So many spoke of her care for them and support, including financial assistance.110 The students were impressed by her organizational abilities,111 intellectual prowess and approachability.112 The overall impression of the GSL given by most students, was that it felt ‘organized’ early in its life and that they had enjoyed, appreciated and benefited from the experience. The GSL was compared favourably with other library schools of the time, and some students had, like me, wanted to study at the GSL because it was said to be the best library school in Australia. The only student unrest at the GSL during Jean’s time took place while she was on leave, prompting the thought that while the cat was away … During Jean’s time at the GSL graduates were to include 34 Masters of Arts, 43 Masters of Librarianship, 38 Diplomas of Librarianship and 2 Doctors of Philosophy.113 And some wonderful work was done by the students, especially in the field of the history of the book.114

As Jean left Monash and the library profession, a poem about her, published anonymously, appeared in ALJ. It was purportedly found at Jean’s send-off:


Jean! You’re leaving us! We’re more or less miffed;
Of time, your learning stands the test. Shift
Not your friendship from us; it’s your great gift.
That’s why we’re here – a living festschrift!

So: here’s a vote for Jean P. Whyte.
Scholar, professor, leading light.
Founding Chair of the School at Clayton;
A nod from her’s an ultimatum!

Cheerful. Tolerant. Democratic.
And with a well-stocked mental attic;
A mind alert, to every tactic,
In Monash politics took the hat-trick.

Tall, austere, in manner, regal,
Fierce, high-flown, professional eagle.
Broadminded, tolerant of anything legal,
But of charlatans, a moral beagle!

Most widely read, bibliographic grazer;
In debate and discourse a forensic razor.
Bluff, bluster, bombast, never faze her;
Yet could charm the pants off
Malcolm ******

A fluent, and a powerful teacher,
Of library history, she’s the preacher.
None can follow: none over-reach her;
On our horizon a major feature.

Her hospitality! A Clayton morning, damp and foggy;
One tottered in; with flu and soggy –
Feeling much like a distempered doggy
Jean’s whisky made one feel less groggy.

O Jean, O Jean, editorial Nero!
Of syntax, grammar, you’re my hero!
Compared with you: we’re less than zero;
Can’t see you leave without a tear-oh!

What shall we do now that you’re going?
Along a different row you’re hoeing.
Whilst we’re low flyers, to- and fro-ing,
You’ve been a bibliographic Boeing.

So! Here’s a toast, Jean Primrose Whyte!
Of our profession, leading light!
We hope that you won’t fall from sight;
We know that you’re still full of fight!

One phase of your career has ended;
Professional standards long defended.
To you our deepest thanks extended.
To put it in one word: you’re


1   Brian McMullin. ‘Yadlamalka girl shaped Australian librarianship’. The Age, April 18th–19th, 2003, 19.

2   A brief history of the GSL may be found in Appendix 4; a comprehensive history is yet to be written.

3   See Appendix 3. See also K.A. Lodewycks. ‘A proposed university school of librarianship’. ALJ 17 (1) 1968, 32–33 and [K.A. Lodewycks]. ‘University of Melbourne. Proposed Post-graduate School of Librarianship. Specimen Scheme’, 1962. MON 1059: 2000/68.93.

4   Interview: Wallace Kirsop, 2008.

5   R. Selby Smith to K.A. Lodewycks, June 20th, 1967. MON 1059: 2000/68.93.

6   Victorian Universities Committee. ‘Item 46.2’. Victorian Universities Committee. AUC Fifth report – collaboration between universities, April 1972. MON 1059.2000/68.93.

7   Harrison Bryan to J. M. Swan, May 24th, 1971. MON 47: 1986/56.95. Also, Jean wrote privately, as a member of the Board of Examination, to Margery Ramsay, Chairman of the Board, commenting on a Conference discussion of various courses: ‘I said openly that we welcomed the setting up of schools at Monash and Adelaide’ (Jean Whyte to Margery Ramsay, September 17th, 1973. NLA: MS 9616).

8   G.R. Manton. ‘Preliminary Proposals for a Graduate School of Librarianship’, [1972]. MON 1059: 2000/68.93.

9   Jean Whyte to G.R. Manton, [1977?]. MON 1059: 2000/68.13.

10  Monash University. Faculty Board. ‘Minutes’. January, 1970. MON 1059: 2000/68.93.

11  G.R. Manton. ‘Preliminary Proposals for a Graduate School of Librarianship’, [1972]. MON 1059: 2000/68.93.

12  Interview: John Legge, 2008.

13  Ibid.

14  Monash University. Council Committee for an appointment to a Chair of Librarianship. ‘Minutes. Meeting No. 1’, [early 1974?]. MON 1059: EA/195/1.

15  Following her appointment, Jean wrote an apology to the applicant she had supported, saying that she had not planned to apply for the position herself and had agreed to accept the position only because circumstances had changed.

16  A comment on one candidate was: ‘I believe that his appointment to Monash would be a disaster not only for the university but for Australian library education at large’ (MON 1059: EA/195/1).

17  One of the librarians consulted, Margery Ramsay, then Principal Librarian at the State Library of Victoria, wrote that Jean Whyte ‘had very good academic records in her bachelor’s and master’s degree work, and she has an unusually wide knowledge of librarianship. She is one of the most able librarians in Australia, with numerous overseas contacts, and she would undoubtedly establish the school on a broad basis … she is interested in research, but as a practising librarian has not been able to undertake very much’ (Margery Ramsay. [Untitled note], [1974]. MON 1059: EA/195/1).

In hindsight the NLA had been a good career move: although Jean had an outstanding reputation, without the NLA her experience was limited to two libraries. Monash, in choosing to appoint her, would have been impressed by her appointment as second in charge at the NLA and a member of the Second Division of the Commonwealth Public Service.

18  Jean Whyte to Alan Fleming, September 3rd, 1974. NLA: MS 9862.

19  G.R. Manton to Jean Whyte, September 25th, 1974. MON 1059: EA/195/1.

20  Jean Whyte to Alan Fleming, October 15th, 1974. NLA: MS 9862.

21  Jean Whyte to G.R. Manton, October 10th, 1974. MON: SLO 72330.

Geoffrey Alley warned Jean that ‘If (when) you are offered the job A Fleming’s, Harry B’s and my letters should be retrieved somehow so that you can have an idea of what you will need to live up to!’ (Geoffrey Alley to Jean Whyte, October 18th, 1974. J. McEldowney Personal Collection, Dunedin, New Zealand).

22  Monash University. [Internal debit/credit note], 1974. MON: SLO 72330.

23  Monash University. ‘Minutes of Council’. Item 4.1.1. December 9th, 1974. MON EA/195/1.

24  J.D. Butchart to Jean Whyte, December 11th, 1974. MON: SLO 72330.

25  Jean Whyte. ‘Curriculum vitae’, 1974. NLA: MS 9616.

26  Jean Whyte to Alan Fleming, October 15th, 1974. NLA: MS 9862.

27  W.F. Northam. [Memo]. December 12th, 1974. MON: SLO 72330.

28  Jean Whyte to J.D. Butchart, December 17th, 1974. MON: SLO 72330.

29  Alan Fleming to Jean Whyte, November 15th, 1974. NLA: MS 9616.

30  Andrew Osborn to Jean Whyte, January 14th, 1959. SU: M 465.

31  Jean Whyte to Alan Fleming, October 15th, 1974. NLA: MS 9862.

32  Jean Whyte to Alan Fleming, September 3rd, 1974. NLA: MS 9862.

33  Jean Whyte to Alan Fleming, October 15th, 1974. NLA: MS 9862. Harrison Bryan was an unsuccessful candidate for the position of Director General when Alan Fleming retired but later was to succeed Chandler.

34  Jean Whyte to Lester Asheim, January 3rd, 1975. NLA: MS 9616.

35  Monash University. Graduate School of Librarianship. Annual Report. 1975, 4.

36  G.R. Manton to I.B. Tate, [1975]. MON: SLO 72330. Jean undertook this work for Monash during her accumulated recreation leave from the NLA.

37  Monash University. Graduate School of Librarianship. Annual Report. 1975, 3.

38  Jean Whyte. ‘Control and diversity’, 1985, 5–25.

39  The Australian schools which existed when the GSL was set up were at the University of NSW, the NSW Department of Technical Education, RMIT, the South Australian Institute of Technology, the Canberra College of Advanced Education and the Western Australian Institute of Technology. The Tasmanian College of Advanced Education was seeking accreditation, and the Sydney Technical College course was closing (Jean Whyte. ‘The Accreditation of Courses in Librarianship’, 1974, 593–608).

40  Wilma Radford. ‘The School of Librarianship, University of New South Wales’. ALJ 19 (11) 1970, 417–419.

At the end of 1973 Wilma Radford retired from her position as Professor at the School of Librarianship, University of New South Wales. The position was advertised, but Jean did not apply: ‘I have all the snobbiness of a Sydney “man” when I think of [the University of NSW]’ (Jean Whyte to Alan Fleming, September 3rd, 1974. NLA: MS 9862).

41  Barbara Hooks. ‘Advanced librarian course from Monash’. The Age, January 10th, 1975, 12.

42  Jean Whyte. ‘The Accreditation of Courses in Librarianship’, 1974, 603.

43  Jean Whyte. ‘Librarians and scholars’, 1984, 261.

44  Jean Whyte. ‘In-service training or library schools’. ALJ 5 (1) 1956, 1–5.

45  Jean Whyte. ‘Librarians and scholars’, 1984, 243–262.

46  Jean Whyte. Preliminary notes on the School of Librarianship at Monash University, [1975]. NLA: MS 9616.

47  Notice, too, the title of Jean’s 1981 paper ‘Random remarks from a long-time librarian, short-time teacher of librarians’.

48  Jean Whyte. Preliminary notes on the School of Librarianship at Monash University, [1975]. NLA: MS 9616.

49  Ibid.

50  Transcript of a conversation between Jean Whyte and Geoffrey Alley, 1981. MON 1059: 2000/68/5.

51  Ibid.

52  Jean Whyte. Preliminary notes on the School of Librarianship at Monash University, [1975]. NLA: MS 9616.

53  In a note to the editor of ALJ Jean wrote ‘this is my first statement on the School and is designed to acknowledge the work of earlier library educators’ (Jean Whyte to C. Datar, January 14th, 1976. MON 1059: 2000/68.47).

54  Jean Whyte. ‘In the mainstream’. ALJ 25 (2) 1976, 51–58.

55  Interview: Elizabeth Morrison, 2008.

56  The descriptions of academic staff

The Staff

Professor Jean P. Whyte, B.A. Hons (Adel.) A.M. (Chic.) F.L.A.A. took up her position on 10 July. Her professional interests are National, State and research library services; user studies; education for librarianship; history of librarianship; library administration.

Dr. Brian J. McMullin, M.A. (N.Z.) M.L.S. (West Ont.) Ph.D. (Leeds) was appointed as a Lecturer and arrived at the School on 28 September. His interests are historical and analytical bibliography; printing practices especially in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; problems in the transmission of texts; the building of library collections.

Ms. Elizabeth Morrison, B.A. (Melb.) A.L.A.A. was appointed as a Lecturer and takes up her duties in February 1976, her interests being microform, computer and telecommunication in the library, bibliographic control and library planning; management techniques in librarianship.

Ms. Radha Nadarajah, LL.B. (Sing.) M.Lib. (Wales) A.L.A. will take up the position as a Lecturer in March 1976. Her interests are public librarianship, especially services to the disadvantaged; the influence of the mass media; the economics of library provision and services; education for librarianship; library development in South-East Asia. (Monash University. Graduate School of Librarianship. Annual Report. 1975, [1]).

57  Elizabeth Morrison. ‘The Graduate School of Librarianship at Monash University: the beginning’. Education for Librarianship: Australia 6 (2–3) 1989, 6.

58  Harrison Bryan. ‘Jean Primrose Whyte’. ALJ 38 (1) 1989, 14.

59  Neil A. Radford. ‘Obituaries. Jean Primrose Whyte AM’, [2003].

60  Interview: Elizabeth Morrison, 2008.

61  Elizabeth Morrison. ‘The Graduate School of Librarianship at Monash University: the beginning’. Education for Librarianship: Australia 6 (2–3) 1989, 6.

62  Interview: Rachel Salmond, 2005.

63  Monash University. Graduate School of Librarianship. Annual Report. 1976, [1].

64  Elizabeth Morrison. ‘The Graduate School of Librarianship at Monash University: the beginning’. Education for Librarianship: Australia 6 (2–3) 1989, 8.

65  Barbara Hooks. ‘Advanced librarian course from Monash’. The Age, January 10th, 1975, 12.

66  Elizabeth Morrison. ‘The Graduate School of Librarianship at Monash University: the beginning’. Education for Librarianship: Australia 6 (2–3) 1989, 8.

67  Jean Whyte to Lester Asheim, September 12th, 1975. MON 1059: 2000/68.6.

68  Jean Whyte. ‘Some Reminiscences of Geoffrey Alley’, 1995, 2. J. McEldowney Personal Collection, Dunedin, New Zealand.

69  Neil A. Radford. ‘Obituaries. Jean Primrose Whyte AM’, [2003].

70  Margery Ramsay. ‘Librarianship as a field for academic study’, [1972?]. MON 1059: 2000/68.93.

71  Monash University. Graduate School of Librarianship. Annual Report. 1976, 6.

72  Jean Whyte. ‘Librarians and scholars’, 1984, 257–258.

73  Research Seminars: John Spring ‘Joseph Bennet, Restoration Printer’ and Dr. Wallace Kirsop ‘Early Editions of Corneille’s Le Cid’; Professor David Bradley ‘Textual Problems and Playhouse Copy’ and Dr. Brian McMullin ‘A consideration of some editorial orthodoxies’; Dr Angus Martin ‘Specialized Retrospective Checklists: the example of eighteenth-century’; Professor Perry Morrison ‘Sociological and Psychological Survey Methods applied to librarianship’; Dr Edward Kazlauskas ‘Instructional Technology, University of Southern California’; Professor Perry Morrison ‘Case Study Methods’; Dr. Robert Rosenthal ‘The future of Rare Book and Special Collections’; Harrison Bryan ‘The Future of Research Libraries’; Barrett Reid ‘Future of Public Libraries’.

Public lectures: Phillip Bryant ‘Library Research: The Bath University Projects’; Dr. Edward Kazlauskas ‘Library Automation in California’; Dr. Robert Rosenthal ‘Dealing in the Past; the acquisition of books and manuscripts for research collections’; Professor C. West Churchman ‘The Library as an Inquiring System’ (Monash University. Graduate School of Librarianship. Annual Report. 1976, [1]–2).

74  Elizabeth Morrison. ‘The Graduate School of Librarianship at Monash University: the beginning’. Education for Librarianship: Australia 6 (2–3) 1989, 7.

75  Librarianship in Australia, 1988, 27.

76  Harrison Bryan. ‘Jean Primrose Whyte’. ALJ 38 (1) 1989, 5.

77  Neil A. Radford. ‘Obituaries. Jean Primrose Whyte AM’, [2003].

78  Interview: Ross Harvey, 2005.

79  ‘Late start, but Jean Whyte has the last word’. Monash Reporter, 9–88, 1988.

80  Ibid.

81  Interview: Ross Harvey, 2005.

82  W. Boyd Rayward. ‘The future of library education in Australia – and its past’. ALJ 38 (2) 1989, 115–123.

83  Graduate school of librarianship was used (in files held at Monash University) as a descriptive term – that Victoria needed a graduate school of librarianship – as early as 1970; by 1974 it had changed from description to title.

84  Neil A. Radford. ‘Obituaries. Jean Primrose Whyte AM’, [2003].

85  Jean Whyte to G.R. Manton, [1977?]. MON 1059: 2000/68.13.

86  Ross Harvey. ‘Losing the quality battle in Australian education for librarianship’, [2004].

87  See, for example, Neil A. Radford. ‘Education for librarianship and the manpower problem’. ALJ 26 (8) 1978, 197–202.

88  Elizabeth Morrison. ‘The Graduate School of Librarianship at Monash University: the beginning’. Education for Librarianship: Australia 6 (2–3) 1989, 5.

89  Ibid.

90  ‘I have said many times that the value of the Graduate School of Librarianship can only be judged by the quality of its graduates and unfortunately as part-timers they will be slow in coming’ (Jean Whyte to G.R. Manton, [1977?]. MON 1059: 2000/68.13).

91  Monash University. Graduate School of Librarianship, [1974?]. MON 1059: 2000/68.47. Ken Myer chaired the Council of the NLA when Jean was a Council member.

92  Monash University. Graduate School of Librarianship. Annual Report. 1975.

93  Interview: Brian McMullin, 2008.

94  Jean Whyte to Geoffrey Alley, October 16, 1981. MON 1059: 2000/68.5.

95  Interview: Frank Upward, 2008.

96  Harrison Bryan. ‘Jean Primrose Whyte’. ALJ 38 (1) 1989, 14.

97  Monash University Council. ‘Minute of Appreciation. Professor J.P. Whyte’, 1989. NLA: MS 9616.

98  Interview: Grecian and Ross Day, 2008.

99  Vera Moore Fund Committee. MON 1059: 2000/68.1.

100 Monash University. Graduate School of Librarianship. Annual Report. 1976, 5.

101 Interview: Rachel Salmond, 2005.

102 ‘Late start, but Jean Whyte has the last word’. Monash Reporter, 9–88, 1988.

103 Librarianship in Australia, 1988.

104 Harrison Bryan. ‘The Metcalf seminar – 25 years on’. ALJ 33 (1) 1984, 32.

105 Jean Whyte and Neil A. Radford, eds. An enthusiasm for libraries, 1988.

106 Monash University Council. ‘Minute of Appreciation. Professor J.P. Whyte’, 1989. NLA: MS 9616.

107 Neil A. Radford. ‘Obituaries. Jean Primrose Whyte AM’, [2003].

108 Elizabeth Morrison. ‘The Graduate School of Librarianship at Monash University: the beginning’. Education for Librarianship: Australia 6 (2–3) 1989, 6.

109 Interview: Elizabeth Morrison, 2008.

110 Interview: Steven Kafkarisos. 2005.

111 Interview: Sara Miranda, 2008.

112 Interview: Steven Kafkarisos. 2005.

113 A list of GSL graduates during Jean’s term may be found in Librarianship in Australia, 1988, 57–58.

114 Interview: Elizabeth Morrison, 2008.

115 [Hector Monro?]. ‘JPW – A panegyric’. ALJ 38 (2) 1989, 191. ‘Cheerful’?

Jean Primrose Whyte

   by Coralie Elsenore Janis Jenkin