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Australia's Northern Shield?

INDEX

Abaijah, Josephine 215

Acheson, Dean 6970, 76, 79

‘active offence’ policy 8

aid

to Indonesia 204, 309n17

to Papua New Guinea 2712, 275

air defence 35

Amery, Leo 20

Anderson, H.D. (David) 157

Anglo–French Condominium of the New Hebrides 13, 29, 55, 72

Anglo–Japanese Alliance 8, 1214, 21, 27, 296n40

Anglo–Malaysia Defence Agreement (AMDA) 174, 212

ANZAC Pact 43

ANZAM (Australian, New Zealand and Malaya) 75, 82, 92, 156

ANZUS Treaty

application to independent Papua New Guinea 214, 247, 2557, 268

application to Territory of Papua New Guinea 105, 107, 131, 1489, 163, 1701, 172, 174, 181, 2556

Australian contributions to 125

Australian obligations 196

and defence of Malaysia 164, 1701, 173, 177, 327n103, 328n122

defence of the Pacific 75, 95, 1945

membership 79

signing of 75

Spender’s advocacy for 71, 73

US expectations of allies 164, 165

Asia

Australia’s relationship with 1045, 109, 115, 120, 122, 127, 135, 198, 1989

decolonisation 48, 53

nationalism 52

Asian–African Conference, Bandung, 1955 87

Atlee, Clement 65

Australasian Convention, Sydney, 1883 4

Australia, HMAS 11, 25

Australian Army

return of land to Administration in Port Moresby 71

strength 80, 95, 115, 192

Australian Defence Force

access to facilities in PNG 235

defence preparedness 80, 95, 103, 115, 180, 324n68

Australian imperialism 56

Australian Labor Party

during early 1960s 153

‘faceless men’ 180

on Indonesian sovereignty over West New Guinea 54

interest in developments in PNG 227

policy on defence treaty with PNG 255, 268

policy for PNG independence 227

Australian nationalism, place of PNG 42

Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force 10, 25, 26

Australian New Guinea see Territory of Papua and New Guinea

Balfour, Arthur 21

Ball, George 175

Barnard, Lance

on access to military facilities in PNG 259

on Australia’s defence relationship with PNG 23940, 252, 258, 260, 2624

on establishment and development of PNGDF 231, 242

as Minister for Defence 228, 232

on need for PNG military capability 235, 2389

on ongoing support for PNGDF 241

on PNG’s internal security challenges 235

on PNG’s responsibility for its own defence 258

retirement from Parliament 264

visit to PNG 233

Barnes, Charles 181, 213, 21617, 221, 224, 271

Barton, Edmund 5, 6, 7

Barwick, Sir Garfield

on application of ANZUS Treaty 1489, 173, 175, 177, 255, 329n4

appointed Minister for External Affairs 124, 143

as Chief Justice of High Court 181, 329n4

on defence of Malaysia 1845

on Indonesian agreement to terms of settlement 150

on Indonesian expansionist ambitions 172, 1767, 183

on Indonesian–Australian relationship 158, 161, 173, 175, 183, 184

on lack of international response to Indonesian threat 147

on lack of rapport with US on West New Guinea 129

meeting with Kennedy 175, 176

meeting with Lord Home 177

meetings with Rusk 157, 175

meetings with Sukarno 149, 1745

on military support for Dutch 109

political career 143, 153

on regional security policy in 1950s 723

on strategic importance of New Guinea 127

on support for Malaysia 161, 162, 163

on US policy towards Indonesia 170

visit to United States 1757

visits to Indonesia 149, 174

on West New Guinea policy 1436

Battle of the Coral Sea 41, 42

Battle of Kokoda xvii, 42

Battle, Lucius 255

Battle of Midway 41

Battle of Milne Bay 42

Battle of Tsushima 7

Beale, Howard

on application of ANZUS to Papua New Guinea 163

at quadripartite talks in Washington 161, 163

meeting with Kennedy 131, 134

misjudgment of US policy 12930, 134

political career 129

representations to US re Indonesian aggression 1478, 317n37

on US expectations of allies 164

Beaumont, Joan 19, 42

Beazley, Kim 227, 284

Bevin, Ernest 656, 689, 76, 111, 203

Bird, David 36

Bishop, Reg 233, 237

Blamey, General Sir Thomas 41, 434

Bland, Sir Henry 215

Bonar Law, Andrew 14

Boram, airfield at 169, 190

Border, L. H. 246

Borneo 162, 18990

Bougainville

Australian involvement 275, 278

political crisis over Panguna mine 215, 216, 217, 218

secessionist movement 254, 265, 2723, 275

Bougainville Agreement 273

Bougainville Provincial Government 273

Britain

alliance with Japan 8, 1214, 21, 27, 296n40

Australian relationship with 122

Cold War strategy 1401

concern over Indonesian ambitions 1601, 163

defence facilities in Singapore 155

defence of Malaysia 163, 1878, 195, 196, 212, 327n106

negotiations resolve West New Guinea dispute 140

policy on West New Guinea dispute 63, 667, 689, 70

proposed Federation of Melanesia 130, 132

requests for defence assistance from Australia 187, 195, 196, 2056

review of policy on West New Guinea 130, 137

role in establishment of Malaysia 155

support for negotiated settlement over West New Guinea dispute 144

withdrawal of military forces from Southeast Asia 200, 205, 21012

British New Guinea

annexation xxvi, 5

Australia’s acquisition of 67

protectorate established 5

Brunei, rebellion 155, 160

Bull, Hedley 250, 251

Bunker, Ellsworth 148

Bunting, Sir John 143, 167, 197

Cabinet Notebooks xxiiixxiv, 72, 294n21

Calwell, Arthur 54, 63, 150, 153, 180

Carnarvon, Earl of 3

Carola, SMS 3

Caroline Islands 11, 20, 32

Carrington, Peter 1223, 1523

Casey, Richard G.

Cabinet submission on West New Guinea dispute 1002

character and personal style 75

diplomatic campaign over West New Guinea 768, 84, 1067

diplomatic career 745

on Dutch view of Australian policy 102

on German demands for return of colonial possessions 37

on Indonesia forcefully acquiring West New Guinea 1067

on Indonesian expansionist ambitions 83

meeting with Dulles 1067

meeting with Subandrio 110

meeting with Sukarno 778

on military support for Dutch 100

as Minister for External Affairs 71, 75

on policy on West New Guinea 58

political career 74

on purchase of Dutch New Guinea 83

retirement from Parliament 124

visit to The Hague 76

visits to Indonesia 76, 778, 86

visits to Washington 1067

war service 74

Chamberlain, Neville 40

Chan, Julius 230

Chauvel, Lt General Sir Harry G. 29, 34

Chauvel, Richard 60, 70, 72

Chester, Henry 3

Chifley, J. B. (Ben) 44

Chifley Labor Government 49, 53

China, Japanese invasion 26

Churchill, Winston 28, 74, 196

Clemenceau, Georges 21

Cochran, Merle 69

Cold War 63, 70

Colombo Plan 71, 73, 78, 116

colonialism 61, 69, 109, 117, 118, 132, 134

Commonwealth Brigade 189

Commonwealth Strategic Reserve 156, 184, 197

communism

fears of spread throughout New Guinea 67, 125

threat in Indonesia 67, 73, 84, 85, 89, 90, 94, 98, 101, 112, 118, 129, 135, 136

threat of spread in Asia 67, 73, 78, 80, 82, 94, 95, 118

compulsory military service 193

Conlon, Colonel Alf 43

conscription

for home service 70

for overseas service 196

selective military service 194, 195, 196

Constitution, Commonwealth powers in relation to Pacific islands 56

Conzinc Rio Tinto (CRA) 215, 216

Cook Islands 6

Cook, Joseph 6

Council of Defence 323, 34, 38, 45

Council of Ten Meeting, Paris, 1919 21

Creswell, Rear Admiral William 9

Critchley, Tom 49, 284, 303n4

Crocker, Walter 50

Curtin, John 41, 42, 43, 44

Day, David 40

de Quay, Jan 141

Deakin, Alfred 4, 6, 7, 14, 69

decolonisation in Asia 48, 53

Dee, Moreen 156, 183

Defence Act 1903 (Cth) 7

defence budget 37

under Lyons Government 40

under Menzies Government 70, 95, 115, 165, 16970, 1712, 194, 196

Defence Committee

on communist expansion in Asia 165

on Indonesian ambitions 165

on military importance of Netherlands New Guinea 125

on place of Indonesia in strategic outlook 11314

on strategic importance of New Guinea 869, 101, 114, 1657

on strategic significance of Papua New Guinea 21920

on strategic value of the New Hebrides 56

Defence Review (1964) 194

defence strategy

reliance on allies 114

reliance on Royal Navy 27, 29, 32, 40

self-reliance 114

shift in focus from Middle East to Southeast Asia 82

Defence White Papers

1987 xiv

2016 xiv, 290

Democratic Labor Party 195

Denoon, Donald 230, 235

Derby, Earl of 3

Dibb, Paul xxi, 287

Dibb Report xiv, 2878, 290

Dihm, Bill 2845

Directorate of Research and Civil Affairs 43

Disraeli Government (UK) 23

Djuanda Kartawidjaja 107, 116, 117

Doran, Stuart 60, 72, 143

Douglas-Home, Alec, Earl of Home 133, 177, 182, 186

Downer, Alexander 315n106

Drees, Willem (Jr) 64, 65, 76, 102

Dulles, Allen 96, 157

Dulles, John Foster 97, 99, 1067

Dutch East Indies see Netherlands East Indies

Dutch New Guinea

Australian support for Dutch sovereignty 5761, 62, 6970, 7682

opposition to Indonesian claim over 534, 589, 646, 71

possible purchase by Australia 83

sovereignty over 512

strategic importance for Australia 68, 8790

Dutch–Australian relations possible military assistance for Dutch 89, 100, 102, 1034, 1067, 108, 115, 136, 139, 145

regarding sovereignty over West New Guinea 812, 85, 86, 103, 127

Dutch–Indonesia Union 93

Dutch–Indonesian relations 512

Dutch–Indonesian Round Table

Conference Agreements 523, 93

Eden, Anthony 767, 789

Edwards, Peter 48, 80, 956, 143, 150, 178, 179, 202

Eisenhower Administration 84, 133

Erskine, Commodore J. E. 5

Evans, Gareth 290

Evatt, H. V. 28, 423, 45, 50, 51, 60, 113, 204

Fadden, Arthur 41, 303n2

Fairbairn, David 2246, 232, 240, 2412

Fairhall, Allen 216, 221

federal elections

1958 122

1961 152

1963 152, 153, 173, 1801

1972 228

Federation of Melanesia, proposal for 130, 132

Fiji 2

First World War

Australian occupation of German New Guinea 1014

peace settlement 1923

Fisher, Andrew 6, 13, 14, 20

Fisher Government 15

Five Power Defence

Arrangement 212, 239, 246, 281, 288

Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee of Cabinet (FADC) 185, 272

forward defence strategy 27, 75, 80, 94, 180, 213, 221, 244

Four Power Talks 176

Fraser Government

concern for PNG national unity and stability 272, 275

Joint Statement on defence 27982

policy towards PNG 271, 282

strategic defence outlook 2779

Fraser, Malcolm

on acts of secession in Papua New Guinea 216

on Joint Statement on defence 281

on long-term defence relationship with PNG 276

meetings with Somare and Kiki 280

as Minister for the Army 270

as Minister for Defence 220, 270

objection to use of PIR to assist police 270, 337n71

as Prime Minister 270

resignation from Gorton Cabinet 220, 337n71

view of Gorton 210, 220

visits to PNG 270, 280

Furlonger, Robert (Bob) 199, 2367, 333n94

Galvin, Pat 231

General Scheme of Defence (1913) 8

George, Margaret 3, 52

German New Guinea

Australia occupation 1014, 26

Australian administration of League of Nations mandate 23, 26, 29

German control xxvi

Japanese occupation of islands north of Equator 1214

protectorate established by Germany 45

German Samoa 11

Germany, demands for return of colonial possessions 367

Gilbert and Ellice Islands 29

Gillard, Julia 289

Gladstone Government (UK) 3, 5

Goa, Indian takeover 140, 141

Goldsworthy, David 205, 206, 211

Gorton Government 21213

Gorton, John

approach to security matters 210

on British withdrawal from Southeast Asia 21011

character and personal style 153, 20910

on Indonesian–Australian relationship 204

loss of leadership 220

on Manus Island naval base 45, 213

on military assistance to Malaysia 211

as Minister for Defence 220, 222

as Minister for the Navy 45, 148, 181, 210

as Prime Minister 204, 209, 210

on successions movements in PNG 336n67

visit to Indonesia 218

visit to Papua New Guinea 218

Great Depression 35

Greenwall, John 231

Grey, Sir George 2

Griffith, Alan 1667

Guise, John 213

Harcourt, Lewis 10, 1114

Harries, Owen 252

Harriman, Averell 163, 170, 1756, 255

Hartley, Bill 343n3

Hasluck, Paul

on alliance with United States 95, 98

approach to foreign policy and security issues 197

at ANZUS Council meeting 189

on Australia’s relations with Asia 144

on Casey’s effectiveness in Cabinet 75

on communist tactics 109

on Confrontation policy 203, 207

conservatism 221

on defence of Australian New Guinea 105, 330n19

as Defence Minister 181

on defence obligations and security priorities 1967

as External Affairs Minister 181, 188

on future of Dutch New Guinea 1256, 1456

on Gorton 210

as Governor-General 221

on Indonesian–Australian relations 146, 1723, 189

on involvement in Vietnam 209

on linking Solomon Islands to Papua New Guinea 123, 126

meeting with General Nasution 188

meeting with Johnson 189

meeting with Subandrio 188

on need for stability in Indonesia 204

on need to reassure Australian public 168

on policy on West New Guinea dispute 139

reputation 153

on support for Malaysia 187, 189

on unifying Australian and Dutch New Guinea 85

on UN’s handling of West New Guinea dispute 95, 146

visit to United States 189

visits to Indonesia 188, 2034

Hawke Labor Government

aid to PNG 2845

Joint Declaration of Principles 247, 2859

Hay, David 224, 231, 245

Hayden, Bill 2856

Healey, Dennis 2067

Heath, Edward 211

Henderson, Anne 52

Herbert, Henry Howard Molyneux (4th Earl of Carnarvon) 2

Heydon, Peter 117, 124

Hicks, Sir Edwin 168

Highlands Liberation Front 21516

Hitler, Adolf 36, 37

Holt Government 203, 213

Holt, Harold

on avoiding war with Indonesia 108

death 202, 209

on defence budgets 193

on end of Confrontation policy 207

on Indonesian–Australian relations 207

on Indonesia’s Confrontation policy 173

on Manus Island base 148

meeting with Hubert Humphrey 208

as Minister for Labour and National Service 97

on political instability in Indonesia 97

as Prime Minister 202

reputation 153

on support for Malaysia 174

on support for PNG’s development 208

as Treasurer 153, 165, 193, 207

on US alliance 108

Holyoake, Keith 137, 189, 196

Hood, John 50

Hoover, Herbert 84

Howson, Peter 190

Hudson, W. J. 7

Hughes, William Morris

annexation of former German possessions in Pacific xxi

antipathy towards Japan 299n112

at Council of Ten Meeting 213

on Australia’s strategic interests in the Pacific 1823, 29

character and personal style 1415, 20, 21, 36

on control of mandated territory 37

on control over British New Guinea 6

Imperial War Cabinet meetings 1920

on importance of New Guinea in Australia’s defence 15, 18, 212, 28, 37

misreading of Wilson 133

on post-war defence policy and expenditure 268

Hughes-Onslow, Captain C. 9

Humphrey, Hubert 2078

Hunt, Atlee 7

Hyde, Sir George 38

Ichirō, Motono 21

Imperial Conferences

London, 1921 27

London, 1937 26, 367

Imperial War Cabinet 19, 20

India, takeover of Goa 140, 141

Indonesia

actions against Dutch interests 934, 97

aid from Australia 204, 309n17

attempted coup 197, 199

claim over Dutch New

Guinea 48, 512, 545, 578, 11112, 117, 135, 136

communist threat 67, 73, 89, 90, 94, 96, 98, 1012, 112, 118, 129, 135, 136

Confrontation policy towards Malaysia 93, 154, 1556, 1745, 197, 203, 206

constitutional reform 93, 97

as direct threat to Australia 1912, 277

Dutch ‘police action’ 51

economic decline 119, 123, 153

expansionist ambitions 601, 78, 83, 103, 104, 11112, 136, 149, 157, 1589, 162, 175, 182, 1834

Foreign Minister’s visit to Australia 10713

Guided Democracy 93, 97, 119, 123

independence 47, 49, 512, 53

invasion of East Timor 265

nationalism 48, 51, 175, 182, 204

political instability 93, 97, 99100, 123, 182

repression of communism 199, 203

strategic importance to Australia 11314, 125, 243, 277

terms of settlement regarding West New Guinea 14950

trade with Australia 204

weapons purchases 94, 107

withdrawal from United Nations 156

Indonesian Army 123 capability 1023

Indonesian independence movement 53

Indonesian–Australian relations Australian support for independence 49, 51, 52

Australia’s approach to 72, 73

British concerns over 66, 68

Casey–Subandrio Joint Announcement 11213, 117

Colombo Plan and 116

conflict over UN debate on West New Guinea 140

development of bilateral relationship 50, 58, 78, 845, 867, 96, 151

during Suharto’s presidency 2035

during Sukarno’s presidency 4950, 51, 57, 200

fears of Indonesia forcefully acquiring West New Guinea 107, 11112, 117, 11819, 1201

friction over West New Guinea dispute 94, 117, 118, 135

Joint Statements on bilateral relationship 86, 11213, 117

Menzies visit to Jakarta 11619

strain over Confrontation policy 15960, 162, 175, 1823, 203

threat of military force to seize West New Guinea 140, 148

trade agreement 116

visit by Subandrio to Australia 107, 10914

Indonesian–British relations 66, 141

Indonesian–Dutch relations 94

Indonesian–Papua New Guinea border

demarcation 175, 188

incursions by Indonesian troops 2778

management of 200, 205, 237, 243

patrolling of 169

Indonesian–PNG relations 2367, 277

Treaty of Mutual Respect, Friendship and Cooperation 286

Indonesian–US relations 98, 141, 148

Ingram, James 1534, 31819n64

Integrated Development Package 285

inter-war diplomacy 256

International Court of Justice 85, 117

Irian Barat (West New Guinea) 107

Irian Jaya separatist movement 265, 276

Irian Jaya–Papua New Guinea border

demarcation 175, 188

incursions by Indonesian troops 2778

management of 200, 205, 237, 243, 276

patrolling of 169

Japan

advance into Southeast Asia and South Pacific 40

alliance with Britain 8, 1214, 21, 27, 296n40

declaration of war against Germany 1112

defeat of Russian navy 7

invasion of China 26

military strategy regarding Australia 412

objection to White Australia policy 32

occupation of German islands north of Equator 12, 15, 1718, 20, 22

as perceived military threat to Australia 78, 9, 1718, 278, 29, 32, 412, 46

Japanese collaborators 53

Jockel, Gordon 203, 2456

Johnson, Charles 209

Johnson, Les 224, 233

Johnson, Lyndon 189

Joint Declaration of Principles (1987) 247, 2859

Joint Declaration of Principles (2013) 289

Joyce, Roger 4

Keating, Paul, on Kokoda war memorial xvii

Kellogg–Briand Pact 25

Kennedy Administration 129, 130, 133, 139, 164, 172, 175

Kennedy, John F.

on application of ANZUS Treaty 327n103

approach to West New Guinea dispute 133, 140

assassination 181

communications with Sukarno 140

concerns about events in Asia 133

intervention to achieve negotiated settlement on West New Guinea 149

meeting with Barwick 175

meeting with Beale 131, 134

meeting with Luns 134

meeting with Menzies 1313

meeting with Sukarno 131, 133, 135

meetings with Macmillan 131, 133, 1402

on US policy towards Indonesia 176, 182

Kennedy, Sir Arther 3

Kent-Hughes, William 57

Kerr, Alan 231

Kerr, John 317n38

Kiki, Albert Maori

background 230

on defence relationship with Australia 264, 269, 280

as Defence spokesman 225

first Defence Report to PGN Parliament 2767

meeting with Fraser 280

as Minister for Foreign Relations and Defence 230

as Minister for Lands and Environment 230

in negotiations over establishment of PNGDF 254, 2589, 260

on PNG’s defence and security policy 2602, 269

pro-Australian stance 230

Killen, James

on Defence Cooperation Program with PNG 274

on defence relationship with PNG 2735, 2756, 27980, 2812

on Joint Statement on defence 27980, 2812

as Minister for the Navy 271

as Minster for Defence 271

visits to PNG 271

Kitchener, Field Marshal Horatio Herbert (1st Earl Kitchener) 7

Kokoda Track xvii

Korean War 50, 63, 67, 70, 75, 76, 185

Ladrone Islands 20

Lake, Marilyn 5

Laos 97, 133, 139, 154, 169, 222

Latham, Sir John 1718, 39

League of Nations mandates 21, 223, 44

Legge, Colonel Gordon 13, 14

Legge, John 123

Lepani, Charles 230

Levi, Noel 230, 254, 258

Lloyd George, David 20, 21

London Agreement 155

Lowe, David 71

Luns, Joseph 81, 86, 131, 134, 141

Lyons Government 35, 36, 40, 74

Lyons, Joseph 26, 35, 36, 37

Macandie, George 17

MacArthur, General Douglas 41

McBride, Philip 67, 68, 85, 945, 100, 1024, 107

McEachern, Sir Malcolm 6

McEwen, John

approach to international diplomacy 98, 138

on approach to West New Guinea dispute 1078, 138

on Australia’s relationship with Asia 1045, 109, 115, 120, 1989, 222

on British withdrawal from region 206, 209, 211

on defence of East New Guinea 105

on defence obligations and security priorities 195

on defence support for Malaysia 187, 188, 18990, 195, 222

on future defence relationship with Papua New Guinea 214

on Indonesian control of West New Guinea 83, 137

on Indonesian–Australian relations 98, 104, 108, 127, 146, 163, 190, 204

influence on security policies 98, 2212

on influencing public opionion 146

on involvement in Vietnam War 1978, 209

on law and order problems in Papua New Guinea 21617

as Minister for External Affairs 221

as Minister for Trade 221

on political/defence committments 1856

on possibility of war with Indonesia 115

on possible guerrilla action in New Guinea 193

as Prime Minister 202, 209

on prioritising security commitments 191

on reliance upon military alliances 11415

reputation 153

retirement from Parliament 221

role in foreign policy towards Southeast Asia xxiiixxiv

on Singapore’s departure from Malaysian federation 1989

status in Cabinet 221

on Sukarno 187

on takeover of Solomon Islands 57, 305n36

on United States alliance 105, 107, 109, 209, 222

McIlwraith, T.J. 34

McIntyre, Lawrence (Jim) 50, 96, 100, 107, 117, 123, 313n68

Mackie, Jamie 113, 250, 251

McMahon, William

approach to Papua New Guinea 220

on Cabinet Notebooks xxiii

character and personal style 153, 220

political career 220

as Prime Minister 205, 220

visit to Indonesia 205

Macmillan Government 130

Macmillan, Harold 99, 131, 133, 1402, 171, 182, 184

McNamara, Robert 189

Makino Nobuaki (Baron) 21, 22

Malaya 45

Malayan Emergency 75

Malaysia

Australian support for 50, 156, 173, 1848

defence by Britain 156, 163, 212, 327n106

establishment of federation 1545

Five Power Defence Arrangement 212

inauguration 155, 174, 322n8

Indonesian military attacks 1556

Michelmore Enquiry and Report 175, 322n8, 328n110

military assistance from Australia 50, 156, 186, 196, 197, 211, 327n106, 330n30, 335n46

succession by Singapore 156, 1989

Malaysia Day 155, 174

Malik, Adam 203, 204, 230

Malphilindo/Malphindo 173, 326n98

Manila Summit 155

Manus Island naval base 45, 64, 68, 70, 94, 148, 219, 240, 243, 244, 245

Marianne Islands 11

Marshall Islands 11, 12, 20

Martin, Alan 181

Massey, William 22

Mataungan Association 215, 218, 271

May, Ron 238

Meaney, Neville viii, 5, 7, 8, 26, 32, 40

Mediansky, F. A. 2512

Menadue, John 275

Mench, Paul 254, 255, 260

Menzies Liberal government

Cabinet debates over defence obligations and security priorities 1903

Cabinet debates over response to Confrontation 1613, 1723, 1868

Cabinet debates over West New Guinea dispute 501, 723, 823, 1007, 1079, 11315, 1238, 1301, 1379, 1436

conscription 70

defence arrangements for Malaysia 174

defence budget 70, 95, 115, 165, 16970, 1712, 194, 196

economic policies 152

electoral success 122, 152, 1801

foreign policy 62, 73, 116

national development 95, 163

support for Malaysia 173, 174

West New Guinea policy 5860, 627, 6870, 73, 7682, 87, 96, 100, 103, 106, 11011, 113, 117, 120, 1245, 126, 14650

Menzies, Robert

on Australia’s influence on PNG’s development xx

character and personal style 48, 50, 152

on defence of Malaysia 162

on defence obligations and security priorities 196

on defence of Papua New Guinea 168, 16970

distrust of Sukarno and Indonesia 63, 100, 119, 121, 128, 132, 158, 172, 194, 200, 331–2n67

on Dutch rule of West New Guinea 523, 66

involvement in Suez Crisis 93

meeting with Kennedy 1313

meeting with Wilson 196

meetings with Churchill 789, 80

meetings with General Nasution 1367, 318n64

meetings with Macmillan 171

meetings with Rusk 1712

meetings with Subandrio 11011

meetings with Sukarno 11619

mindset 132

as Minister for External Affairs 124, 130

on PNG 28

political career 47, 48, 116, 122, 123, 152

on possibility of war with Indonesia 108

retirement from Parliament 200, 202

on Tunku Abdul Rahman 119

on United Nations 53, 63

visit to Indonesia 92, 93, 11619, 200, 311n1

visit to Netherlands East Indies 311n1

visits to London 623, 689, 7880, 92, 93, 171

visits to Papua New Guinea 93, 174

visits to United States 92, 1313, 1712

on war with Indonesia 196

Menzies UAP Government’s

approach to defence of PNG 39

bolstering of defences in New Guinea 39

on Manus Island base 45

reliance on Royal Navy for defence 40

Michelmore Enquiry and Report 175, 322n8, 328n110

Middle East, deployment of

Australian troops 7980

middle power diplomacy 72

military conscription see conscription

Millar, T. B. 250

Millen, E.D. 10

Miller, J. D. B. 250

Momis, John 230

Monash, Lt General Sir John 29

Monroe Doctrine 4, 19, 69

Morauta, Mekere 230

Moresby, Captain John 2

Morrison, Bill

on development of PNG police force 234

as Minister for External Affairs 228

on police field force 34027

portfolios in Whitlam Government 264, 338n1

quashing of notion of defence treaty with PNG 255

visit to PNG 228, 232

Mountbatten, Louis, Earl Mountbatten of Burma 205

Munro Ferguson, Sir Ronald 10, 1214

Murray, Sir Hubert 345

Nadzab airfield 45, 169, 190, 243

Nasser, Gamal Abdel 92, 93

Nasution, General 116, 1367, 188, 318n64

National Front for the Liberation of West Irian 136

National Intelligence Committee 217

National Service training program 95, 115

nationalism, in Asia 52

Nauru 23, 36, 37

Naval Board 9, 10, 32

naval defence plans, Thring Plan 9

naval disarmament 25

‘naval frontier’ 9

Nelson, Hank 34, 42, 229

Netherlands

policy towards West New Guinea 127, 134, 137, 141

proposal to UN General Assembly 140

self-determination for West New Guinea 127

sovereignty over Dutch New Guinea 512, 645, 802, 878, 134

on UN trusteeship for West New Guinea 137

Netherlands East Indies decolonisation and independence 48

police action against Indonesian nationalists 52

New Caledonia 8, 29

New Guinea (island)

possible unification 124

as single strategic entity 52, 60, 62, 73, 77

New Guinea (League of Nations mandated territory) (1921) xxvi

New Guinea Volunteer Rifles 70

New Hebrides 6, 13, 14, 16, 29, 557, 72, 308n94

New South Wales Colonial Government, calls for British possession of New Guinea 23

New Zealand

ANZAC Pact 43

calls for annexation of Tonga and Fiji 2

Nixon Administration 257

Noel-Baker, Philip 55

Non-Aligned Movement 116

North Borneo 45, 61, 154, 175, 322n8, 328n110

North West Cape Naval Communications Station 180

nuclear weapons 115, 315n106

Okuma Shigenobu (Marquis) 20

O’Neill, Robert 250, 251

Organisasi Papua Merdeka (OPM) 265

Orlando, Vittorio 21

Overlack, Peter 6

Pacific Islands Regiment (PIR)

capabilities 171

conversion to PNGDF 238

deployment to support police in PNG 216, 217, 220, 224, 337n71

disbanding of 70

halt to build-up 21213

increase in size 168, 171, 212

re-establishment as battalion of Australian Army 70

third battalion 232

Pacific policy, during First World War 11

Page, Earle 39

Palar, L. N. 61

Paltridge, Shane 181, 190, 193

PANGU Party 229, 230

Papua Act 1906 7

Papua Besena Movement 21516, 218, 254

Papua New Guinea Act 1949 (Cth) xxvi

Papua New Guinea Defence Force (PNGDF)

Australian servicemen subject to Village Court jurisdiction 2656

budget for 229, 238

establishment and development 231, 232, 2356

financial assistance from Australia 266

interim Status of Forces Arrangement 266

involvement in internal security issues 277

‘loan’ personnel 266

major function 277

need for 2389

negotiations over establishment and development 2534, 25760

redesignation ceremony 233, 238

Status of Forces Agreement 2801

Supply Support Arrangements 281

transfer of personnel and defence assets 266

Papua New Guinea (PNG) (formerly Territory of Papua and New Guinea)

access to Australian-built military bases 2445, 250

aid from Australia 2712, 275, 2845

assessment of prospects 233

border control and management 200, 205, 237, 243, 276, 2778

Bougainville Agreement 273

Bougainville crisis 215, 216, 217, 218

civil unrest in Gazelle Peninsula 215, 217, 218

defence relationship with Australia 212, 2223, 229, 2312, 23843, 24552, 2624, 2735, 27882, 290

defence and security policy 2602, 269, 2767

future defence arrangements 21920, 2245

interim defence understandings 2667

interim Status of Forces Arrangements 266

internal instability 24950, 278

internal security problems 21517, 224, 228, 234, 240, 241, 2434, 254

Joint Declaration of Principles (1987) 2859

Joint Statement on defence (1977) 274, 27982

law and order problems 21517, 218, 223, 224

maritime resources 276

naming of country xxvi, 339n3

national unity 254, 265, 268, 272, 278

path to self-government and independence 21819, 224, 2278, 231, 237, 2647, 271

place in Australia’s defence outlook xiiixvii

place in Australia’s security environment 2901

police force 2289, 234, 238, 240, 241

relationship with Australia xviixxi

secession threats 241, 254, 278

as South East Asian country 215

strategic importance to Australia 2435, 2678, 2778, 2823, 2868

secessionist threats 21516, 218, 223, 224, 254, 265, 2723, 275

tribal fighting in the Highlands 217

Village Court system 2656

visit by Gorton 218

visits by Fraser 270, 280

visits by Peacock 270, 280

visits by Whitlam 227

Papua New Guinea Provisional Administration Act 1945–46 (Cth) xxvi

Papua and New Guinea Select Committee on Constitutional Development 21314

Papua New Guinea–Australian relations 228, 2301, 242, 272

annual security diaolgue 290

Integrated Development Package 285

Joint Declaration of Principles (1987) 247, 2859

Joint Declaration of Principles (2013) 289

Joint Statement on defence (1977) 27982, 286, 288

Ministerial Forum 285

Status of Forces Agreement 2801

Papuan Black Power Group 215

Papuan campaign 412, 46

Papuan Infantry Regiment 167

Papuan separatism 21516

Paris Peace Conference 21, 23, 45

Parkhill, Sir Archdale 37

Parsons, Graham 129

Peacock, Andrew

as Minister for the Army 270

as Minister for External Affairs 220, 221, 228

as Minister for External Territories 270, 271

as Minister for Foreign Affairs 270

on PNG–Australia relationship 271, 34160

visits to PNG 270, 280

Pearce, Senator George 8, 13, 1516, 27, 367

Pemberton, Gregory 150, 151, 189, 201

Petherbridge, Samuel 12

Petrov Royal Commission 50

Piesse, E. L. 289

PKI (Partai Komunis Indonesia) 49, 123

Plan Pygmalion 188

Port Moresby

defence of 42

as potential military base 378

Portuguese Timor, Indonesian claim to 61, 162, 171, 175, 326n89

Primrose, Brian 1, 3, 294n1

Pritchett, Bill 246, 2479, 250, 2612

Privy Council, appeals to 334n29

Queensland Colonial Government, attempted annexation of eastern New Guinea 34

Rabaul, US naval base 39

racial prejudice, against Indonesia 55

regional security policy

during 1950s 73

independence 60

Reid, Sir George 27

Renouf, Alan 151

Renville Agreement 51

Returned and Services League (RSL) 112

Robinson, Sir Hercules 2

role in foreign policy towards Southeast Asia 98

Rostow, Walt 131, 175

Roy Milne Lecture 184

Royal Australian Air Force, strength 80, 95

Royal Australian Navy

establishment 6, 7

strength 80, 148

Royal Navy, defence of Australia 27, 29, 32, 40, 456

Rusk, Dean

on coverage of ANZUS Treaty 256

on defence of Malaysia 164

on Indonesian interference in East New Guinea 175

on John Gorton 209

meeting with Barwick 175

meeting with Beale 1478

meeting with Luns 134

meeting with Menzies 1712

on UN trusteeship for West New Guinea 133, 317n37

on US policy regarding Indonesia 148

as US Secretary of State 131

Russo–Japanese War 1905 7

Sabah 154

Salisbury Government (UK) 5

Sandys, Duncan 184

Sarawak 154, 175, 322n8, 328n110

Scherber, Frederick 104, 313n53

Scholes, Gordon 290

Scullin Government 35

Second World War

Australian casualties 42

number of Australians who served in PNG xvi

in Pacific 405

Papuan campaign 412, 46

selective military service 194, 195

self-determination, Australian advocacy of principle 110, 112, 118, 127, 134, 136, 137, 140, 145

Service, James 4

Shann, K.C.O. (Mick) 50, 87, 153, 157, 1824, 192, 303n4, 329n8

visits to PNG 246

Shaw, Patrick 50, 128, 140

Shedden, Sir Frederick 87

Sherger, Sir Frederick 168

Siaguru, Tony 230

Sinclair, Ian 276

Singapore

British Naval base 4, 9, 38, 40, 456, 205, 2067

fall to Japanese 46

membership of Malaysia 154

succession from Malaysia 156, 1989

Singapore Strategy 40, 456

Smith, Admiral Sir Victor 233, 262

Smuts, General Louis 22

Solomon Islands 6

acquisition by Australia 305n36

British protectorate 14, 29, 57

possible union with Papua New Guinea 123, 126

Somare, Michael

on aid from Australia 2712

background 229

character and personal style 22930

as Chief Minister in House of Assembly 229

on defence cooperation 262, 269, 280

as Defence spokesman in House of Assembly 225

development of Indonesian– PNG relationship 2367

leadership of PANGU Party 229

meeting with Suharto 237

meetings with Fraser 280

in negotiations over establishment of PNGDF 254

on PNG–Australia relationship 2301, 291

on PNG’s defence force 238

on police field force 238

timeline for PNG independence 2645

visits to Australia 233, 2378, 2712, 275

visits to Indonesia 237, 280

on Whitlam 3395

South East Asia Collective Defence Treaty (SEATO) 75, 83, 89, 125, 156, 185, 189, 196, 309n6

South Pacific, colonial calls for

annexation of islands 15

South Pacific Commission 43

Spender, Percy

as Ambassador to Washington 71, 97

character and personal style 60, 667, 68, 71

delegate to United Nations General Assembly 71

Hughes’s influence 28, 56

on Indonesian sovereignty over West New Guinea 534, 589, 646, 71, 87, 91

meeting with Sukarno 578

meetings with British authorities 657

meetings with Dutch authorities 645

policy on West New Guinea 589, 65, 66, 73, 103, 110, 111

political career 53

retirement from Parliament 71

security screen initiative 5561, 71

on United Nations 66

Spooner, William 83, 95, 98, 103, 109, 127, 1389, 315n106

Squires, Lt General Ernest 38

Stanley, Edward Henry Stanley (15th Earl of Derby) 3

Stanley, Peter 40, 412

Status of Forces Agreement 2801

Stevens, David 9

Stevens, Sir Roger 133

Stirling, Alfred 81

strategic arc north of the continent 38

Strategic Assessment Papers xx

strategic environment of Australia

during inter-war period 2632

map presented to Hughes by American scholars 28, 30i

Piesse’s map of Australian sphere of influence 28, 31i

place of Papua New Guinea 2901

post-war zone of strategic responsiblity 45

prior to First World War 710

Street, Brigadier Geoffrey 378

Subandrio, Dr

assurances regarding Indonesian intentions 112, 117, 128, 135, 149, 314n88

Australian visit 86, 107, 10914

on Australia’s attitude towards Asia 135

on colonialism 118

on East New Guinea 128

on Indonesian–Australian relations 96, 11213, 117, 135

joint announcement with Casey 11213, 117

on Malaysia 155

meeting with Menzies in Jakarta 116, 118

personality and character 96, 154

on racial difference 118

on West New Guinea dispute 96, 112

Subardjo 76

Subritzky, John 154, 155, 194, 201, 21112

Suez Crisis 50, 923, 105, 221

Suharto, General

on Indonesian–PNG relationship 2367

meeting with Somare 237

as president 197, 199, 201, 203

on stability of PNG 237

visit to Australia 205

Sukarno, Achmad

character and personal style 489, 50, 119, 1534

on claim to West New Guinea 107, 117, 118, 119, 135, 140

Guided Democracy policy 93, 97, 119, 123

independence declaration 47

invitation to visit to Australia 118, 119, 160

loss of leadership 197, 200, 203

on Malaysia 155

meeting with Casey 778

meeting with Kennedy 131, 135

meeting with Spender 578

meeting with Tunku Abdul Rahman 155

meetings with Barwick 149, 1745

meetings with Menzies 11619

overseas visits 93

political career and power 48, 116, 123, 154

as President 489, 119

support for dissident movement in East New Guinea 176

view of Australia 4950

‘Year of Living Dangerously’ speech 192

Tamzil 117

Tange, Sir Arthur 123, 136, 142, 149, 159, 1612

on application of ANZUS Treaty to PNG 256

at meeting with General Nasution 136

Cabinet submission on West New Guinea 123

on defence preparedness 164

on deployment of PIR in Papua New Guinea 217

distrust of Indonesia 149

on friction in Indonesian– Australian relations 1423

on Indonesian threats to Australian interests 161, 1612

meeting with Rusk 164

on military assistance to Malaysia 327n106

on PNG Defence Force 229

as Secretary of the Department of External Affairs 87

on self-determination for Papua New Guinea 162

on strategic importance of West New Guinea 878

Tarling, Nicholas 73

Territory Intelligence Committee 325n71

Territory of New Guinea, Australian UN trusteeship over 44

Territory of Papua, Australian control over xxvi, 7

Territory of Papua and New Guinea

adoption of name Papua New Guinea 339n3

Australian administration xxvi, 45

Australian responsibility for defence 89, 1012, 125, 127, 145, 151, 194, 197

development to serve security interests 62

Indonesian claims to 61

strategic importance to Australia 44

strengthening of defences 16770, 1712, 1801, 190, 192

visit by Menzies 93

Thomas, Peter 170

Thomson, George 21011, 212

Thorneycroft, Peter 171

Thring, Commander W. H. C. S. (Hugh) 89, 26, 44

Timbs, Maurice 117

Tonga 2, 6

Townley, Athol 148, 153, 167, 181

correspondence with General Nasution 137

on Indonesian–Australian relations 146

on inevitability of Indonesian

takeover 138

on Manus Island naval base 148

meetings with General Nasution 136, 137

reputation 153

submission on military importance of West New Guinea 123

trade, with Indonesia 204

Treaty of Versailles 23, 36

Truman Administration 84

Tunku Abdul Rahman meeting with Sukarno 155 personality and character 119 on UN trusteeship for West New Guinea 129, 132

Turner, Mark 34, 42

United Nations

Evatt’s role at 445

and Indonesian independence 512, 53

negotiations over Dutch New Guinea 834, 85

United Nations General Assembly, Indonesian resolution 97

United Nations Good Offices Committee (GOC) 51, 304n8

United States

Cold War strategy 70, 99, 1401

concern over political instability in Indonesia 96, 99, 129

defence of Pacific 95

expectations of allies 164

non-engagement policy on West New Guinea dispute 6970, 79, 84, 97, 99, 1067, 128

policy towards Indonesia 170, 176, 182

policy towards Malaysian crisis 170

proposed UN trusteeship for West New Guinea 129, 1301, 133

relations with Indonesia 98, 170

requests for military assistance in Vietnam 195

review of policy on West New Guinea 12930

support for negotiated settlement on West New Guinea 142, 148, 149

sympathy for Australia’s stance on West New Guinea 84, 95, 1067

United States Air Force 45

United States–Australian relations, conflict of interest over West New Guinea 98, 1401, 142, 1478, 150

US alliance

concerns over 95, 98

sole reliance upon 212

support for 109

see also ANZUS Treaty

Vanimo, patrol base at 70

Vietnam War

Cabinet debates over 50, 102, 1978, 2089

increase in Australia’s commitment by Holt 2089

initial deployment of Australian troops 1978

opposition to Australian involvement 153, 185

possibility of Australian involvement 185, 190

US request for assistance 1956

Walker, Patrick Gordon 60

Waller, Sir Keith 218, 224, 246

Walstab, Lieutenant Colonel 35

War Book 334

War Cabinet 39

Washington Naval Treaty 25, 34

Waters, Christopher 126

Watt, Alan 689, 81

Wells, Lt General Sir Henry 105

White Australia policy 8, 26, 29, 32, 36, 53, 77, 119, 151

Whitlam, E. Gough

at ALP Special National Conference in 1963 180

as Deputy Leader of ALP 153, 180

on Indonesian–Australian relations 241

as leader of ALP 227

meetings with Somare 241

on PNG–Australian relationship 228, 242, 339n11

visit to Indonesia 241

visits to PNG 227, 233, 241, 271

Whitlam Government

constitutional crisis 265

defence cooperation arrangements with Indonesia 242

defence policy towards PNG 233, 235, 240

desire for national unity in PNG 265, 268

dismissal 270

long-term defence relationship with PNG 252, 2557

policy on PNG independence 231, 254, 2689

study of defence bases and facilities within Australia 2423

timeline for PNG self-government and independence 231, 237, 2645

transfer of defence responsibilities to PNG 263

Willesee, Don 258, 259, 284

Wilson Government 205, 210

Wilson, Harold 195, 203, 205

Wilson, Woodrow 1819, 21, 22, 133

Wilton, General John 151

Wilton, Sir John 193

Wingti Government 285, 289

Wingti, Paias 2845, 289

Wisdom, Evan 35

Woodard, Garry

on Australia’s objective in West New Guinea dispute 52

on Barwick’s approach to foreign policy 178, 179

on Barwick’s approach to West New Guinea dispute 143

on Beale’s misunderstanding of US policy 130

on British concerns over Indonesian amibitions 160

diplomatic career 304n13

on fears associated with West New Guinea dispute 55, 150

on Menzies’ misreading of Kennedy 133

on racial prejudice against Indonesia 55

Yamin, Mohammed 601

Yap 11, 12, 20

Young, Sir John 2

Younger, Kenneth 623, 132

Zijlstra, Jelle 141

Australia's Northern Shield?

   by Bruce Hunt