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First Blood: A Cultural Study of Menarche

INDEX

Al-Khalidi, Alia, 130, 131

Anderson, Elizabeth Garrett (1874)

see menarche and medical debate over education for girls

Andresen, Rhonda, 33

Angus, Sarah, Australian Volunteers International, 170

Antonelli, Judith, 45

Apache puberty ceremony, ixx

further publications about, x fn. 2

Appel-Slingbaum, Caren, 34

Arata, Luigi, 2 fns 1, 5

Ashley-Montague, M.F., 100, 110, 111

Askul, Ayse K., 160

Astrology at menarche in Sri Lankan culture, 7071

Attwood, Bain, 102

Bell, Catherine, 68

Beyenne, Yewoubdar, 44, 106

Blackman, Helen, 20

Bloch, Rabbi Abraham, 69

Blood, as way of thought about the body, 1

see also menarche

Brady, Nicole, x fn. 3

Brander M.S., 136 fn. 81

Britton, Cathryn, 145

Bromelain as uterine relaxant, 104105

Brookes, Barbara, and Tennant, Margaret, 157

Brown, Judith, 66, 83

Brumberg, Joan Jacobs, 33, 124, 133

Bryant, J.A., and Heathcote, D.G., 111

Buckley, Thomas and Gottlieb, Alma, 42, 56

Bullough, Vern L., 17, 133, 134

Cardwell, Mary G., 137 fn. 82

Chu, Cordia Ming-Yeuk, 105

Chisholm, James S., Quinlivan, Julie A., Petersen, Rodney W., Coall, David A., x fn. 4.

Clarke, Edward (1873)

see menarche and medical debate over education for girls

Cohen, Paul A., 102, 103

Collins, Rebecca, 102

Coming-of-age ceremonies for girls

bat mitzvah, 50, 8587

confirmation, 8385

debutante ball, 8789

la quinceañera, 85

Muslim hatum ceremony, 87

Corner, George, 20

Costos, Daryl, Ackerman, Ruthie, Paradis, Lisa, 35

Crawford, Patricia, 1416, 122, 124

Crawfurd, Raymond, 32

Culture, definition of, 26

Darwin, Charles (1874), 124

Davalos, Karen Mary, 85

Daveridge, John B., 20

Davis, Geoffrey, 111

Dean-Jones, Lesley, 24, 14, 99

Del Giudice, Luisa, 100

Delaney, Janice, Lupton, Mary Jane, and Toth, Emily, 12, 47, 101, 129, 132

Demand, Helen, 3

Dhobi

see menarche ceremonies

Dickson, Scott and Wood, Ruth, x fn. 4

Dionysius the Great, 44

Douglas, Mary, 4243, 44, 45, 67, 102103

Dundes, Alan, 68

Duras, Fritz, 147

Eades, Richard, letter to Stephen Walcott (1848), 121

Edmonds, D. Keith, 23

Environment and menstrual waste, 163, 166, 173

Ernster, Virginia, 25 fn. 2, 33 fn. 59

Farrell, Elizabeth, 178

Faure, Bernard, 56

Finn, Colin, 21

Fonrobert, Charlotte Elisheva, 5152

Foran, Terri, 178

Fothergill, W.E., 19

Foucault, Michel, 7

Frazer, Sir James, 99

Freeman, William, and Looney, Joseph, 110

Furth, Charlotte, 8-9

Garaud, Yolette, 104

Gare, Shelley, ‘Secret Women’s Business’, 178

Geertz, Clifford, 77

Gilbreth, Lilian, 133134

Gillooly, Jessica, 3435

Goldman, Emma, 34

Golub, Sharon and Catalano, Joan, 30

Gottlieb, Alma, 46

Green, Monica, 11-12, 4849

Gross, Rita, 5556

Haas, E. C. and Haas tampon, 135

Harrison, Lyn, 88, 89

Heape, Walter, 20

Hewitt, Graily, 20

Hill, Mark, 21 fn. 82

Hitchcock, Christine, 176

Holdrege, Barbara, 62

Holy Bible, quotations King James version, Genesis, 45

Isaiah, 121, 122 fn. 30

Leviticus, 4748

Luke, 48, fn. 23

Hopkins, M.K., 56

Interviewees and menarche experience 1934–1969

Alcina, Italian, 29, 94, 143

Aleli, Filipina, 30, 95, 96, 116

Alisha, Indian, 60-62, 141, 162

Alla, Ukrainian, 28, 116

Athene, Greek, 27, 37, 96

Bao, Chinese-Vietnamese, 29, 42, 57, 119

Beatriz, Chilean, 31, 38, 94, 143

Cecile, Ugandan, 31, 37, 46, 94, 118, 141, 143

Corazon, Filipina, 28, 9495, 96, 9798, 115, 143

Cosima, Moldavian, 142

Dashka, Sri Lankan, 27, 37, 55

Delia, Greek, 143

Domini, Filipina, 144

Elena, Greek, 31, 118, 142

Erlinda, Filipina, 31, 36, 37, 96, 98

Gloria, Filipina, 29, 98, 119

Hetal, Indian, 31, 37, 59, 117, 142

Jung, Korean, 27, 116, 141, 142

Karuna, Indian, 28, 60, 141

Kateryna, Ukrainian, 29, 116

Keshini, Sri Lankan, 29, 55, 65, 6970, 7273, 141

Lee, Singapore-Chinese, 119, 143

Levani, Fijian, 31, 39, 7879, 96, 116, 141, 142

Lola, Chilean, 30, 37, 39, 95, 119, 142, 143

Loretta, Italian, 29, 49, 93

Malaya, Filipina, 119

Maria, Italian, 28, 33, 9293

Marjorie, English, 28, 38, 83, 96, 120, 141, 143

Maryam, Lebanese, 37, 44, 96, 116

Melena, Chilean, 29, 35, 39, 96, 118

Meletta, Greek, 13, 28, 36, 95

Nadia, Lebanese, 31, 44, 95, 95, 143

Netri, Indian, 27, 59

Neve, Italian, 37, 49, 94, 143

Nila, Sri Lankan, 30, 58, 7374

Nirmala, Indonesia, 31, 52, 78, 97, 117, 142

Olena, Ukrainian, 36, 44

Qing, Chinese, 31, 37, 97, 114, 119, 142

Ramona, Chilean, 30, 38, 49, 94, 119, 142

Rara, Indonesian, 28, 7778, 117

Rashida, Indonesia, 52, 141

Ria, Filipina, 28, 36, 95, 97

Rosalia, Sicilian, 29, 38, 9293, 98, 116, 141

Ruth, Ugandan, 28, 46, 118, 141

Saha, Indian, 27, 118

Seda, Armenian, 31, 44, 142

Sue, Chinese, 97, 119, 140, 144

Sun, Korean, 30, 116, 141

Tu, Chinese-Vietnamese, 30, 57

Violetta, Filipina, 27, 36, 96, 97, 98

Virsila, Fijian, 30, 36, 38, 97, 141, 142

Wani, Indonesian, 28, 35, 141

Yanuva, Jewish, 30, 34, 50, 51, 115

Zosime, Greek, 28, 44, 95, 118

Kapadia, Karin, 59, 7172, 76

Kaplan, Rabbi Mordecai and introduction of bat mitzvah in US, 86

Kaptchuck, Ted K., and Chinese medicine 7-8

Kaunitz, Andrew M., 176

Kemper, Steven, 70, 71

Kenny, Florence, 147

Kimball, Solon T., 65

King, Helen, 3, 4

Knudsen, Dean, 88, 89

Koff, Elissa, and Rierdan, Jill, 35, 37

Koff, Elissa, Rierdan, Jill and Sheingold, Karen, 32

Lainer, Iliene, 34

Lake, Marilyn, 155, 157 fn. 68

Lane, William, 129

Laslett, Peter, 16

Lawrence, Denise, 101-102, 103

Ledger, William, 22

Lee, Janet, 3839

Lee, Janet, and Sasser-Coen, Jennifer, 27, 32, 33

Levy, Robert, 101

Lister, influence of, 124

Logan, Deanna Dorman, 159

Lord, Alexandra, 1819

Loudon, Irvine, 18

Lutkehaus, Nancy, 81

Lynch, Pip, 173

Macht, David I., and Lubin, Dorothy S., 110

Manderson, Lenore, 104, 106 fn. 67

Maquarrie, John, 84

Marcus, Ivan, 8687

Maschio, Thomas, 79

Maudsley, Henry (1874)

see menarche and medical debate over education for girls

McCalman, Janet, 88, 130

McClive, Cathy, and Medieval French text 14

Menarche and the adolescent social clock, 3031

Menarche ceremonies

concepts underlying, 6567

as Fijian custom, 7981

as marriage, prelude to, 75

as purification, 7577

reasons for prevalence, 68

ritual and symbolism, 6970, 8182

role of dhobi or redi nändā, 54, 7172

seclusion, see menstrual seclusion

as Sri Lankan culture, part of, 6970

Menarche and concealment of bleeding cloths and towels, dislike of, 115116

as health problem, 123124

immigrant ship, problems on (1848), 120121

menstrual absorbents, care of, 116119

menstruation and education, 125129

menstruation and factory workers, 129130

poverty and menstrual hygiene, 117118, 119, 165

sanitary pad-making as school project, 115

Menarche in developing nations

alternative devices for menstruation, 170171

breaking the silence on menstrual matters, 169170

cultural influence on menstrual practice, 167168, 171

influences for change, 163, 166170

menstrual hygiene, government and non-government campaigns in African and South Asian countries, 166, 168172

menstrual waste, problems of, 166167, 169, 171172

sanitary pad manufacture and women, 172 school absenteeism, 165166, 169170

Sharing Simple Facts: Useful Information about Menstrual Health and Hygiene, 166

social change and earlier menarche, 168

Menarche and flashbulb memory, 32

Menarche and Hindu tradition, the power of ritu in, 6263

Menarche, historic ages of, and influences, 36, 8, 1214, 1617

current understanding of the menstrual cycle, 2123

eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, medical influences of, 1719

nineteenth-century recognition of ovulation 1920

Menarche and historic beliefs

in Ancient China, 79

in Ancient India and Ayurveda, 911

Aristotle (fourth-century BCE), 4, 13, 1415, 19

in the Christian Church, 12, 14

in Classical Greece and Rome, 16

in English literature and Milton, 1314

Galen (second century CE), 15

Hippocratics (second-half fifth-century to mid fourth-century BCE) 23, 5

Huang Di Nei Jing (between 300-100 BCE), 78

Kaśyapa’s Compendium (first milleneum BCE), 1011

Pope Gregory the Great, 4849

Soranus (second-century CE), 56

Suśruta’s Compendium (c. 250 BCE), 11

Trotula (c twelfth-century CE), 1112

Menarche and immediate response to bleeding,

by girls 2731

identity transformation, feeling of, 37

maternal concern about sexuality, 3739

by mothers, 3336

the site where meaning is made, 26

Menarche and Indian dowry tradition, 6062

Menarche as invader of the body, 39

as motivator for independence, 3940

Menarche in late nineteenth-century, 122126

Menarche and medical debate over education for girls

Anderson, Elizabeth Garrett (1874), ‘Sex in mind and education – a reply’, 127128

Clarke, Edward (1873), ‘Sex in education’, 125126

Maudsley, Henry (1874), ‘Sex in mind and education’, 126, 127

Menarche and menstrual bleeding options

Coutinho, Dr Elsimar, on suppression, 179180

the injectable option, 179181

the knowns and the unknowns, 176177

menstrual suppression 174, 176179

the contraceptive pill 174

controversy 176,

ignorance 175

oral contraception, extended cycle 177178

suppression in young girls, argument against, 177

Menarche and menstrual education authority for, 137, 144, 146, 147,

booklets for girls by sanitary hygiene companies, introduction of

Growing Up and Liking It, 149

The Guide Through Girlhood, 147148, 150

Marjorie May’s Twelfth Birthday, 144

As One Girl to Another, 149

The Story of Menstruation, 145147

Very Personally Yours, 148

social attitudes to menstrual ‘unwellness’, change in, 149

social construction of girls and women through sanitary hygiene product advertisements (1932–1962), 151158

Menarche as a paradox, 1

as an ambiguity, 43, 46

as an anomaly 43, 47

Menarche and religious belief systems 42, 44

Menarche and the sanitary hygiene industry

advertising in Australia, 134

advertising in schools, 143144

development of, 132135

introduction to Australia, 134

tampons, controversy over use, 136137

toxic shock syndrome, 137138

Menarche as ‘unclean’, becoming

in Buddhist tradition, 5457

in Eastern Orthodox Christianity, 4344

in Hinduism, 5860

in Islam, 5254

in Judaism, 4748, 49

ritual use of micvah 50, 5152

Virgin Mary at Second Temple, 51

in Western Orthodox Christianity, 48, 49

Menarche and women’s lore

control of duration of flow, 9798, 108

dangers of certain foods, 94, 104, 105106, 107

dangers to plants and fruit, 93, 94, 99, 109

dangers of water 93, 9596, 105, 106

existing beliefs today, 100, 101, 107

face slapping 34

hairwashing prohibition, 94, 96, 107

harm by others, concern about, 44

menarcheal blood and power, 44, 108

prohibition of women in certain industries, 100101

Menotoxin, 109112

Menstrual hygiene product advertising

in information booklets, 144, 145, 148, 149

medical endorsements to promote tampons, 158

in newspapers and magazines 151158

World War II, changing constructs of women during, 152156

Menstrual seclusion, 55, 56, 71, 73, 75, 76, 80, 164165

Menstruation as fermentation of blood, 13, 15, 18

as purgation, 15, 17

as flowers, 15, 4

Mernissi, Fatima, 52

Meyer, Robert and Schroeder, Robert, and ovulation, 20

Milow, Vera, 34

Morton, Helen, 82

Mosely, Sophia, 131132

Müllerian duct, 21

Myerhoff, Barbara, 68

Myles, Margaret and female newborn menstruation, 45 fn. 16

Neufeld, Christine, 109

Niddah, 5051

Orringer, Kelly and Gahagan, Sheila, 144

Oster, Emily and Thornton, Rebecca, 170171

Ovulation and historical understanding 1921

Paige, Karen Ericksen, 87

Paige, Karen Ericksen and Paige, Jeffery, 79

Parkin, David, 68

Patel, Kartikeya, 59, 62

Phillips, Kim, 1213

Phipps, William E., 44

Pickles, V. R., 110 fn. 81, 111

Pillemer, David B., Koff, Elissa, Rhinehart, Elizabeth D., Rierdan, Jill, 32

Pincus, Gregory, and Rock, John, co-inventors of oral contraceptive, 174

Pliny the Elder and power of menarche, 9899

Post, J.B., 17

Pouchet, Felix A., 20

Powers, Marla, 68

Rasing, Thea, 68

Ravn, Dr Nicholai Edvard (1848), 16

Reid, Helen, and ‘the brass ring’ sign, 111

Rierdan, Jill and Koff, Elissa, 31

Ritu, 6263

Rome, Ellen, 176

Ruble, Diane and Brooks-Gunn, Jeannie, 29, 37

Sangren, Steven, 57

Sanitary-belt designers, nineteenth-century

Gedge, William Edward (1864), 131

Lawrence, Theresa (1849), 131

Owen, Lemuel Dow (1859), 131

Sanjakdar, Fida, 92 fn. 3, 100

Sarkar, Tanika, 62 fn. 70

Schick, Bela, 109-110, 111

Schlegel, Alice, and Barry III, Herbert, 67, 69, 89

Sewell, William, 26

Shail, Andrew, 133

Short, R. V., 173174

Showalter, Elaine, 123, 127 fn. 48

Skandhan, K.P., Pandya, Amika K., Skandhan,

Slap, as tradition at menarche, 34

Smellie, William, 17

Smith, David, 59

Smith, Jane I., and Haddad, Yvonne, 53

Smith-Rosenberg, 123, 125

Sniekers, Marijke, 7981

Sokol, B.J., 14

Soucasaux, Nelson, 112

Spellberg, D.A., 5354

Spencer, Herbert, 124

Sponberg, Alan, 55

Strange, Julie-Marie, 123

Suan, Mary, 33

Sumangala, Mehta, Yagnesh B., 26 fn. 4

Sutton, Harvey, 147

Taboo, as concept, 43, 45, 61, 64

Taft, A.E. and link between pathogens and tampons, 135

Tanner, J.M., 17

Tattoo as pre-missionary marker of menarche in Melanesia, 8182

Teitelman, Anne M., 38 fn. 91

Ten-Hour Act (1875), 126

Thomas, Martha Carey, 127

Thompson, Isobel and Northey, Vicki, 88

Trad, Paul, 40

Transitional states and hazards of, 62, 67

Unschuld, Paul U., 7, 9

Uskal, Ayse, 34

Van Gennep, Arnold, 67, 83, 88

Vansina, Jan, 102

Virginity and social importance of hymen, 13, 1819, 38, 49, 66, 80, 84, 119, 121, 142, 160, 171

Vostral, Sharra, 125 fn. 40, 129,

Vulnerability at menarche, belief in, 59, 82, 90, 107, 123, 164

Walker, Benjamin, 62

Watson, J.K., 19, 132

Wear, Andrew, 140

Wickremeratne, Swarna, 56, 71 fn. 19, 73

Wilms, Sabine, 89

Winslow, Deborah, 45 fn. 12, 56, 58, 67, 71, 7375

Wood, Charles T., 12, 51 fn. 32

Wujastyk, Dominik and Ayurveda, 910

First Blood: A Cultural Study of Menarche

   by Sally Dammery