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Closing the Gap in Education?

Index

 

 

$100 laptop program, the 160–2

Aboriginal art 117, 151

Aboriginal Education Workers 215

Aboriginalism 166–7, 168

Aboriginal people see Indigenous Australians

academics, shortage of 64

Accelerated Literacy program 205

access to knowledge 185

access to technologies 160, 163–5

accountability 91, 97, 111, 131, 139–40, 179, 180, 186

achievement, diversity of 214–15

achievement-focused teaching 135

activities 9, 33, 160, 205, 206, 208, 209, 210, 211–13, 214

African languages 57, 60, 65–6

Afrikaans 57–58, 60, 66, 182, 225

alternative education provision 45–6

alumni 15, 21, 97

Anangu students 24, 25, 31

anti-violence education 77–82

apartheid

anti-apartheid struggle 176, 58, 182, 188–9

end of apartheid 58–9, 88, 94

and institutionalised racism xviii, 98–9

as the origin of South African inequalities 56–8, 63, 100

transition to democracy 94–102, 178, 221

apology to Indigenous Australians 17, 109, 110–11

apprenticeships 220

Arnhem Land 118–20

assessment 7, 29, 31–32, 135, 137, 140, 142–3, 206, 218

assimilation 113, 200

AtoL program 135–6

Australian writing 149–56

automaticity 207

autonomy 65, 179, 185, 222

background, of students

connecting mathematics to 31–5

engagement of education with 3, 27, 132–3, 206, 210–12, 214

see also social heritage

back to basics approach 183–4

Bantu Affairs 56

Bawinanga Aboriginal Corporation 120

benchmarking 121

bias 29, 31–2, 121

see also institutional biases

biased information search 200

bicultural education 167

bilingual education

in Australia 7–8, 24, 122, 167

in New Zealand 40

in South Africa 60

Bilingual Language Program 7

Bill of Rights 10

black South Africans

literacy 18

matriculation rates 18, 20–1, 57–8, 59, 184

middle class 176

number of postgraduates 63–4

prohibition of teaching mathematics to 19

socioeconomic disadvantage of 17–21, 56–67, 178–9

university attendance of 58–67, 221–2

see also apartheid; South Africa

Blainey, Geoffrey 165

blaming the victim 200–1

blind patriotism 225–6

Bloch, Graeme 17–21, 63, 176, 181, 183, 189

Bloemfontein Conference 100

boarding schools 30

Bourdieu, Pierre 24–5, 123–4

budgets 137–9

bullying 18, 20, 76

see also violence

bureaucracy 115

see also education policy; managerial approach

Canberra 2

capabilities 169–70, 185–6

capacity building 139–40

careers

career choices 6, 16, 18, 58, 151

in research 64

in teaching 19, 181

Caring for Country projects 117–18

Central Desert region 23, 24, 27

Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research 123

Cherbourg State School 88, 195

Chisholm Report, the 184

citizenship, skills for 104, 225

Clark, Helen 39

class reviews 215

classroom interactions 136–7

classrooms

effective classrooms 209

as sites for education reform 131

closing the gap

in Australia 1–11

critiques of 112–13

and employment 124

information and communication technology policies 163

as a metaphor 39–40, 170–1

in South Africa 17–21

see also gap, the; socioeconomic disadvantage

Closing the Gap on Indigenous Disadvantage 4–5, 109, 110–13

collaboration 8, 130, 141, 205

colonisation

of Australia 87, 114, 115–16

and education debt 132–3

of New Zealand 40–1, 42–3

teaching of 2–3

and victim culture 199–201

communities

involvement in education 15, 96, 207

modernisation of 204, 205

working productively with 198–9

communities of practice 141

community-based organisations 188

community capacity building 91–2

community leadership 203

competition 179, 180, 181

computers 158–71

Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 10, 59, 88, 94–5

content, and technology 165–6

continuity of customs 114

control 143

corporal punishment 182, 183

corporate partnerships 21

corruption 182

Council of Australian Governments (COAG) 4, 109, 111, 163

country 30, 118–19

Craven, Peter 152, 153

crime 20, 132, 138

see also sexual violence; violence

critical thinking 65, 185

critique 217–27

critique-based education systems 225

Cuban, Larry 161

cultural context 8, 28

cultural identity 196, 199, 202–3

see also background, of students; social context

culturalism 167–8

cultural norms 28

cultural values 3, 117

culture, internalisation of 26

Curriculum 2005 59

curriculum development

imposition of western curricula 206

investing in 2

plurality in curriculum design 122

public debate about 183–4, 188

and troubled knowledge 102

‘two-way strong’ curricula 30–2

customary knowledge 40, 114, 116, 123, 124, 132–3, 211

customary norms 112

deficit approach 33–4, 39–40, 133–4, 168, 206

definitional ceremonies 80

degree qualifications 48–50, 52–3

deliberation 225–6

democratic culture 94–5, 182, 186, 188

democratic iterations 219–20

Dessaix, Robert 152–3

Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) 17, 18, 175–6

see also Bloch, Graeme

digital divide, the 158–71

digital education resources 162

digital education revolution, the 162–5

dignity, from education 2–3

discourse ethics 219

discourse-oriented education 219

discrimination 5, 44, 60, 65, 94, 133, 183

disempowerment 3, 76

displacement of Indigenous Australians 13

Djelk Rangers 120

dysfunctional schools 189

early childhood education 46, 78

economic agenda 90, 103

see also neoliberalism

economic growth 177–8, 180

economic reforms 90, 91

see also globalising economy

education

community involvement in 15, 96, 207

contribution to economic growth 177–8

definition of 8

in Indigenous Australian cultures 13–14

institutionalisation of 25, 86, 89–90, 92–4

as an instrument of government 86, 92–4

opportunities through 21

public debate about 186

radicalisation of 225

relevance of 186, 187–8

as a right 10, 182–5, 196

as a social priority 19–20, 21

and technology 165–6

educational achievement, affect of gender on 52–3

educational effort 6–7

educational work 86, 89–90, 103, 104

education debt 129–45

education departments 20–1, 59, 66

education policy

to address education debt 144–5

Closing the Gap on Indigenous Disadvantage 4–5, 109, 110–13

conflicting aspirations of 143

for education reform 137–8

the education revolution 1–2, 162–5

grassroots approach to 175

human capital theory in 178

and Indigenous education 88–94

language of 4–5

localised policy making 91

for mathematics achievement 206

No Child Left Behind 140

priorities of 90

and professional development 135–7

in South Africa 19

education quality 63, 174–89

education reform at the system level 129–45

education revolution, the 1–2, 162–5

Education Roadmap, the 18–21, 174–89

efficiency 181–2

effort 6–7

eGranary 162

emotional literacy 185

employment

prospects of 6–7

in remote areas 121

students’ experiences of 14

targets to improve 110–11

employment rates 3, 61

empowerment of students 40, 54

engagement of students 11, 205, 214–15

English

in Australia 7–8, 25–7, 150, 151, 167, 208

in New Zealand 135

in South Africa 58, 60, 66

see also bilingual education

ethical responsibilities 98

evidence, and education reform 131

evidence-based teaching 135

expectations

high expectations of students 12–13, 28, 31, 33–4, 195, 196, 202–3

and standardised testing 142

students’ expectations of school 7

experience, of students

disjunction with institutionalised practice 25

engagement of education with 3, 33–4, 132–3, 142

of school 7

experiential learning 2–3

extended families 15

externalisation 79, 80

failure, as a social category 143

familiar concepts 210–12

feedback 209

fees 180

feminism 74

formative assessment 143

Foundations for Learning Campaign 183–4

Fraser, Nancy 185

Freud, Sigmund 70, 73, 77

funding

for education reform 137–9, 144

targeting of 187

of universities 180, 221–2

game 26–7, 211–12, 215

gangs 20

gap, the

in Australia 3–4, 14–16, 85–6, 93

in New Zealand 39–40

between rural and urban areas 59–60

see also closing the gap; socioeconomic disadvantage

Garma Living Maths program 206–7

Garvey, Marcus 202

gender and educational achievement 52–3, 187

Gillard, Julia 155–6

girls, experiences of violence 69–77

global financial crisis, the 180

globalising economy 90, 92

goals 130, 209–10, 214

goodness 219

GPILSEO model 130–1

Group Areas Act 56

group work 207

habitus 25, 26, 27–8, 31–2, 35

helplessness 9–10, 78

Higher Education Act 59, 221

high expectations of students 12–13, 28, 33–4, 195, 196, 202–3

history

recognition of 66

teaching of 2–3

see also colonisation

Hole-in-the-Wall Education Ltd 158–60

homelands (Australia) 114, 122

homelands (South Africa) 57

home language 7–8, 10, 33, 34, 183, 208

hope, and transformative education 77

human capital 1–2, 63, 91, 100, 103, 170, 174, 187

human capital theory 109, 123, 175, 176, 177–82

human rights and education 10, 182–5, 196

hybrid economy model 116, 122, 124

imprisonment rates 3

improvement infrastructure 139

incentives 139–40

inclusiveness 153–4, 186

income management 5

Indigenous art 8, 117, 151

Indigenous Australians

and the digital divide 166–71

experiences of education 12–16

government apology to 17, 109, 110–11

history of invisibility of 87–8, 103

importance of land to 13, 30, 116, 118–19

middle class 197

perceptions of 196–8

socioeconomic disadvantage of 3–4, 14–16, 85–6, 93, 102, 110–11

see also traditional owners

Indigenous communities xv, 7, 9, 115, 119, 122, 124, 125, 163, 169, 196, 198, 199–203

constraints faced by 201

distribution of 114, 115

role of schools in 7, 9

teaching mathematics to students in 23–35, 204–15

victim culture in 199–201

Indigenous culture

education in 13–14

local knowledge 123, 124

mathematical ideas in 33

teaching of 2–3, 8–9

Indigenous education

challenges and opportunities in 1–11

and remaking the social 88–94

Indigenous Education Leadership Institute 195

Indigenous history, teaching of 2–3, 8–9

Indigenous identity 197–8, 202–3

Indigenous incapacity 168

Indigenous-owned land 114, 115

Indigenous Protected Areas 118, 119

Indigenous schools, technology use in 161–2, 163

Indigenous theatre 154

Indigenous writing 149–56

individual responsibility 113

inequality, patterns of 85, 133

infant mortality 3

information and communication technology (ICT) 158–72, 186

infrastructure 114, 144

innate ability 25, 142–3

in-school facilitators 138–9

institutional biases 88–90, 92, 93, 104

institutional complicity 98, 101

institutional culture 99

institutionalisation 25, 86, 89–90, 92–4, 137–9

institutionalised racism 97–9

institutions, and education reform 130

interactive pedagogy 207–15

interculturality 116

interdependent learning opportunities 207

intergenerational legacy 131–2

internalisation 26, 30, 79

Internet, the 158–71

intervention in the Northern Territory, the 5

interventions, to improve completion rates 61–2

Irigaray, Luce 71, 72–3, 74

James, Clive 151

Jansen, Jonathan 96–102

Jose, Nicholas 149, 153–4

Ka Hikitia 144

Kimberley region 23, 24, 27

Kriol 24, 208

land 13, 30, 116, 118–19

land rights 87, 114

language

and access to learning 24–8

and apartheid 57

learning in home languages 7–8, 10, 33, 34, 183, 208

managerial language 4–5

in South African education 59, 60, 187

in standardised tests 29, 121

and technology 165–6

translation issues 25–6, 28, 213–14

Language in Education Policy 59

Language Laws 57–8

Language Policy in Higher Education 59

languages

African languages 65–6

Afrikaans 58, 60, 225

Kriol 24

official languages 66

Pitjantjatjara 24, 25–6

te reo 40, 45–6

see also English

laptops 160–2

large-scale reform projects 141

leadership 100, 130, 139–40, 195–203, 205

learning difficulties 134

learning styles 206

Le@rning Federation, the 164

lesson sequences 209–10

libraries 19, 162, 176, 186–7

life expectancy 3, 14, 15, 110–111

lifelong learning

for parents 9

and participation 91

priorities of 90

and remaking the social 92

as work focused 100

literacy

autonomous model of 168

and bilingual education 167

of black South Africans 18

curriculum focus on 145, 188

in early childhood 184

of Indigenous Australians 3–4, 8, 121

literacy programs 15, 205

and performance measurement 122

targets to improve 110–11

and technology 164, 165–6

local accountability 180

local decision making 188

loss 72, 73, 75

Lyotard, Jean-Francois 217–19

Macquarie PEN Anthology of Australian Literature 149–56

Majura Primary School 2–3, 8–9

malnutrition 186

management skills of principals 19

managerial approach 109, 112

managerial language 4–5

Manworrk Rangers 118–19

Maori

educational attainment of 41–3, 46–7, 48–52

educational reform for 129–45

gender disparity in educational achievement 52–3

measuring performance of Maori students 143

participation in education 45

population distributions of 42–3

role in New Zealand identity 43

socioeconomic status of 39–41, 43–5, 129

te reo 40, 45–6

tertiary participation levels 47

tikanga Maori 40

see also Treaty of Waitangi

marginalised universities 222

market economy 115

market-led solutions 179, 180, 181

mastery 218–19, 220

materials 186–7

mathematics

mathematical ideas in Indigenous culture 33

prohibition of teaching to black South Africans 19

role of language in teaching 25–7

structuring practices in 29–30

teaching in remote communities 23–35, 204–15

Maths in the Kimberleys research project 204

matriculation 18, 20–1, 57–8, 59, 184

melancholia 70–1, 73, 74–5, 76–7

mentors 15, 21

Michael Rua School 18

Millennium Development Goals 223

Miller, Alice 77–8

Ministerial Taskforce on Aboriginal Affairs in Victoria 15

Ministry of Education 144

Ministry of Maori Development 40

Ministry of Social Development 46

Mitra, Sugata 158–9

Mkhize, Zweli 175

modernisation of communities 204, 205

modes of assessment 137

molestation 69

money and numeracy 31–2, 211

money economy 115

mortality 3–4, 111

multi-representational learning 208

Naidoo, Jay 175, 176

narrative pedagogy 81–2

narrative therapy 79–82

National Accelerated Literacy program 35

National Assessment in Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) testing 29, 31–2, 121, 164

National Certificate for Educational Achievement 46–7, 48

National Consultative Forum 184

National Curriculum Statement 59, 220

National Education Monitoring Project 135

national education systems 85–104

National Indigenous Reform Agreement 111, 123, 125

National Partnership Agreements 111

National Plan for Higher Education 221

national testing

bias in 29

National Assessment in Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) testing 29, 31–2, 121, 164

No Child Left Behind 140

see also standardised testing

native title 114, 117

negative stereotypes 6, 7, 77, 197

Negroponte, Nicholas 160–1

neoliberalism

conflicts within the neoliberal state 123–4

in education reform 122, 176, 178

and the hybrid economy model 116

and investment in remote communities 113, 125

New Zealand General Social Survey 43–4

New Zealand Living Standards Survey 44–5

NGOs 18, 21, 188

No Child Left Behind 140

normalisation 109

normative coherence 141

normative social indicators 112–13, 114

normative tests 142

Northern Territory, the

bilingual education in 7, 24, 122, 167

Caring for Country projects 117–18

Central Desert region 23, 24, 27

federal government intervention in 5

rangers 117, 118–21, 123

numeracy

cultural bias in testing 31–2

curriculum focus on 145, 188

in early childhood 184

of Indigenous Australians 3–4, 8

and money 31–2, 211

numeracy programs 15

and performance measurement 122

in remote areas 121

targets to improve 110–11

see also mathematics

Nyangatjatjara College 31

Nyathi, Ronald 19

objective targets 10

occupational agency 86, 89–90, 103

official languages 59, 66

One Laptop per Child 160–2

Ontario Literacy and Numeracy Strategy 137–8

opportunities through education 21

oral storytelling 155

other, the 197–8

outcomes-based education 19, 21, 183, 188, 218–19, 220

outstations 114, 122

Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage Key Indicators 2009 111

Own Affairs 56

ownership 131, 144–5

Pacific Islanders 45, 52

Palm Island riots 198

Pandor, Naledi 175

parents 9, 15, 180–1

participation

improvement of 64–5, 113, 145

and lifelong learning 91

parity of 185

rates of in New Zealand 41–2

social participation 168–70

partnerships between community and government 91–2

see also public–private partnerships

pedagogical pitfalls 34

pedagogy

debates around 183–4

and education reform 130

interactive pedagogies 207–15

narrative pedagogy 81–2

poisonous pedagogy 78–9

rich tasks 213

for teaching mathematics 204–14

perceptions of Indigenous Australians 196–8

performance measurement 10, 41–2, 143, 184

performance-related pay 181

performance targets 184

performativity 217–27

personal responsibility 113

Pitjantjatjara 24, 25–6

planning of lesson sequences 209–10

poisonous pedagogy 78–9

policy see education policy

political appointments 66

political culture 86

political will 103

Population Registration Act 56

positive Indigenous identity 202–3

positive learning identities 142

post-school qualifications 50, 63

see also tertiary study; universities

potential 8, 40, 54, 133, 143

power relations 81, 86, 89–90, 98, 99

preservice teacher education 130, 136–7

principals 19, 182

prior knowledge 210–12

see also background, of students

problem solving 185

problem students 142

process models 179–80

Productivity Commission, the 111

professional development

to address violence 82

dynamic model of 134–6

and education quality 181

and education reform 130, 133–9

funding of 144

information and communication technology training 163

in-school facilitators for 138–9

and interactive pedagogies 209

investing in 2

Te Kotahitanga 40, 46

professional development coordinators 138–9

professional learning communities 137

professions, careers in 16, 18, 151

Programme for International Student Assessment 206

provinces, inequality between 59–60

psychometric approaches 142–3

public debate 94, 96–7, 186, 188

public policy see education policy

public–private partnerships 21, 182

pursuit of excellence, the 196

quality of education 63, 174–89

questions 26–7, 208

QuickSmart 207

Racial Discrimination Act 5

racial inequalities 18

racism 60, 97–9, 225–6

see also Reitz incident, the

radicalisation of education 225

rangers 118–21, 123

rape 69

rates of return analysis 177–8

readiness, diversity of 214–15

reconciliation 87

Redfern Riots 198

Reitz incident, the 17, 97–102, 222, 226

relevance of education 186, 187–8

remaking the social 85–104

remote communities

bias against in standardised testing 29, 31–2

education and development in 9, 109–25

relevant curricula for students in 33–5

teaching mathematics in 23–35, 204–15

removal of Indigenous Australians 13

reporting back 208

representation

modes of 34–5, 208

of the unspeakable 73–4

research, instrumentalist approach to 222–3

research culture 60

researchers, shortage of 63–5

rich tasks 212–14

rights-based approach 182–5

see also human rights and education

role models 15, 61

Rudd government 110–11, 162

Sarra, Chris 88, 195–203

scaling up reforms 141

scholarships 15, 25

scholastic mortality 28–9, 32, 35

school attendance rates 5–6, 14, 121, 205

school completion rates

of black South Africans 18, 20–1, 57–8, 59, 184

impact of outcomes-based education on 184

of Indigenous Australians 3–4, 13, 16

school cultures 195

school effectiveness frameworks 179

school feeding 186

school reports 2

schools

choice of 181

classification by language 57

fees 180

role in Indigenous communities 7, 9

role in South Africa’s education crisis 184

students’ attitudes towards 76

science-related curricula 123

self-determination 202–3

self-esteem 7, 101, 203

self-harm 72, 73

self-loathing 72

separate development ideology 57–8

sexual abuse 69

sexual harassment 81, 183

sexual violence 69–77, 187

Silverman, Kaja 71

skills development 104, 121, 207

skills shortages 63–5, 175

Slumdog Millionaire 159

smart tools 135–6

social, remaking the 85–104

social barriers to Internet use 166

social compact for quality education 184–5

social context 3, 8, 32

social heritage 24–8, 35

social inclusion 91, 203

social indicators 39–40

socialisation 89, 90

social justice 90, 185–9, 202, 203

social leadership 100–2

social norms 112, 113

social participation 168–70

social systems and technology 165, 169–70

socioeconomic disadvantage

and the Education Roadmap 187

of Indigenous Australians 3–4, 14–16, 85–6, 93, 102, 110–11

and institutional biases 92, 93

of Maori and Pacific Islanders 39–41, 43–5, 129

and technology use 160, 169–70

see also closing the gap; gap, the

South Africa

Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 10, 59, 88, 94–5

disadvantage in 56–67, 178–9

education as a government priority in 20, 21

quality of education in 174–89

remaking the social in 94–102

university sector of 58–67, 221–2

see also black South Africans

South African Democratic Teachers’ Union 19, 175

South African National Skills Development Strategy 64–5

South African Schools Act 59

special education provision 142

spectrum of access 166

spread, and education reform 130

stakeholders 175, 188

standardised testing

cultural biases in 29, 31–2, 121, 170

and economic growth 178

and expectations of students 142

and information and communication technology 164

and information for parents 180–1

No Child Left Behind 140

stereotypes 6, 7, 77, 80, 197

Stolen Generations 109, 110

storytelling 81

streaming 30

strengths-based approach 8, 40, 133–4

stronger smarter philosophy 40, 195, 202–3

structuring practices 32

student achievement 135, 142–3

students

aspirations of 14

attitudes to mathematics 31

capacity for learning 20

empowerment of 40, 54

engagement of 11, 205, 214–15

expectations of school 7

explanations given by 215

goals for learning 209–10

personal disadvantage of 19

see also background, of students; expectations

subordination 143

success as a social category 143

suicide attempts 72

Swarup, Vikas 159

symbolic violence 28

systemic leadership 139–40

system level of education reform 129–45

system-wide communities of practice 141

tasks 208, 209, 212–14

teacher clarity 209–10

teachers

African language teachers 66

aspirations of 136

attrition rate of 9

institutional biases of 88–90

occupational expertise of 92

perceptions of Indigenous children 195

role in education reform 131

role in South Africa’s education crisis 181, 184

salaries of 181

see also professional development

teacher shortage 181

teacher support 63

teacher training 57, 130, 136–7, 181

teacher unions 19, 59

teaching

achievement focus 135

as a career option 19, 181

evidence-based teaching 135

learner-centred approach to 182

quality of 63, 174–89

use of questions in 26–7

see also outcomes-based education

technicians of learning 222–4

technology see information and communication technology (ICT)

Te Kauhua 138

Te Kotahitanga 40, 46, 51, 136, 138

Te Puni Kokiri 40

te reo 40, 45–6

tertiary study 47

see also post-school qualifications; universities

theatre 154

tikanga Maori 40

Torres Strait Islanders 168

see also Indigenous Australians

tough love 199, 200–1

toxic mix, the 19–20

Toxic Mix, The 181, 183

traditional owners 114, 120, 123

transformation 77, 99–102, 104

Treaty of Waitangi 40–1, 43, 88, 144

troubled knowledge 102

two-way learning 7, 30–2, 122, 206–7

see also bilingual education

unions 19, 59, 175, 184

unique outcomes 80, 82

universities

culture of 97–102

funding of 180, 221–2

as marginalised institutions 222

participation of marginalised groups 14, 18

role in education reform 137

and social leadership 100–2

in South Africa 58–67, 221–2

university completion rates 60, 61–3

University of the Free State 17, 96–9

see also Reitz incident, the

utilitarianism 221–2

victimhood, culture of 19, 199–201

Victoria

Indigenous Australians in 13

Ministerial Taskforce on Aboriginal Affairs 15

Victorian Indigenous Affairs Framework 15

violence 18, 20, 69–77, 81, 187

see also anti-violence education; sexual violence; symbolic violence

Vocational Education and Training 90

Warddeken Land Management Ltd 118–19

Warschauer, Mark 159–60, 165

welfare dependence 113

wellbeing 9, 185

western norms 112

Whorfian theory 26

wicked problems 91, 95, 97, 100

Wik judgment, the 87

women, experiences of violence 69–77

Working on Country program 118, 124

Wotton, Lex 198

W.W. Norton 150

xenophobia 225–6

Yunupingu, Gulumbu 7–8

Closing the Gap in Education?

   by Ilana Snyder and John Nieuwenhuysen