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Australians in Italy: Contemporary Lives and Impressions

 

Bill Kent [editor]; Ros Pesman [editor]; Cynthia Troup [editor]

  1. Download this book
  2. First page
  3. Cover; Copyright and Contributor Information; Table of Contents
  4. Preface
  5. Presentazione
  6. Acknowledgements
  7. Introduction
  8. PART 1: SETTING THE SCENE
  9. Ch 1. Australians in Italy: The long view
  10. Ch 2. Twentieth-century diplomatic and trade relations
  11. Ch 3. Some facts and figures
  12. Ch 4. Gaining a foothold: Australian cultural institutions in Italy
  13. Ch 5. Arthur Dale Trendall: A memoir
  14. PART 2: WRITERS
  15. Ch 6. More than a love affair: Australian writers and Italy
  16. Ch 7. A great tradition revisited
  17. Ch 8. Funghi, family and fables
  18. Ch 9. ‘Everything else in Italy’: A journalist in Rome
  19. PART 3: ARTISTS
  20. Ch 10. Australian artists in Italy: Residencies and residents
  21. Ch 11. Donald Friend: An Australian artist’s affair with Italy
  22. Ch 12. Drawing on Italian art
  23. Ch 13. Rinascimento through a contemporary lens
  24. PART 4: CONTEMPLATING ROME
  25. Ch 14. Australian clergy in Italy after Vatican II
  26. Ch 15. Rome: My two cities
  27. Ch 16. Rediscovering Rome
  28. Ch 17. ‘Unevenly buried’: A personal topography of Rome
  29. PART 5: ENCOUNTERING ITALY
  30. Ch 18. Elusive landscapes: Australians and the Italian garden
  31. Ch 19. Educational tourism – cultural landscapes
  32. Ch 20. Carrara: Landscape of stone
  33. Ch 21. Imagining and experiencing Italy in the 1980s and 1990s
  34. PART 6: AUSTRALIAN STUDIES IN ITALY
  35. Ch 22. Reflections and refractions: An Italian perspective on Australian Studies
  36. Ch 23. Australian cinema in Italy: Sguardi australiani
  37. Ch 24. Remembering Bernard Hickey
  38. PART 7: ITALIAN AUSTRALIANS RETURNING
  39. Ch 25. Italian Australians in Italy
  40. Ch 26. Washing faces, cleansing hearts: Who am I?
  41. Ch 27. The returned migrants: The Associazione Nazionale Emigrati ed ex Emigrati in Australia
  42. INDEX

Chapter 22

Reflections and refractions: An Italian perspective on Australian Studies

Lorenzo Perrona

Lorenzo Perrona is completing a doctorat at the Université de Lausanne (Switzerland); he is a graduate of the Università di Genova. In the late 1980s Perrona was editor for one of the piccoli editori enlivening the publishing scene, the Genoese publisher Costa and Nolan. Under the Australian-European Awards Program, in 1994 Perrona undertook research at Melbourne’s La Trobe University on the presence of Italian theatre in Australia. Since 2002 he has been director of the cultural association Lacunae and the film culture event Sguardi australiani in Genoa and Camogli. He edited and translated the novel Wild Cat Falling by Mudrooroo for the Florentine publisher Le Lettere, and has contributed articles to volumes on Australian indigenous culture (2003; 2007).

I would like to begin with an observation – somewhat obvious perhaps, but necessary – regarding that which is understood in Europe by ‘Australian Studies’.1 According to the German Association for Australian Studies, active since 1989 and a promoter of Australian Studies in German-speaking countries, ‘Australia is an attractive and modern country with roots in Europe; it is the home of people from many different cultural backgrounds, and has a cultural tradition reaching back many thousands of years’. Australian Studies, the German Association continues, has a research methodology that is essentially interdisciplinary and encompasses an impressively wide range of research fields, namely: Anthropology, Architecture, Ethnology, Biology, Film and Television, Geography, History, Art and Music, Language and Literature, Medicine, Nature Studies, Politics, Social Sciences, Tourism and Economics (Association for Australian Studies 2005). This definition points to Australian Studies as a modified version of Cultural Studies, or perhaps even the adaptation of Cultural Studies to the specific Australian context. (One of Australia’s most original scholars, Paul Carter (1987), has devised the concept of ‘spatial history’ precisely thanks to an interdisciplinary methodological approach suited to the Australian situation).

In Italy, however, early interest in Australian culture was largely literary. As is well known, Bernard Hickey brought Australian literature to the attention of the Italian academic world with his activities in Rome and Venice in the 1960s. The success of his approach can be attributed to the fact that it was perfectly in tune with the Italian academic world of the time. This was a world in which literary criticism was, after Benedetto Croce, influenced for the most part by critical methodologies like those of the historicism of Walter Binni, or the stylistic analysis of Gianfranco Contini, on whom the influence of structuralism (Cesare Segre, Maria Corti, Dante Isella) was making itself felt. Hickey’s first work, Aspects of Alienation in James Joyce and Patrick White (Hickey 1971), was effective precisely because it treated the work of Joyce and White on equal terms, identifying common elements – still significant today – such as the alienation of the individual without a homeland. In so doing, Hickey’s work elevated the discussion of Australian literature to a new and higher level. In successive studies Hickey moved on to other genres, editing an anthology of modern Australian poetry, Da Slessor a Dransfield, poesia australiana moderna (Hickey 1977), before producing the anthology of short fiction Lines of implication: Australian Short Fiction from Lawson to Palmer. (Hickey 1984). Hickey’s formulation remains a significant thread in the Italian approach to Australian literature: the tendency to privilege literary works, and a sensitive ability to analyse them in terms of their historical and stylistic worth.

Sergio Perosa and Claudio Gorlier established the Italian Society for Australian Studies (SISA) in Venice in the 1970s. Yet it was not until the early 1980s, when Italian scholars of English studies began to turn their attention towards the literary production of non-European countries, that interest in Australian literature began markedly to increase. Amongst these scholars one should mention Claudio Gorlier at Turin University (as evidenced, for example, by the volumes of the periodical Africa, America, Asia, Australia published between 1985 and 2002); Paolo Bertinetti, a specialist in English theatre who made a foray into contemporary Australian theatre (Bertinetti 1982), and Itala Vivan at the University of Milan. Given, however, that their main area of research was that of English language literature in its entirety, these scholars were not in a position to explore specifically Australian themes in depth. Instead, they promoted initiatives, solicited funding and encouraged and guided students and researchers. Furthermore, they also actively publicised and reviewed Australian books in important Italian dailies (Gorlier in La Stampa and Tuttolibri; Vivan in La Repubblica).

The 1988 Australian Bicentenary of European Settlement gave a strong impetus to initiatives favouring research on Australia, including activities outside Australia itself. Here I should like to note the significance of multicultural policies for the promotion of an image of Australian culture that was neither monolithic nor static, but instead multistranded, complex and lively – an image which was promptly welcomed in Europe. Such a welcome serves to highlight more broadly that each society’s commitment to promoting and validating its own heritage through its cultural policy remains vitally important for the maintenance of cultural relations between distant and diverse places.

Just a year after the Australian Bicentenary, in 1989, the European Association for Studies on Australia (EASA) was established, bringing together a number of European universities under the guidance of its first chairperson, Giovanna Capone. A teacher of English literature at the University of Bologna, Capone was the scholar who ushered in a new phase in Australian studies at the beginning of the 1990s when she established the Centro Studi sulla Letteratura Australiana (Centre for the Study of Australian Literature). Capone’s way of looking at Australia emphasised ‘recognition’ and ‘history’ as essential aspects of reflection and contextualisation. In her introduction to the collection Australia and Italy: Contributions to Intellectual Life, she wrote of the necessity of ‘re-entering a context with a new and more conscious direction. And this is something more than a chapter in cultural history: it is a vital act’ (Capone 1989, 6). The volume European Perspectives: Contemporary Essays on Australian Literature edited by Capone (et al. 1991), assembles contributions by a wide variety of European scholars; it represents a significant contribution to Australian Studies, and bears witness to the early 1990s as a time of considerable dynamism in the field.

The focus on literatures hitherto neglected created the need for new and broader methodological and critical approaches. This is exactly what occurred in Bologna with the work carried out by Silvia Albertazzi; along with her research into Indian literature, Albertazzi focused on authors such as David Malouf, Peter Carey and Janette Turner Hospital. Together with colleagues with interests in English, French, Spanish and Portugese literature, she also began to plan a research centre dedicated entirely to the study of the literatures of ex-European colonies. The problem of choosing the correct terminology for this project was significant. How were these diverse literatures to be collectively defined: as postcolonial literatures; emerging or new literatures; minor or minority literatures? Inevitably these were all Eurocentric terms. To avoid them, a neologism, omeoglotte, was coined in Bologna. Whilst thus far it has no English equivalent, omeoglotte is used to refer to literary production that occurred outside of Europe in languages similar to, but not exactly the same as, those spoken in Europe – the versions of English spoken outside of Britain; the variations of French used in Africa and the Caribbean; the Spanish of the Americas; the Portugese of Brazil, Angola and Mozambique. As such, the research centre became known as the Centro Studi sulle Letterature Omeoglotte dei Paesi Extra-Europei (Centro Studi sulle Letterature Omeoglotte dei Paesi Extra-Europei 2005). Since 1996 this organisation has promoted a series of conferences and exchanges, some of which – specifically thanks to the efforts of Sheila Downing Riboldi and Matteo Baraldi – have been dedicated entirely to Australia. For example, in 2001 Bill Ashcroft and Remo Ceserani organised a day centred on the themes of Australian postmodernism and postcolonialism.

Such important initiatives highlighted the need to update and enhance Italian cultural debates with the thinking and methods offered by Postcolonial Studies, which had been all but ignored in Italy until the mid 1990s, and continue even today to remain relatively neglected there. With this in mind, it is worth noting that the diffusion of Australian Studies amongst Italian scholars represented for them an entrée into international critical debate in the area. Examples of influential publications include the volume co-edited by Silvia Albertazzi, Abbecedario postcoloniale. Dieci voci per un lessico della postcolonialità (Albertazzi et al. 2001), which, as indicated by the title, clearly responded to a felt need for a ‘Postcolonial Primer’, and also Lo sguardo dell’Altro. Le letterature postcoloniali (Albertazzi 2000). The approach informed by Postcolonial Studies developed in disciplinary spheres focused on extra-European literatures and comparative literary studies, as exemplified by the vast corpus of work edited by Armando Gnisci – a scholar of comparative literatures from La Sapienza in Rome – published by Meltemi. The Italian approach generally appears to be characterised by the application of a postcolonial methodology to foreign literatures and cultures rather than by a renewed analysis of the specific Italian and European situation, as if Italy itself did not have a colonial history, either in Europe, the Mediterranean or Africa. On this point one should see, amongst others, the somewhat polemical review by Gnisci (2001) of Albertazzi’s book Lo sguardo dell’altro.

Methodological developments were supported and enhanced by practical new ideas, such as the online journal Le Simplegadi, under the direction of Antonella Riem-Natali (et al. 2005) from the University of Udine. The journal’s advisory board includes, amongst others, Armando Gnisci, Veronica Brady from the University of Western Australia, and Paolo Bartoloni from the University of Sydney. Therefore, it well represents an ongoing collaboration between scholars from Australia and Italy.

Through the 1990s the the Centro Studi sulle Letterature Omeoglotte dei Paesi Extra-Europei in Bologna was not alone in working in the field of Australian Studies, although it should be said that it did enjoy specially close ties with Australia. Bernard Hickey had moved to Lecce, but continued to be active in the field, and research groups focusing on so-called postcolonial literatures also sprang up in a number of other univerities. In Turin, a group of researchers headed by Claudio Gorlier and Paolo Bertinetti produced a miscellaneous volume of essays called Cross-Cultural Voices: Investigations into the Post-Colonial (Gorlier and Zoppi 1997); the chapters ‘Australian literature’ and ‘New Zealand literature’ written by Bertinetti appeared in Franco Marenco’s Storia della civiltà letteraria inglese (Bertinetti 1996). Carmen Concilio, also from the group of scholars in Turin, published her essay ‘The magic of language in the novels of Patrick White and David Malouf’, in ‘Magic Realism’ and Contemporary Literatures in English (Concilio 1999). In Rome, Agostino Lombardo edited the collection Verso gli antipodi. Le nuove letterature di lingua inglese: India, Australia, Nuova Zelanda, which included an essay on Australian literature by Lilla Maria Crisafulli (Crisafulli Jones 1995); Lombardo also edited Il romanzo dell’attore with an essay by Floriana Perna on Peter Carey (Perna 2005). Maria Panarello from the University of Messina followed a similar line of literary analysis with her work on the Australian novel, referring to those of Patrick White as well as Picnic at Hanging Rock by Joan Lindsay (Panarello 1996a; 1996b; 1996c).

These scholars developed new methodologies by adopting novel techniques of analysis; more particularly, they distinguished themselves from the majority of the Italian cultural establishment by taking as a starting point ideas offered by Postcolonial Studies (especially through the writings of Homi K. Bhabha and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak), or those of deconstructionist thought or Feminist Studies. They continue today to follow highly specific lines of inquiry, avoiding sweeping generalisations and preferring an exactness of interpretation, analysis and contextualisation. Themes of particular interest to them include multi-ethnicity; the intercultural; identity issues; minorities. If the literary work itself remains central – the literary is still the defining characteristic of the Italian approach to Australian culture – then such interdisciplinarity takes the discussion into the realm of Australian Studies. Along these lines Floriana Perna has turned her attention to the themes of otherness, aboriginality, historical rewriting, reconciliation and female identity in the context of Australian literature. She has raised the problem of identity in the work of Bruce Chatwin (Perna 1998), and, by examining the idea of national identity in the narratives of Peter Carey (Perna 2000), her perspective has widened, becoming oriented towards Australian society more generally. Luisa Percopo at the University of Cagliari has concerned herself with images of identity in antipodean urban landscapes (Percopo 2007a), and with the Australia’s self-proclaimed national identity (Percopo 2006; 2007b), thereby entering into the lively and on-going national debate on the subject. With regard to the perennial question of national identity, it is worth mentioning a particular volume by Federico Boni, a scholar of the sociology of communications from the Faculty of Political Science at the University of Milan, who has analysed ways in which the Italian media constructed and reconstructed certain traits of Australian identity during the 2000 Olympics (Boni 2003).

Evidently in recent years Australian Studies has achieved the status of a discipline in its own right. Within this field, the position held by Italian scholars is by now well established; the Italian scholars enjoy an equal footing in their dialogue with Australian colleagues, and this allows them to make critical and significant contributions. Several examples of work of particular importance come to mind. The first regards the historical research conducted by Gerardo Papalia, who has studied the diplomatic relations that existed between Italy and Australia during the fascist period. He uses a postcolonial approach to enquire into the emigration of Italians to Australia, while at the same time remaining sensitive to sociological issues and cultural history (Papalia 2004). The second example is a volume that goes very much against the grain with respect to dominant views in Australia regarding the literary production of Mudrooroo. Edited by Annalisa Oboe (2003) from the University of Padua, Mongrel Signatures: Reflections on the Work of Mudrooroo gathers together contributions by both Italians and Australians, namely Clare Archer-Lean; Maureen Clark; Graziella Englaro; Eva Rask Knudsen; Ruby Langford Ginibi; Maggie Nolan; Wendy Pearson; Lorenzo Perrona; Cassandra Pybus; Adam Shoemaker and Gerry Turcotte. From a strictly Italian and European point of view – one that privileges ‘writing’ – Oboe takes the opportunity to keep open the discussion of Mudrooroo’s oeuvre, emphasising the characteristics and value of his work. She identifies any ‘cut and dried’ reading of the text – whether from a moral or political viewpoint – as evidence of the reemergence of a conception of identity that can only be described as essentialist: ‘It appears more fruitful to investigate how Mudrooroo’s writing restages the drama of subjectivity in terms of “articulation” rather than “authentication”’, she observes, ‘and also to ask how we are to read his works after 1996, since the consequences of the accusations on the author, on his texts, and on the cultural scenario of Aboriginal arts and studies, cannot be ignored and must somehow be addressed’ (Oboe 2003, xi).

The work of Franca Tamisari at the University of Sydney and the University of Venice can be cited as another innovative contribution to the discussion of Australian indigenous culture. Tamisari uses an anthropological approach in combination with performance theory; thanks to her considerable first-hand knowledge of the Australian situation, and to a wide range of experience, Tamisari analyses the theatrical and social meanings of Yolngu dance. In Tamisari’s words: ‘Yolngu dancing embodies statements about being-in-the-world and being-with-others and, from a performance perspective based on participation, explores the sensuous and affective nature of intercorporeality. By focusing on virtuosity and the practice of the “curse of compliments”, the meaning of Yolngu dancing is between the steps, between the performers and other participants in a ceremony – in the empathic space one enters through dancing’ (Tamisari 2000b). Tamisari is also attentive to the interrelationships between politics and aesthetics, positioning indigenous artists in the context of contemporary art, as demonstrated in the article ‘Performance come “fare”: contro-appropriazione e resistenza nell’arte indigena australiana’ (Tamisari 2006), which tackles the subject of success and its implications in aboriginal art.

Finally, in the area of Cinema Studies, I wish to note the work of Silvana Tuccio on the artistic figure of Giorgio Mangiamele, the film director who represented Australia at the Cannes Film Festival in 1965. Tuccio decisively frees Mangiamele from the category of the marginalised, a category he occupied throughout his life. She sheds light on his creative journey, showing this to be of extraordinary importance, not only because it parallels and interprets the 1950s and 1960s (the years that saw a huge influx of ‘new Australians’ from Southern Europe), but because it provides a stylistic and poetic base for later directors who felt the need to construct a ‘real and sincere’ image of Australia through cinema.

According to Tuccio, the power behind Mangiamele’s language lies in his agility and capacity to transform the streets of Carlton – Melbourne’s ‘Italian quarter’, where throughout the 1950s the various Italian languages could be heard – into the location of a different scene, that of a movie set. In this context Mangiamele creates a setting and a world where his ‘voice’ – his self-definition, his poetics and his history – transform the reality that surrounds him, giving everything its own dignity while at the same time expressing what is intolerable; that is, the negation of origins and identity (Tuccio 2005, 105).

One can say by way of conclusion that an Italian perspective on Australian Studies does exist and that, in its depth and breadth, this perspective is certainly capable of enriching Australian critical debate. Further, it is possible to say that the Italian approach has changed; far less dominated by literary analysis, it has become more interdisciplinary in nature, just as the broad charter of Australian Studies envisages. It will be interesting to see how the Australian academic world will come to consider this Italian contribution in future decades; it will be equally intriguing to see how Australian cultural policy towards Europe and Italy might develop in the future.

At the same time it is also necessary to ask to what extent the content, questions and methodologies evident in the Australian context are relevant to the Italian cultural scene. The updating of critical methodologies in Italy from the 1970s onwards came about as a result of contact with extra-European literature. Since then, those Italian scholars who take an interest in Australian culture do so because there they find themes – and potential solutions to problems – that the Italian establishment might these days have begun to consider, but have not explored in depth: themes such as interculturality, hybridity, identity and minority cultures. The activities of these Italian academics may therefore be described as avant-garde, in the sense that they aim to affirm the existence of alternative cultures in the face of one produced by the processes of globalisation; processes often influenced by neocolonialist forces.

Such stimulus to a concrete comparison between cultures and societies reminds us once again of the constructive and formative nature of cultural exchanges. It also reminds us how much exchanges help even distant cultures to tune into one other, at those times, too, when they may seem to haved ceased listening to one other, or when they may appear to be becoming insular. And the possibility of ceasing to listen, and of becoming insular, could be equally an Italian and an Australian problem.

Endnote

1 Translation of this essay from the original Italian is by Patrick Glennan, with some suggestions by the editors.

A checklist of Italian scholarship on Australian Studies

Albertazzi, Silvia. 2000. Lo sguardo dell’Altro. Le letterature postcoloniali. Rome: Carocci.

Albertazzi, Silvia; Crisafulli Jones, Lilla Maria, editors. 1992. In viaggio nel racconto. Urbino: Quattroventi.

Albertazzi, Silvia et al., editors. 1998. Imagining Australia/Immaginando l’Australia. Atti del Convegno sulla cultura australiana – Università di Bologna – Facoltà di Lingue e Letterature straniere moderne. Manziana (Rome): Vecchiarelli.

Albertazzi, Silvia et al. 2001. Abbecedario postcoloniale. Dieci voci per un lessico della postcolonialità. Macerata: Quodlibet.

Albertazzi, Silvia et al. 2002. Abbecedario postcoloniale II. Altre dieci voci per un lessico della postcolonialità. Macerata: Quodlibet.

Baraldi, Matteo; Turci, Monica, editors. 2004. Paesaggi australiani. Bologna: Pendragon.

Baraldi, Matteo. 2007. I bambini perduti. Il mito del ragazzo selvaggio da Kipling a Malouf. Macerata: Quodlibet.

Bertinetti, Paolo; Gorlier, Claudio, editors. 1982. Australiana. Rome: Bulzoni.

Bertinetti, Paolo. 1996. ‘Letteratura australiana’ and ‘Letteratura neozelandese’. In Storia della civiltà letteraria inglese, edited by Marenco, Franco. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Boni, Federico. 2003. Nel fantastico mondo di Oz. La costruzione mediatica dell’identità australiana a Sydney 2000. Milan: Unicopli.

Capone, Giovanna, editor. 1989. Australia and Italy: Contributions to Intellectual Life. Ravenna: Longo Editore.

Capone, Giovanna. 1990. Incandescent Verities: The Fiction of Hal Porter. Rome: Bulzoni.

Capone, Giovanna, editor. 1993. Percorsi immaginati: viaggio metafora e modello in scrittori anglofoni. Bologna: CLUEB.

Concilio, Carmen. 1999. ‘The magic of language in the novels of Patrick White and David Malouf’. In ‘Magic Realism’ and Contemporary Literatures in English, edited by Linguanti, Elsa et al. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Crisafulli Jones, Lilla Maria. 1992. La short story australiana: dalla vitalità del negativo di Peter Carey all’esperienza epifanica di Elizabeth Jolley. In In viaggio nel racconto, edited by Albertazzi, Silvia; Crisafulli Jones Lilla Maria. Urbino: Quattro-Venti.

Crisafulli Jones, Lilla Maria. 1995. ‘La letteratura australiana’. In Verso gli antipodi. Le nuove letterature di lingua inglese: India, Australia, Nuova Zelanda, edited by Lombardo, Agostino. Rome: La Nuova Italia Scientifica.

Di Blasio, Francesca. 2003. ‘Riti e passaggi in My Place di Sally Morgan’. In Rites of Passage: Rational/Irrational, Natural/Supernatural, Local/Global. Atti del XX Convegno dell’Associazione Italiana di Anglistica, edited by Nocera, Carmen et al. Soveria Mannelli (Catanzaro): Rubbettino.

Di Blasio, Francesca. 2005. ‘Nativeness and/as Otherness: the Female Gaze in Autobiographical Aboriginal Writings’. In Cross-Cultural Encounters: Identity, Gender, Representation, edited by Silver, Marc; Buonanno, Giovanna. Rome: Officina Edizioni.

Di Blasio, Francesca. 2005. ‘“Post-Colonial – NOT!”: Defining aboriginality in contemporary/(post-)colonial Australia’. In Postcolonial Studies: Changing Perceptions, edited by Palusci, Oriana. Trento: Editrice Università degli Studi di Trento.

Di Blasio, Francesca. 2005. The Pelican and the Wintamarra Tree: voci della letteratura aborigena australiana. Trento: Editrice Università degli Studi di Trento.

Di Blasio, Francesca. 2006. ‘“Moving to a strange place”: spazio coloniale e spazio esistenziale nella letteratura aborigena australiana’. In Spazi/o: teoria, rappresentazione, lettura, edited by Locatelli, Carla; Di Blasio, Francesca. Trento: Editrice Università degli Studi di Trento.

Gnisci, Armando. 2001. ‘Silvia Albertazzi. Lo sguardo dell’altro’. Kuma 1 (aprile) [Internet]. Accessed 18 September 2005. Available from:
http://www.disp.let.uniroma1.it/kuma/sezioni/critica/Albertazzi.html.

Gorlier, Claudio; Zoppi, Isabella Maria, editors. 1997. Cross-Cultural Voices: Investigations into the Post-Colonial. Rome: Bulzoni.

Hickey, Bernard. 1971. Aspects of Alienation in James Joyce and Patrick White. Venice: Easter.

Hickey, Bernard, editor. 1977. Da Slessor a Dransfield, poesia australiana moderna. Milan: Edizioni Accademia.

Hickey, Bernard. 1978. ‘Towards Australian Studies in Italy’. In Statements. Venice: Cafoscarina. 1984.

Hickey, Bernard. 1983. Incontri australiani e del Commonwealth. Venice: Cafoscarina.

Hickey, Bernard. 1984. Lines of implication: Australian Short Fiction from Lawson to Palmer. Venezia: Cafoscarina. Bologna: CLUEB, 1993.

Hickey, Bernard. 1989. ‘The continuity of Australian cultural activities in Italy’. In Australia and Italy: Contributions to Intellectual Life, edited by Capone, Giovanna. Ravenna: Longo.

Hickey, Bernard. 2003. Saggi sulla letteratura e le civiltà del Commonwealth. San Cesario di Lecce: Piero Manni.

Oboe, Annalisa. 1999. ‘Translating genres: Mudrooroo and the historical novel’. In Translating Cultures, edited by Carrera Suarez, Isabel et al. Hebden Bridge: Dangaroo Press.

Oboe, Annalisa. 2000. ‘Percorsi gotici nella Master series di Mudrooroo’. Culture: 39–47 [Internet]. Accessed 20 September 2005. Available from:
http://www.club.it/culture/culture2000/annalisa.oboe/indice-i.html.

Oboe, Annalisa. 2003. ‘Beginning with/out Identity: A reflection on subjectivity and culture’. In Roots and Beginnings, edited by Deandrea, Pietro; Tchernichova, Viktoria. Venice: Cafoscarina.

Oboe, Annalisa, editor. 2003. Mongrel Signatures: Reflections on the Work of Mudrooroo. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Panarello, Maria. 1996. Aspects of the Quest in Some Novels by Patrick White. Messina: Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti.

Panarello, Maria. 1996. Il disegno narrativo e tematico in Picnic a Hanging Rock di J. Lindsay. Messina: Lippolis.

Panarello, Maria. 1996. Studies of Indeterminacy in the Australian Novel. Messina: Lippolis.

Papalia, Gerardo. 1980. ‘Roman gentes and Southern Italian clans’. Mundus Antiquus (Melbourne University Journal of Ancient History) 3: 22–33.

Papalia, Gerardo. 1985. Peasant Rebels in the Canefield: The History of Italian Immigrant Workers in the Australian Sugar Cane Industry. Melbourne: Catholic Intercultural Resource Centre.

Papalia, Gerardo. 2003. ‘I nipotini calabresi di Douglas’. La Questione Meridionale 1 (3).

Papalia, Gerardo. 2003. ‘I cigni bianchi. E quelli neri?’. La Questione Meridionale 1 (4): 35–37.

Papalia, Gerardo. 2003. ‘From Terrone to wog: POST colonial perspectives on Italian immigration to Australia’. Italian Historical Society Journal (Melbourne) 11 (2): 2–11.

Papalia, Gerardo. 2003. ‘Multiculturalism in Australia: The Italian case’. Degree Course in Cultural and Linguistic Mediation (3rd yr), Facoltà di Scienze Politiche, Università di Milano. (December) [Internet] Accessed 18 September 2005. Available from:
http://users.unimi.it/medialin/didattica_materiali.php.

Papalia, Gerardo. 2003. ‘L’identità calabrese. Quale identità?’. In Globalizzazione ed emigrazione, edited by Congi, Gaetano. Reggio Calabria: AM International.

Papalia, Gerardo. 2004. ‘Imaginary colonies: Fascist views of Australia in Italian diplomatic correspondence 1922–1940’. Eras Journal 6. Accessed 18 September 2005. Available from: http://www.arts.monash.edu.au/eras/edition_6/papaliaarticle.htm.

Papalia, Gerardo. 2004. ‘Translating as a liminal trade: Transnational and transcultural perspectives on translation’. In Occasional Papers. Università degli Studi di Lecce: Osservatorio delle Diaspore, le Culture e le Istituzioni dei paesi d’Oltremare.

Papalia, Gerardo. 2004. ‘La Calabria globale’. La Questione Meridionale 2 (1).

Papalia, Gerardo. 2005. ‘Road rage: la strada e la scomposizione di sé’. In Sguardi australiani: idee, immaginari e cinema degli antipodi, edited by Tuccio, Silvana. Genoa: Le Mani.

Papalia, Gerardo. 2006. ‘A dulurusa spartenza. L’espressione poetica della nostalgia’. In Calabria e Sicilia, Sguardi italo-australiani (Studi Emigrazione), edited by Rando, Gaetano; Turcotte, Gerry. [Internet]. Accessed 18 September 2005. Available from: http://www.cser.it/studi.htm.

Percopo, Luisa. 2001. ‘Presence and absence: the paradox of ghosts. An interview with Beth Yahp’. Letterature Straniere & 3: 367–377.

Percopo, Luisa. 2002. ‘“Tutto il mondo non è paese!” Intervista a Lino Concas, poeta sardo in Australia’. Letterature Straniere & 4: 405–416.

Percopo, Luisa. 2004. ‘Oltre la siepe sarda: poetica e identità agli antipodi nell’opera di Lino Concas’. In Borderlines: Scritture della migrazione ed identità italiane, edited by Burns, Jennifer; Polezzi, Loredana. Isernia: Cosmo Iannone Editore.

Percopo, Luisa. 2004. ‘Il noto e l’ignoto come frontiere dell’io: esperienze speculari nella letteratura delle minoranze etniche australiane’. In Il paesaggio australiano, edited by Baraldi, Matteo; Turci, Monica. Bologna: Pendragon.

Percopo, Luisa. 2005. ‘Sally Morgan’. In Encyclopaedia of Women’s Autobiography – Two Volumes, edited by Malin, Jo; Boynton, Victoria. Westport: Greenwood Press.

Percopo, Luisa. 2005. ‘“Don’t Touch! Don’t Leave”. Leprosy and intimacy in Rowena Ivers’ The Spotted Skin’. New Literatures Review 43 (April): 37–51. Special Issue: ContamiNATIONS: Reflections on Identity and Its Borders, edited by Russo, Katherine.

Percopo, Luisa. 2006. ‘“Fake book withdrawn from sale’: Norma Khouri, the last straw’. In The Representation and Transformation of Literary Landscapes, edited by Cattani, Francesco; Nadalini, Amanda. Venice: Cafoscarina.

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Publication information

This chapter is from Australians in Italy: Contemporary Lives and Impressions, edited by Bill Kent, Ros Pesman and Cynthia Troup (Monash University Publishing: Clayton, Melbourne. 2010). For more information about this book, or to purchase print copies, please go to http://www.publishing.monash.edu/books/ai.html.

Australians in Italy: Contemporary Lives and Impressions

   by Bill Kent [editor]; Ros Pesman [editor]; Cynthia Troup [editor]