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First Blood: A Cultural Study of Menarche



Antonelli, Judith S., In the Image of God: a Feminist Commentary on the Torah, Jason Aronson Inc., New Jersey, 1995

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Vostral, Sharra L., Under Wraps: a History of Menstrual Hygiene Technology, Lexington Books, Lanham, Maryland, 2008

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Wujastyk, Dominik, The Roots of Ayurveda (1998), including the author’s translations of Suśruta’s Compendium and Kaśyapa’s Compendium, Penguin Books Limited, London, 2003

Chapters in Books

Andresen, Rhonda, ‘Hawai’i’, in Narratives and Images of Pacific Island Women, Debbie Hippolite Wright, Rosalind Meno Ram, and Kathleen Fromm Ward (eds), Women’s Studies, Volume 44, The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, New York, 2005 Arata, Luigi, ‘Menses in the corpus Hippocraticum’, in Menstruation: a Cultural History,

Andrew Shail and Gillian Howie (eds), Palgrove Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2005

Bechert, Heinz, ‘Remarks on astrological sanskrit literature from Sri Lanka’, in Senarat Paranavitana Commemoration Volume, vol. 7, Leelananda Prematilleke, Karthigesu Indrapala and J. E. van Lohizen-de Leeuw (eds), composed by Sri Lanka Press, Leiden, The Netherlands, 1978

Blackman, Helen, ‘Embryological and agricultural constructions of the menstrual cycle, 1890–1910, in Menstruation: a Cultural History, Andrew Shail and Gillian Howie (eds), Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2005

Buckley, Thomas, Gottlieb, Alma, ‘A critical appraisal of the theories of menstrual symbolism’, in Blood Magic: the Anthropology of Menstruation, Thomas Buckley and Alma Gottlieb (eds), University of California Press, Berkeley, 1988

Edmonds, D. Keith, ‘Gynaecological disorders of childhood and adolescence’, in Dewhursts’s Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, D. Keith Edmonds and John Dewhurst (eds), seventh edition, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2007

‘Genesis’, in The Holy Bible, King James’ version, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge n.d.

Gottlieb, Alma, ‘Menstrual cosmology among the Beng of Ivory Coast’, in Blood Magic: the Anthropology of Menstruation, Thomas Buckley and Alma Gottlieb (eds), University of California Press, Berkeley, 1988

Green, Monica H., ‘Flowers, poisons and men: menstruation in medieval Western Europe’, in Menstruation: a Cultural History, Andrew Shail, Gillian Howie (eds), Palgrove Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2005

Gross, Rita, ‘Buddhism’, in Her Voice, Her Faith: Women Speak Out on World Religions, Arvind Sharma, Katherine K. Young (eds), Westview Press, Cambridge, Maryland, 2002

Hippocrates, ‘Girls’, in Hippocrates Vol. IX, trans. Paul Potter (ed.), Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, Cambridge (US), 2010

Hull, Terence H., and Hull, Valerie J., ‘Means, motives and menses: use of herbal emmenagogues in Indonesia’, in Regulating Menstruation: Beliefs, Practices, Interpretations, Etienne Van de Walle, and Elisha P. Renne (eds), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2001

‘Isaiah’, in The Holy Bible, King James’ version, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, n.d.

Kimball, Solon T., ‘Introduction’ to Arnold Van Gennep, Rites of Passage, trans. Monika B. Vizedom and Gabrielle L. Caffee, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960

Lainer, Ilene, ‘The Slap, 1972’, in My Little Red Book, Rachel Kauder Nalebuff (ed.), Twelve, New York, 2009

Lake, Marilyn, ‘Freedom, fear and the family’, in Patricia Grimshaw, Marilyn Lake, Ann McGrath, Marian Quartly, Creating a Nation, McPhee Gribble Publishers, Penguin Books, Ringwood, 1994

Lawrence, Denise L., ‘Menstrual politics: women and pigs in rural Portugal’, in Blood Magic: the Anthropology of Menstruation, Thomas Buckley and Alma Gottlieb (eds), University of California Press, Berkeley, 1988

Ledger, William L., ‘The Menstrual Cycle’, in Dewhursts’s Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, D. Keith Edmonds and John Dewhurst (eds), seventh edition, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, 2007

Leslie, Julia, ‘Some traditional Indian views on menstruation and female sexuality’, in Sexual Knowledge, Sexual Science: the History of Attitudes to Sexuality, Roy Porter and Mikuláš Teich (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994

‘Leviticus’, in The Holy Bible, King James’ version, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge n.d.

Loudon, Irving S. L., ‘Childbirth’, in Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine, Vol. 2, W. F. Bynum and Roy Porter (eds) (1993), Routledge, London, 1997

Lutkehaus, Nancy C., ‘Feminist anthropology and female initiation in Melanesia’, in Gender Rituals: Female Initiation in Melanesia, Nancy Lutkehaus and Paul B. Roscoe (eds), Routledge, New York, 1995

Manaf, Nor Faridah Abdul, ‘Other coming of age rituals among Malay Muslim girls in Malaysia’, in The Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures: Family, Body, Sexuality and Health, Vol. 3, Suad Joseph and Afsaneh Najmabadi (eds), Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands, 2006

Maschio, Thomas, ‘Mythic images and objects of myth in Rauto female puberty ritual’ in Gender Rituals: Female Initiation in Melanesia, Nancy Lutkehaus and Paul B. Roscoe (eds), Routledge, New York, 1995

McClive, Cathy, ‘Menstrual knowledge and medical practice in early modern France c. 1555–1761, in Menstruation: a Cultural History, Andrew Shail and Gillian Howie (eds), Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2005

Milow, Vera J., ‘Menstrual education: past, present and future’, in Menarche: the Transition from Girl to Woman, Sharon Golub (ed.), Lexington Books, Lexington, 1983

Myerhoff, Barbara, ‘Rites of passage: process and paradox’, in Celebration: Studies in Festivity and Ritual, Victor Turner (ed.), Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC, 1982

Narayanan, Vasudha, ‘Hinduism’, in Her Voice, Her Faith: Women Speak on World Religions, Arvind Sharma and Katherine K. Young (eds), Westview Press, Cambridge, Maryland, 2002

Nelson, Anita L., and Neinstein,,Lawrence S., ‘Combination hormonal contraceptives’, in Lawrence S. Neinstein, Catherine M. Gordon, Debra K. Katzman, David S. Rosen and Elizabeth R. Woods (eds), Adolescent Health Care: a Practical Guide (1984), fifth edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2008

Ner-David, Haviva, ‘Medieval responsa literature on Niddah: perpetuations of notions of tumah’ in Menstruation: a Cultural History, Andrew Shail and Gillian Howie (eds), Palgrove Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2005

Niehof, Anke, ‘Traditional medicine at pregnancy and childbirth in Madura, Indonesia’ in The Context of Medicines in Developing Countries: Studies in Pharmaceutical Anthropology, Sjaak van der Geest and Susan Reynolds Whyte (eds), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988

Paige, Karen Ericksen, ‘Social Aspects of Menstruation’ in Cultural Perspectives on Biological Knowledge, Troy Duster and Karen Garrett (eds), Ablex Publishing Co., New Jersey, 1984

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Phillips, Kim, ‘Maidenhood as the perfect age of woman’s life’ in Young Medieval Women, Katherine J. Lewis, Noёl James Menuge and Kim M. Phillips (eds), Sutton Publishing, Gloucestershire, 1999

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Suan, Mary, ‘More islands’ in Narratives and Images of Pacific Island Women, Debbie Hippolite Wright, Rosalind Meno Ram, Kathleen Fromm Ward (eds), Women’s Studies, Volume 44, The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, New York, 2005

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Wilms, Sabine, ‘The art and science of menstrual balancing in early medieval China’, in Menstruation: a Cultural History, Andrew Shail and Gillian Howie (eds), Palgrove Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2005

Journal Articles

Akhter, Farida ‘The state of contraceptive technology in Bangladesh’, Reproductive and Genetic Engineering, vol. 1, no. 2, 1988

Al-Khalidi, Alia, ‘Emergent technologies in menstrual paraphernalia in mid-nineteenth-century Britain’, Journal of Design History, vol. 14, no. 4, 2001

Anderson, Elizabeth Garrett, ‘Sex in mind and education: a reply’, Fortnightly Review, vol. 15, no. 89, 1 May 1874

Andrist, Linda C., Hoyt, Alex, Weinstein, Dawn, McGibbon, Chris, ‘The need to bleed: women’s attitudes and beliefs about menstrual suppression’, Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, vol. 16, no. 1, 2004

Archer, David F., ‘Menstrual-cycle-related symptoms: a review of the rationale for continuous use of oral contraceptives’, Contraception, vol. 74, no. 5, 2006

Arnold, Lloyd, and Hagele, Marie, ‘Vaginal tamponage for catamenial sanitary protection’, Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 110, no. 11, 1938

Ashley-Montagu, M. F., ‘Physiology and the origin of the menstrual prohibitions’, The Quarterly Review of Biology, vol. 15, no. 2, 1940

Author undisclosed, ‘Reviews and notices of books’, Lancet, vol. 103, no. 2645, 9 May 1874

Author undisclosed, ‘The folklore of menstruation’, Lancet, vol. 175, no. 4507, 15 January 1910

Barton, Mary, ‘Review of the sanitary appliance with a discussion in intravaginal packs’, British Medical Journal, vol. 1, no. 4243, 1942

Bateson, Deborah, ‘What’s new in contraception?’ O&G Magazine, vol. 14, no. 2, 2012

Ben-Noun, Liubov (Louba), ‘What is the biblical attitude towards personal hygiene during vaginal bleeding?’ European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 106, no. 1, 2003

Bradra, M., ‘Changing age of marriage of girls in India’, International Journal of Anthropology, vol. 15, nos 1-2, 2000

Brander, M. S., ‘Tampons in menstruation’ British Medical Journal, vol. 1, no. 4239, 1942

Britton, Cathryn J., ‘Learning about “The Curse”: an anthropological perspective on experiences of menstruation’, Women’s Studies International Forum, vol. 19, no. 6, 1996

Brookes, Barbara and Tennant, Margaret, ‘Making girls modern: Pakeha women and menstruation in New Zealand 1930–70’, Women’s History Review, vol. 7, no. 4, 1998

Brown, Judith, ‘A cross-cultural study of female initiation rites’, American Anthropologist, vol. 65, no. 4, 1963

Brumberg, Joan Jacobs, ‘“Something happens to girls”: menarche and the emergence of the modern American hygienic imperative’, Journal of the History of Sexuality, vol. 4, no. 1, 1993

Bryant, J. A., Heathcote, D.G., Pickles, V. R., ‘The search for “menotoxin”’, The Lancet, vol. 309, issue 18014, 2 April 1977

Bullough, Vern L., ‘Technology and female sexuality: some implications’, The Journal of Sex Research, vol. 16, no. 1, 1980

Bullough, Vern L., ‘Age at menarche: a misunderstanding’, Science, New Series, vol. 213, no. 4505, 1981

Bullough, Vern L., ‘Merchandising the sanitary napkin: Lilian Gilbreth’s 1927 survey’, Signs, vol. 10, no. 3, 1985

Cardwell, Mary G., ‘Tampons in menstruation’, British Medical Journal, vol.1, no. 4242, 1942

Chisholm, James S., Quinlivan, Julie A., Petersen, Rodney W., Coall, David A., ‘Early stress predicts age at menarche and first birth, adult attachment, and expected lifespan’, Human Nature, vol. 16, no. 3, 2005

Chu, Cordia Ming-Yeuk, ‘Menstrual beliefs of Chinese women’, Journal of the Folklore Institute, vol. 17, no. 1, 1980

Cibulka, Nancy J., ‘Toxic shock syndrome and other tampon related risks’, The Journal of Obstetric, Gynaecologic and Neonatal Nursing, vol. 12, no. 2, 1983

Collins, Rebecca, ‘Concealing the poverty of traditional historiography: myth as mystification in historical discourse’, Rethinking History, vol. 7, no. 3, 2003

Corner, George W., ‘Our knowledge of the menstrual cycle, 1910–1950’, The Lancet, vol. 257, no. 6661, 28 April 1951

Costos, Daryl; Ackerman, Ruthie and Paradis, Lisa, ‘Recollections of menarche: communication between mother and daughter regarding menstruation’, Sex Roles, vol. 46, nos 1/2, January 2002

Crawford, Patricia, ‘Attitudes to menstruation in seventeenth-century England’, Past and Present, vol. 91, no. 1, 1981

Crawfurd, Raymond, ‘Notes on the superstitions of menstruation’ The Lancet, vol. 186, no. 4816, 18 December 1915

Dahal, Khagendra, ‘Nepalese woman dies after banishment to shed during menstruation’, ‘News’, in British Medical Journal, vol. 337, 22 November, 2008

d’Arcangues, Catherine, ‘WHO statement on hormonal contraception and bone health’, Contraception, vol. 73, no. 5, 2006

Davalos, Karen Mary, ‘La Quinceañera: making gender and ethnic identities’, Frontiers: A Journal of Women’s Studies, vol. 16, nos 2/3 1966

Davis, Geoffrey, ‘“Menstrual toxin” and human fertility’, Lancet, vol. 303, issue 7867, 8 June 1974

Dean-Jones, Lesley, ‘Menstrual bleeding according to Hippocratics and Aristotle’, Transactions of the American Philological Association vol. 119, 1989

Do Amaral, Maria Clara Estanislau, Hardy, Ellen, Hembling, Eliana Maria, Faúndes, Anibal, ‘Menstruation and amenorrhea: opinion of Brazilian women’, Contraception, vol. 72, no. 2, 2005

Douglas, Mary, ‘Red Riding Hood: an interpretation from anthropology, Folklore, vol. 106, 1995

Drill, Victor A., ‘History of the first oral contraceptive’, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, vol. 3, no 1, 1977

Ernster, Virginia L., ‘Expectations about menstruation among premenarcheal girls’, Medical Anthropology Newsletter, vol. 8, no. 4, 1977

Farrell-Beck, Jane, and Kidd, Laura Klosterman; ‘The roles of health professionals in the development and dissemination of women’s sanitary products, 1880–1940’, The Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, vol. 51, no. 3, 1996

Ferrero, Simone, Abbamonte, Luiza Helena, Giordano, Margherita, Alessandri, Franco, Anserini, Paola, Remorgida, Valentino, Ragni, Nicola, ‘What is the desired menstrual frequency of women without menstrual-related symptoms?’ Contraception, vol. 73, no. 5, 2006

Finn, Colin A., ‘Why do women menstruate? Historical and evolutionary view’, European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 70, nos. 3–8, 1996

Freeman, William, and Looney, Joseph M., with the technical assistance of Rose R. Small, ‘Studies on the phytotoxic index: II. menstrual toxin (“Menotoxin”) from the Worcester State Hospital and the Memorial Foundation for Neuro-Endocrine Research Worcester, Massachusetts’, Journal of Pharmacological and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 52, no. 2, 1934

Furth, Charlotte; Shu-Yeuh, Ch’en, ‘Chinese medicine and the anthropology of menstruation in contemporary Taiwan, Medical Anthropology Quarterly, vol. 6, no. 1, 1992

Garaud, Yolette, ‘A student’s journal: on menstruation’, Women’s Studies Newsletter, vol. 6, no. 3, 1978

Garg, Suneela, Sharma, Nandini, Sahay, Ragini, ‘Socio-cultural aspects of menstruation in an urban slum in Delhi, India’, Reproductive Health Matters, vol. 9, no. 17, 2001

Gillooly, Jessica B., ‘Making menarche positive and powerful for both mother and daughter’, Women and Therapy, vol. 27, no. 3, 2004

Golub, Sharon, Catalano, Joan, ‘Recollections of menarche and women’s subsequent experiences with menstruation’, Women and Health, vol. 8, no. 1, 1983

Grieg, Alecia J., Palmer, Michelle A., Chepulis, Lynne M., ‘Hormonal contraceptive practices in young Australian women (<25 years) and their possible impact on menstrual frequency and iron requirements’, Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare, vol. 1, no. 3, 2010

Gunson, Jessica Shipman, ‘“More natural but less normal”: reconsidering medicalisation and agency through women’s accounts of menstrual suppression’, Social Science and Medicine, vol. 71, no. 7, 2010

Gupta, A.K., Vatsayan, A., Ahluwalia, S.K., Sood, R.K., Mazta, S.R., Sharma, R., ‘Age at menarche, menstrual knowledge and practice in the apple belt of Shimla hills’, Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 16, no. 6, 1996

Harrison, Lyn, ‘“It’s a nice day for a white wedding”: the debutante ball and constructions of Femininity’, Feminism and Psychology, vol. 6, no. 4, 1997

Hartman, Tova; Marmon, Naomi, ‘Lived regulations, systemic attributions: menstrual separation and ritual immersion in the experiences of Orthodox Jewish women, Gender and Society, vol. 18, no. 3, 2004

Helgerson, Steven D., ‘Toxic-shock syndrome: tampons, toxins, and time: the evolution of understanding an illness’, Women and Health, vol. 6, no. 3, 1981

Hicks, Caitlin W., and Rome, Ellen S., ‘Menstrual manipulation: options for suppressing the cycle’, Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, vol. 77, no. 7, 2010

Hitchcock, Christine L., ‘Elements of the menstrual suppression debate’, Healthcare for Women International, vol. 29, no. 7, 2008

Hodes, Horace L., ‘Progress in pediatrics: introduction to the presentation of the John

Howland medal and award of the American Pediatric Society to Dr Bela Schick’, AMA American Journal of Diseases of Children, vol. 89. no. 2, 1955

Holdrege, Barbara A., ‘Body connections: Hindu discourses of the body and the study of religion’, International Journal of Hindu Studies, vol. 2, no. 3, 1998

Hopkins, M. K., ‘The age of Roman girls at marriage’, Population Studies, vol. 18, no. 3, 1965

Johnston-Robledo, Ingrid; Barnack, Jessica; Wares, Stephanie, ‘“Kiss your period goodbye”: menstrual suppression in the popular press’, Sex Roles, vol. 54, nos. 5–6, 2006

Johnston-Robledo, Ingrid, Ball, Melissa, Lauta, Kimberley, and Zekoll, Ann, ‘To bleed or not to bleed: young women’s attitudes toward menstrual suppression’, Women and Health, vol. 38, no. 3, 2010

Jones, Irene Heywood, ‘Menstruation: the history of sanitary protection’, Nursing Times, March 1980

Junod, Suzanne White, and Marks, Lara, ‘Women’s trials: the approval of the first oral contraceptive pill in the United States and Great Britain’, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, vol. 57, no. 2, 2002

Kaunitz, Andrew M., ‘Menstruation: choosing whether … and when’, Contraception, vol. 62, no. 6, 2000

Kemper, Steven, ‘Time, person, and gender in Sinhalese astrology’, American Ethnologist, Vol. 7, no. 4, 1980

Knudsen, Dean D., ‘Socialization to elitism: a study of debutantes’, The Sociological Quarterly, vol. 9, no. 3, 1968

Koff, Elissa, and Rierdan, Jill, ‘Preparing girls for menstruation: recommendations from adolescent girls’, Adolescence, vol. 30, no. 120, 1995

Koff, Elissa, Rierdan, Jill, and Sheingold, Karen, ‘Memories of menarche: age, preparation, and prior knowledge as determinants of initial menstrual experience’, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 11, no. 1, 1982

Laslett, Peter, ‘Age at menarche in Europe since the eighteenth-century’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, vol. 2, no. 2, 1971

Lee, Janet, ‘Menarche and the (hetero) sexualization of the female body’, Gender and Society, vol. 8, no. 3, 1994

Lee, Janet, and Sasser-Coen, Jennifer, ‘Memories of menarche: older women remember their first period’, Journal of Aging Studies, vol. 10, no. 2, 1996

Liebling-Kalifani, Helen, Marshall, Angela, Ojiambo-Ochieng, Ruth, and Nassozi,

Margaret Kakembo, ‘Experiences of women war-torture survivors in Uganda: implications for health and human rights’, Journal of International Women’s Studies, vol. 8, no. 4, 2007

Logan, Deana Dorman, ‘The menarche experience in twenty-three foreign countries’, Adolescence, vol. 15, no. 58, 1980

Lord, Alexandra, ‘“The Great Arcana of the Deity”: menstruation and menstrual disorders in eighteenth-century British medical thought’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol. 73, no. 1, 1999

Macht, David L., and Lubin, Dorothy S., ‘A phyto-pharmacological study of menstrual toxin’, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 22, no. 5, 1923

Mahon, Thérèse; Fernandes, Maria, ‘Menstrual hygiene in South Asia: a neglected issue for WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) programmes’, Gender and Development, vol. 18, no. 1, 2010

Manderson, Lenore, ‘Traditional food beliefs and critical life events in Peninsular Malaysia’, Social Science Information, vol. 20, no. 6, 1981

Manniche, E., ‘Age at menarche: Nicolai Edvard Ravn’s data on 3385 women in mid-19th century Denmark’, Annals of Human Biology, vol. 10, no. 1, 1983

Montgomery, Rita E., ‘A cross-cultural study of menstruation, menstrual taboos, and related social variables’, Ethos, vol. 2, no. 2, 1974

Moseley, Sophia, ‘Practical protection’, Nursing Standard, vol. 23, no. 6, 2008

Nawaz, Jamila, Lal, Shamma, Raza, Saira, and House, Sarah, ‘Oxfam experience of providing screened toilet, bathing and menstruation units in its earthquake response in Pakistan’, Gender and Development, vol. 18, no. 1, 2010

Neufeld, Christine, ‘Speakerly women and scribal men’, Oral Tradition, vol. 14, no. 2, 1999

Oram, Charlotte, and Beck, Judith, ‘The tampon: investigated and challenged’, Women and Health, vol. 6, no. 3, 1981

Orringer, Kelly and Gahagan, Sheila, ‘Adolescent girls define menstruation: a multiethnic exploratory study’, Health Care for Women International, vol. 31, no. 9, 2010

Oster, Emily and Thornton, Rebecca, ‘Menstruation, sanitary products, and school attendance: evidence from a randomized evaluation’, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, vol. 3, no. 1, 2011

Patel, Kartikeya C., ‘Women, earth, and the goddess: a Shākta-Hindu interpretation of embodied religion’, Hypatia, vol. 9, no. 4, 1994

Phipps, William E., ‘The menstrual taboo in the Judeo-Christian tradition, Journal of Religion and Health, vol. 19, no. 4, 1980

Pickles, Vernon R., ‘“Menstrual toxi”’ again’, Lancet, vol. 303, issue 7869, 22 June 1974

Pickles, Vernon R., ‘Prostaglandins and dysmenorrhea: historical survey’, Acta Obstretrica et Gynecologia Scandanavia, vol. 58, no. S87, 1979

Pillemer, David B., Koff, Elissa, Rhinehardt, Elizabeth D., Rierdan, Jill, ‘Flashbulb memories of menarche and adult menstrual distress’ Journal of Adolescence, vol. 10, no. 2, 1987

Posner, Rachel Blumstein ‘Early menarche: a review of research on trends in timing, racial differences, etiology and psychosocial consequences’, Sex Roles, vol. 54, nos 5–6, 2006

Post, J.B., ‘Ages at menarche and menopause: some medieval authorities’, Population Studies, vol. 25, no. 1, 1971

Powers, Marla N., ‘Menstruation and reproduction: an Oglala case’, Signs, vol. 6, no. 1, 1980

Read, Christine M., ‘New regimes with combined oral contraceptive pills – moving away from traditional 21/7 cycles’, The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, vol. 15, no. 2, 2010

Reid, Helen Evans, ‘The brass-ring sign’, Lancet, vol. 303, no. 7864, 18 May 1974

Rierdan, Jill and Koff, Elissa, ‘Timing of menarche and initial menstrual experience’, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 14, no. 3, 1985

Rierdan, Jill and Koff, Elissa, ‘Preparing girls for menstruation: recommendations from adolescent girls’, Adolescence, vol. 30, no. 120, 1995

Rose, Jennifer Gorman, Chrisler, Joan C., and Couture, Samantha, ‘Young women’s attitudes toward continuous use of oral contraceptives: the effect of priming positive attitudes toward menstruation on women’s willingness to suppress menstruation’, Health Care for Women International, vol. 29, no. 7, 2008

Roth, Nathan, ‘The personalities of two pioneer medical women: Elizabeth Blackwell and Elizabeth Garrett Anderson’, Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, vol. 47, no. 1, 1971

Ruble, Diane N., and Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, ‘The experience of menarche’ Child Development, vol. 53, no. 6, 1982

Sanabria, Emilia, ‘The politics of menstrual suppression in Brazil’, Anthropology News, vol. 50, no. 2, 2009

Sangren, P. Steven, ‘Female gender in Chinese religious symbols: Kuan Yin, Ma Tsu, and the “eternal mother”’, Signs, vol. 9, no. 1, 1983

Sanjakdar, Fida, ‘“Teacher talk”: the problems, perspectives and possibilities of developing a comprehensive sexual health education curriculum for Australian Muslim students’, Sex Education, vol. 9, no. 3, 2009

Sarkar, Tanika, ‘A prehistory of rights: the age of consent debate in colonial Bengal’, Feminist Studies, vol. 26, no. 3, 2000

Schlegel, Alice and Barry III, Herbert, ‘Adolescent initiation ceremonies: a cross-cultural code’, Ethnology, vol. 18, no. 2, 1979

Schlegel, Alice and Barry III, Herbert, ‘The evolutionary significance of adolescent initiation ceremonies’, American Ethnologist, vol. 7, no. 4, 1980

Schroeder, Fred E. H., ‘Feminine hygiene, fashion and the emancipation of American women’, American Studies, vol. 17, no. 2, 1976

Shail, Andrew, ‘“Although a woman’s article”: menstruant economics and creative waste’, Body and Society, vol. 13, no. 4, 2007

Short, R. V., ‘The evolution of human reproduction’, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, vol. 195, no. 1118, 1976

Skandhan, K.P., Pandya, Amita K., Skandhan, Sumangala, Mehta, Yagnesh B., ‘Menarche: prior knowledge and experience’, Adolescence, vol. 23, no. 89, 1988

Smith, Jane I., Haddad, Yvonne, ‘Eve: Islamic image of woman’, Women’s International Forum, vol. 5, no. 2, 1982

Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll, ‘Puberty to menopause: the cycle of femininity in nineteenth-century America’, Feminist Studies, vol. 1, no. 3/4, 1973

Sniekers, Marijke, ‘From little girl to young woman: the menarche ceremony in Fiji’, Fijian Studies, vol. 3, no. 2, 2005

Sokol, B.J., ‘“Tilted Lees”, dragons, haemony, menarche, spirit, and matter in Comus’, The Review of English Studies, New Series, vol. 41, no. 163, 1990

Spellberg, D. A., ‘Writing the unwritten life of the Islamic Eve: menstruation and the demonization of motherhood’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 28, no. 3, 1996

Steinberg, Jonah, ‘From a “Pot of Filth” to a “Hedge of Roses” (and back): changing theorizations of menstruation in Judaism’, Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, vol. 13, no. 2, 1997

Strange, Julie-Marie, ‘Teaching menstrual etiquette in England, c. 1920s to 1960s’, Social History of Medicine, vol. 14, no. 2, 2001

Tanner, J.M., Ellison, Peter T., Bullough, Vern L., ‘Menarcheal age’, Science, vol. 214, no. 4521, 1981

Teitelman, Anne M., ‘Adolescent girls’ perspectives of family interactions related to menarche and sexual health’, Qualitative Health Research, vol. 14, no. 9, 2004

Thomas, Sarah L., Ellertson, Charlotte, ‘Nuisance or natural and healthy: should monthly menstruation be optional for women?’, Lancet, vol. 355, no. 9207, 11 March 2000

Thornton, Madeline ‘The use of vaginal tampons for the absorption of menstrual discharges’, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 46, no. 2, 1943

Thurén, Britt-Marie, ‘Opening doors and getting rid of shame: experiences of first menstruation in Valencia, Spain’, Women’s Studies International Forum, vol. 17, nos. 2–3, 2004

Trad, Paul V., ‘Menarche: a crossroad that previews developmental change’, Contemporary Family Therapy, vol. 15, no. 3, 1993

Trego, Lori L., and Jordan, Patricia J., ‘Military women’s attitudes toward menstruation and menstrual suppression in relation to the deployed environment’, Women’s Health Issues, vol. 20, no. 4, 2010

Uskul, Ayse K., ‘Women’s menarche stories from a multicultural sample’, Social Science and Medicine, vol. 59, no. 4, 2004

Vertinsky, Patricia, ‘Exercise, physical capability, and the eternally wounded woman in late nineteenth-century North America’, Journal of Sport History, vol. 14, no. 1, 1987

Wardell, Diane Wind, and Czerwinski, Barbara, ‘A military challenge to managing feminine and personal hygiene’, Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, vol. 13, no. 4, 2001

Weerasinghe, Chandrani, Karaliedde, Srikanthi, Wikramanayake, T. W., ‘Food beliefs and practices among Sri Lankans: temporary food avoidances by women’, Journal of the National Science Council of Sri Lanka, vol. 10, no. 1, 1982

Wiegratz, I; Hommel, H.H; Zimmermann, T; Kuhl, H. ‘Attitude of German women and gynaecologists towards long-cycle treatment with oral contraceptives’, Contraception, vol. 69, no. 1, 2004

Winslow, Deborah, ‘Rituals of first menstruation in Sri Lanka’, Man, vol. 15, no. 4, 1980

Wood, Charles T., ‘The doctor’s dilemma: sin, salvation and the menstrual cycle in medieval thought’, Speculum, vol. 56, no. 4, 1981

Miscellaneous Papers and Monographs

Lynch, Pip, ‘Menstrual waste in the backcountry’, Science for Conservation 35, Department of Conservation, Wellington, 1996

‘Product News’, Australian Pharmacist, December 2012

Varina Tjon A. Ten, ‘Menstrual Hygiene as a big taboo’, Menstrual Hygiene: a Neglected Condition for the Achievement of Several Millennium Development Goals, European Commission – EuropeAid, Zoetermeer, 2007

World Health Organisation Western Pacific Region, ‘Sexual and reproductive health of adolescents and youths in the Philippines: a review of literature and projects 1995– 2003’, Office of Publications, World Health Organisation, Geneva, 2005

Archival Records

Letter, Surgeon Superintendent Richard Eades, Roman Emperor, to the Secretary Colonial

Land and Emigration Commissioners, Stephen Walcott, 25 October 1848, GRG 24/6/1848/1763, State Records of South Australia

Australian Bureau of Statistics

3301.0: Births, Australia 2009

Summary tables: 2.20: Births, Australia, selected years


Akhter, Saheen, ‘Knowledge, attitudes and practices on reproductive health and rights of urban and rural women in Bangladesh’, 2007, no publication details,

Aniebue, Uzochukwu Uzoma, Aniebue, Patricia Nonelum, Nwankwo, Theophilus Ogochukwu, ‘The impact of pre-menarcheal training on menstrual practices and hygiene of Nigerian schoolgirls’, Pan African Medical Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, 2009,

Alliance for African Women’s Initiative, ‘Sexual maturation and menstrual management practices associated with schoolgirls in Ghana’, 2010,

Appel-Slingbaum, Caren at the Museum of Menstruation and Women’s Health, ‘The tradition of slapping our daughters’,

Ahmed, Rokeya, and Yesmin, Kabita, ‘Menstrual hygiene: breaking the silence’, in WaterAid Beyond Construction: a Collection of case Studies from Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Practitioners in South Asia, James Wicken, Joep Verhagen, Christine Sijbesma, Carmen da Silva, Peter Ryan (eds), WaterAid, London, 2008,

Bharadwaj, Sowmyaa, and Patkar, Archana, ‘Menstrual hygiene and management in developing countries: taking stock’, Junction Social, Mumbai, 2004, ‘BRAC sanitary napkins and birthing kits’,

‘Chronological Index of Patents Applied and Patents Granted 1863’,

Clarke, Edward H., Sex in Education; or, a Fair Chance for the Girls (1873), James R. Osgood and Company, Boston, 1875. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation 2006,

Darwin, Charles R., The Descent of Man, second edition revised and augmented, John Murray, London, 1874

Del Giudice, Luisa, ‘Wine makes good blood: wine culture among Toronto Italians’,

‘Depo Provera information sheet’, Royal Women’s Hospital Melbourne,

Dickson, Scott, and Wood, Ruth, ‘The perceptions, experiences and meanings rural girls ascribe to menarche: implications for teachers/teachers in training’, paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Hobart, 1995,

‘Drugs and Supplements: Bromelain’,

‘Dysmenorrhoea’, Patient Information, Basildon and Thurrock University Hospitals,

Gautam, Om, ‘Is menstrual hygiene and management an issue for adolescent school girls in Nepal?’, Regional Conference on Appropriate Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Solutions for Informal Settlements and Marginalised Communities, Katmandu, Nepal, 19–21 May 2010

Hicks, Megan (curator), Powerhouse Museum Collection,‘The Rags: Paraphernalia of Menstruation’,

Hill, Mark, ‘Müllerian duct’,

‘Judaism 101: a glossary of basic Jewish terms, concepts and practices’, a project of the

Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America,

Maudsley, Henry, Sex in Mind and in Education, Hurst and Company, New York, 1884,

Mooncup menstrual cup,

Moreland City Council, ‘Zero Waste for a Week Challenge’, November 2010,

‘Prescribing information’, Seasonique,, July 2010

Roberts, Alexander, Donaldson, James, Coxe, Arthur C., (trans.), The Infancy Gospel of James (1886),

Seymour, Kathryn, ‘Bangladesh: tackling menstrual hygiene taboos’, Sanitation and Hygiene Case Study 10,, 2008

Soucasaux, Nelson, ‘Menstrual toxin: an old name for a real thing?’, 2001,

Spencer, Herbert, Education: Intellectual, Moral, and Physical, Hurst and Company Publishers, New York, 1862,

Sztokman, Elena, ‘Some rabbinic sources on women and Torah reading’ compiled in honour of her daughter Avigayil’s bat-mitzvah, 22 January 2005,

The Museum of Menstruation and Women’s Health,

Walt Disney Productions through the courtesy of Kotex Products, The Story of Menstruation, 1946,

Yaz Flex ‘Public Summary’ and ‘Consumer Medicine Information’, Therapeutic Goods Administration (Aust),


‘Mazel Tov! Mazel Tov! Bar and Bat Mitzvah’, Compass, ABC 1, Sunday 16 August, 2009

Booklets for Girls

Callender, Mary Pauline, Marjorie May’s Twelfth Birthday, Australian Cellucotton Products Pty. Ltd., Sydney, 1932

Kenny, Florence, The Guide Through Girlhood, Prof. Harvey Sutton (ed.), published by the Father and Son Movement, Sydney, 1945

The Story Of Menstruation (1946), Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Lane Cove, NSW, 1953

As One Girl to Another, Australian Cellucotton Products Pty. Ltd., Sydney, 1949. No publishing details given

Very Personally Yours, International Cellucotton Product Company, Chicago, Illinois, 1948. Published in Australia by the Education Department for Kimberly-Clark, Lane Cove, NSW c. 1962

Growing Up and Liking It (1952), Johnson and Johnson Pacific Limited, c. 1968. No publishing details given

Sharing Simple Facts: Useful Information About Menstrual Health and Hygiene, UNICEF and Department of Drinking Water Supply, Ministry of Rural Development, New Delhi, 2008

Newspaper Articles

The Age (Melbourne)

Webb, Carolyn, ‘Christmas spirit knows no borders’, 23 December 2010

Brady, Nicole, ‘Puberty blues: the trials of young girls growing up faster than ever’, 22 May 2011

Editorial, ‘Tending to children with the bodies of women’, 22 May 2011

The Argus

‘Showing of sex education films’, 23 February 1951

Daily Telegraph

Dunlevy, Sue, ‘New Pill adds comfort for women’, 25 September 2012

The Jakarta Post

Bone, Wendy, ‘The magic “Jamu”, part 1’, 26 July 2009

The Mercury (Hobart)

‘Lack of physical knowledge held harmful to young people’, 14 January 1946

Sydney Morning Herald

Unknown author, ‘Coming out, ready or not’, 1 December 2004

Magazine Articles

Gare, Shelley, ‘Secret women’s business’, The Age Good Weekend, 1 May 2010

Gladwell, Malcolm, ‘John Rock’s Error’, New Yorker Annals of Medicine, 13 March 2000

Magazine Advertisements

The Australian Women’s Weekly

‘To women who love freedom’ 29 March 1947

‘Carefree’, 26 September 1951; 26 March 1952

‘The beach? Why yes! Any day for me’ 26 March 1952

Newspaper Advertisements

The Argus (Melbourne)

‘Next time … Kotex’, 13 April 1928

‘The poise of confidence’, ‘Woman’s Magazine’ supplement, 8 February 1941

‘Carefree confidence’, ‘Woman’s Magazine’ supplement, 12 April 1941

‘Spotlight confidence’ ‘Woman’s Magazine’ supplement, 13 September 1941

‘Comfort is half the battle’, ‘Woman’s Magazine’ supplement, 21 March 1942

‘Comfort is half the battle’, 2 May 1942

‘Priority for the women’s services’, 18 January 1943

‘Can you date this fashion?’ 2 March 1943

‘Can you date this fashion?’ 13 and 17 April 1943

‘Why I switched to Meds by a nurse’, 14 April 1943

‘Why I switched to Meds by a school teacher’, 21 April 1943

‘Yesterday’s fashions’, 13 May 1943

‘Fashions of the future’, 13 March 1944

‘Fashions of the future’, 11 May 1944

‘Accent on Freedom’, 25 May 1946 and 20 December 1947

‘Tampax is back’, ‘Woman’s Magazine’, supplement, 9 February 1947

‘To women who love freedom’, ‘Woman’s Magazine’ supplement, 12 March 1947

‘Make a date with freedom’, ‘Woman’s Magazine’ supplement, 16 April 1947

‘To women of action …’, ‘Woman’s Magazine’ supplement, 17 September 1947

‘Modern women prefer Modess’, 11 February 1948

‘Beauty is not looks alone’, ‘Woman’s Magazine’ supplement, 1 June 1948

‘Beauty has a better chance today’, Woman’s Magazine’ supplement, 10 August 1948

‘Go anywhere’, ‘Woman’s Magazine’, supplement 19 October 1948

‘Gay and carefree is the modern miss’, ‘Woman’s Magazine’ supplement 21 December 1948

‘More and yet more women are changing’, 30 May 1954

The Brisbane Courier

‘Announcing women’s most intimate personal accessory’, 16 February 1932

‘To meet the requirements of the modern woman’, 23 February 1932

‘To meet the requirements of the modern woman’, 1 March 1932

‘To meet the requirements of the modern woman’, 15 March 1932

‘To meet the requirements of the modern woman’ 26 April 1932

The Mercury (Hobart)

‘At such times take care’, ‘Woman’s Realm’ supplement, 21 April 1937

‘Mother dear – I need you so much!’ 30 January 1940

‘Modess shortage’, 22 July 1942, 12 August 1942

‘Supplies still limited’, 13 November 1942

‘Try it now’, 27 November 1942

‘Comfort, it’s wonderful’, ‘Women’s Realm’, supplement 4 December 1942

‘Accent on freedom’, 27 February 1946

‘You can go anywhere’, 22 May 1946

‘Free as the wind’, 20 November 1946

‘Free’, As One Girl to Another, 11 March 1949

‘Women who know are hard to please’, 7 October 1950

‘Comfort’s the keynote’, 5 April 1952

‘Free’, Growing Up 22 August 1952

‘Just as important as the selection of a new season’s gown’, 29 October 1954

‘Each year more and more women look forward to Holiday Time’, 18 December 1954


‘More Australian women buy Modess’, 29 November 1953

Sydney Morning Herald

‘…The Establishment of a highly efficient factory’, Sydney Morning Herald, 20 February 1931

‘Not a shadow of doubt’, 25 October 1947 and 11 November 1947

Coupon for As One Girl to Another, 2 July 1949

‘Coming out, ready or not’, 30 November 2004

Unpublished Journals

Dammery, Sally, ‘Apache Puberty Ceremony, 1996’, Mescalero Apache Reservation, New Mexico, USA

First Blood: A Cultural Study of Menarche

   by Sally Dammery