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Australia's Northern Shield?

NOTES

Introduction

1Defence Committee 30 May 1956, Agendum No 54/1956 and Attachment No 129/1956, Strategic Importance of New Guinea, NAA A2031, 129/1956.

2Australian Strategic Analysis and Defence Policy Objectives, September 1976, in Stephen Frühling (ed.), A History of Australian Strategic Policy Since 1945, Defence Publishing Services, Canberra, 2009, paras 224 and 227.

3The Defence of Australia 1987, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1987, para 1.40.

4ibid., para 2.53.

52016 Australian Defence White Paper, Department of Defence, Canberra, 2016, paras 2.2, 3.7 and 2.62.

6See Joan Beaumont, The Evolution of Australian Foreign Policy, 1901–1945, Occasional Paper Number 1, Australian Institute of International Affairs, Dyason House, East Melbourne, 1989, p.4.

7H. Nelson, ‘The Enemy at the Door: Australia and New Guinea in World War II,’ seminar paper delivered at Tsukuba University, Japan, 21 July 1998, p. 8. Nelson has based his larger figure of over 300,000 on the number of troops attached to Australian Divisions which served in Papua New Guinea. The exact number is not known. A Department of External Territories draft Cabinet submission dated 19 May 1970 referred to a figure of 114,500 Australian troops as having served in Papua New Guinea. This may account for Army personnel only. NAA A452, 1970/1327.

8Peter Stanley, Invading Australia: Japan and the Battle for Australia, 1942, Viking Press, Camberwell, 2008, p. 188.

9L. Wigmore (ed.), They Dared Mightily, Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 1963.

10Nelson, ‘The Enemy at the Door,’ p. 13.

11Kokoda Track Authority,www.kokodatrackauthority.org, 6 December 2016.

12E. Wolfers (ed.), Australia’s Northern Neighbours: Independent or Dependent?, Nelson in association with the Australian Institute of International Affairs, Melbourne, 1976, p. 7.

13Speech by Robert Menzies in Papua New Guinea, NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, MS 4936, Series 6, Box 277 Folder 187.

14Cabinet Submission 327, June 1970, Papua New Guinea: Implications for Early Self-Government. NAA A5873 Vol 2, p. 9, para 20.

15Paul Dibb, in ‘The Importance of the Inner Arc to Australian Defence Policy and Planning’, Security Challenges, Vol 8, No 4 (Summer 2012), pp. 13-31. A collection of Strategic Basis Papers dating from 1946 to 1976 is contained in Stephen Frühling (ed.), A History of Australian Strategic Policy Since 1945, Defence Publishing Service, Canberra, 1987.

16Cable 1005, Evatt to N. J. O. Makin, Leader of the Australian Delegation to the Second Part of the First Session of the UN General Assembly, 20 July 1946, in W. J. Hudson and W. Way (eds), Documents on Australian Foreign Policy (DAFP), Vol X, Australian Government Publishing Service (AGPS), Canberra, 1993, p. 56.

17Cable 393, Evatt to Keith Bailey, member of the Australian delegation to the second part of the First Session of the UN General Assembly, 22 November 1946, containing text of message from Evatt to John Foster Dulles, United States alternate representative at the second part of the First Session of the UN General Assembly, ibid., p. 398.

18Gregory Pemberton, All the Way: Australia’s Road to Vietnam, Allen & Unwin, North Sydney, 1987, p. 105.

19Peter Edwards with Gregory Pemberton, Crises and Commitments: The Politics and Diplomacy of Australia’s Involvement in Southeast Asian Conflicts 19481965, Allen & Unwin, North Sydney 1992, Peter Dennis and Jeffrey Grey, Emergency and Confrontation: Australian Military Operations in Malaya and Borneo 1950-1966, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, 1996 and Peter Edwards, A Nation at War: Australian Politics, Society and Diplomacy during the Vietnam War 19651975, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, 1997.

20Cabinet Notebook 1/336 of 26 January 1972. NAA A11099 1/336. A duplicate record of the meeting can be found in Cabinet Notebook 1/121. The advice that ministers were not shown the notebooks was provided to author by Fred Chaney, Minister Administrative Services (1978), Aboriginal Affairs (1978–1980) and Social Security (1980–1983).

21The discussions in Cabinet were recorded by the note-taker in an abbreviated or shorthand form and in the present tense (reflecting the speed of the exchanges in Cabinet). Almost no attention was paid to punctuation. They have been reproduced here in their original form often without full stops or commas to note the end of a comment. At times the handwriting is indecipherable or open to interpretation but a best effort has been made to be as accurate as possible. See Fact Sheet 128 from the National Archives of Australia for a history of the Notebooks.

22Sean Dorney, The Embarrassed Colonialist, Lowy Institute, Penguin Books, Sydney, 2016.

23The League of Nations mandate was conferred on His Britannic Majesty, King George V, to be exercised on his behalf by the Government of the Commonwealth of Australia. In 1946 the United Nations placed the territory of New Guinea under a Trusteeship to be administered by Australia. The text of the mandate and the Trusteeship Agreement are in T. B. Millar, Australia in Peace and War, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1978, pp. 443-444 and 450-452 respectively.

Chapter 1

1Brian Primose began his authoritative study of Australian political involvement in New Guinea with the statement that ‘the underlying reason for the Australian colonies’ involvement in New Guinea was the growing fear that their strategic and economic well-being was in danger. In danger because of the lawlessness in an area with which there was increasing colonial contact, and in danger because of the increasing expansion of European and American interests into the Pacific region’. B. N. Primrose, Australian Involvement in New Guinea 1883–1908, MA Thesis, School of History, University of New South Wales, 1968, p. 1.

2N. Meaney, The Search for Security in the Pacific 19011914, Vol 1, Sydney University Press, Sydney, 1976, p. 9.

3Statement and subsequent extracts compiled in a memorandum prepared by E. Piesse, ‘The Spheres of Interest of Australia and New Zealand’, 6 November 1920. Piesse held the position of Director of Pacific Branch, Prime Minister’s Department. NAA MP1049, 1920/0465.

4ibid.

5J. Moresby, Discoveries and Surveys in New Guinea, London, 1876, quoted in J. Whittaker, N. Gash, J. Hookey and R. Lacey, Documents and Readings in New Guinea History, Jacaranda Press, Milton, 1975, p. 439.

6Minute of the Cabinet of New South Wales sent by Premier John Robertson to the Governor, Lord Rosemead, 31 May 1875 for transmission to London. ibid

7ibid.

8ibid.

9Reply from the Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor, 8 December 1875. ibid.

10A. Kerr, A Federation in These Seas, Attorney General’s Department, Barton, Canberra, 2009, p. 15. Kerr’s thorough and masterly presentation of the legal and legislative background to the acquisition by Australia of its overseas territories is an essential reference book.

11Despatch dated 26 April 1886 from Kennedy to Derby quoted in Whittaker et al, Documents and Readings in New Guinea History, ibid, p.446.

12Despatch Derby to Kennedy11 July 1883 quoted in Whittaker et al, ibid, pp. 447-449.

13Alan Kerr, ibid., p. 16.

14B. N. Primrose, Australian Involvement in New Guinea 1883–1908, MA Thesis, School of History, University of New South Wales, 1968, p. 38. See also M. George, ‘The Annexation of New Guinea’, ANU Historical Journal, 1966, Vol 1, No 3-8, pp. 17-23.

15R. B. Joyce, ‘Australian Interests in New Guinea before 1906’, in W. J. Hudson (ed.), Australia and Papua New Guinea, Sydney University Press, Sydney, 1971, pp. 11-12.

16See Piesse’s compilation of statements on the Pacific. The resolution is titled ‘The Inter-colonial Convention. The Monroe Doctrine for the Western Pacific South of the Equator’, loc. cit. p. 7.

17ibid.

18Quoted in Whittaker et al, p. 454.

19Stuart Ward, ‘Security: Defending Australia’s Empire’, D. M. Schreuder and S. Ward (eds), Australia’s Empire, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008, p. 237.

20E. Piesse, loc cit., p. 19.

21Sydney Morning Herald, 26 January 1885, p. 6.

22Kerr, ibid. p. 19.

23See Chapter 1, Part V, Clause 51 (xxx) of the Australian Constitution in P. H. Lane, An Introduction to the Australian Constitution, The Law Book Company Limited, Sydney, 1974, p. 246.

24N. Meaney, The Search for Security, p. 33.

25Marilyn Lake, ‘The Australian Dream of an Island Empire: Race, Reputation and Resistance’, Australian Historical Studies, Vol 46 No 3 September 2015, pp. 410-424.

26ibid.

27ibid, p. 411 and p. 415.

28idib., p. 417.

29P. Overlack, ‘“Bless the Queen and Curse the Colonial Office”, Australasian Reaction to German Consolidation in the Pacific 1871-99’, The Journal of Pacific History, Vol 32:2, September 1998, p. 150.

30Australia, House of Representatives, 1901, Debates, Vol V1, 12 November 1901, p. 7079.

31House of Representatives, Debates, Vol VI, 19 November 1901, p. 7415.

32House of Representatives, Debates, Vol VI, 19 November 1901, p. 7446.

33Neville Meaney has provided a more extensive list of early members of the Commonwealth Parliament who were influential in developing Australia’s foreign and defence polices. See N. Meaney, Search for Security, ibid, p. 13.

34ibid, p. 13.

35Quoted in Stuart Ward, loc cit., p. 243.

36See A. Kerr, ibid, Chapter 3 for a detailed analysis of the debate in Parliament.

37W. J. Hudson, Australia and the Colonial Question at the United Nations, Sydney University Press, Sydney, 1970, p. 13.

38Minute, Hunt to Minister for External Affairs, 1904, NAA A1108, Vol 61.

39See Peter Overlack, ‘“A Vigorous Offensive”: Core Aspects of Australian Maritime Defence Concerns before 1914’, in David Stevens and John Reeves (eds), Southern Trident: Strategy, History and the Rise of Australian Naval Power, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, 2001, pp. 140-159 for an analysis of Australia’s defence policy in the pre-war period.

40See, for example, text of interview given by Deakin to the Melbourne Herald on 12 June 1905 and Deakin’s statement in House of Representatives, in Debates, 1905 Session Vol 11, No 31. The Anglo–Japanese Alliance was renewed in July 1911. The Japanese battle cruiser HJIMS Ibuki escorted the Australian convoy which left Albany in November 1914 with Australian and New Zealand troops bound for the Middle East and Europe.

41Meaney, Search for Security, ibid, p. 123.

42Cited in Douglas Newton, Hell-Bent: Australia’s Leap into the Great War, Scribe Publications, Melbourne, 2014, p. 48.

43Scheme of Defence – Mobile Forces of Australia – Strategical Considerations, NAA B197, 1856/4/156.

44General Scheme of Defence, Commonwealth of Australia 1913, p. 18, NAA MP826/1, 3(B).

45See David Stevens, ‘Defend the North: Commander Thring, Captain Hughes-Onslow and the beginnings of Australian Naval Strategic Thought’ in David Stevens and John Reeve (eds), Southern Trident: Strategy, History and the Rise of Australian Naval Power, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, 2001, pp. 225-241.

46‘Report on the Naval Defence of Australasia’ by Commander W. H. Thring, R.A.N., 5 July 1913, NAA MP1049, 1915/054.

47ibid.

48ibid.

49David Stevens, ‘Defend the North’, ibid., p. 234.

50ibid., pp. 237-240.

51ibid., p. 240.

52See Douglas Newton, Hell-Bent: Australia’s Leap into the Great War, 2014 for a detailed account of Australia’s decision to offer support to Britain.

53Text of telegram in NAA MP1049/1, 1914/0307 and UK Archives ADM 137/5.

54Memorandum by the Minister for Defence to the Naval Board, 10 August 1914, ibid.

55Briefing Note, ‘Pacific Islands – Pelew, Marianne, Caroline and Marshall Groups – Occupation by Japanese’, NAA A981, MARS 2, part 3.

56Handwritten minutes from the Naval Board, 27 August 1914, ibid.

57See Joan Beaumont, Broken Nation: Australians in the Great War, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, 2014, pp. 28-31 for a description of the campaign to seize Rabaul.

58A detailed history of the preparations and execution of the order to seize German New Guinea is contained in the ‘Report by the Minister of State for Defence on the Military Occupation of the German New Guinea Possessions’, 10 October 1921, NAA A5954, 1085/2.

59See H. Frei, ‘Japan in World Politics and Pacific Expansion, 1870–1919’ in J. Moses and C. Pugsley (eds), The German Empire and Britain’s Pacific Dominions 18711919, Essays on the Role of Australia and New Zealand in World Politics in the Age of Imperialism, Regina Books, Claremont, California, 2000, p. 187, for an analysis of Australia’s campaign to secure the islands north of the Equator.

60The Age, 19 August 1914.

61Cablegrams of 11 August 1914 and 25 August 1914 from Secretary of State for Colonies to Governor-General for forwarding to the Prime Minister, NAA A981, MARS 2, part 3. Harcourt’s message was in response to a cable of 24 August 1914 from the Prime Minister in which an assurance was sought that ‘Japanese action will not extend to territory except on Continental Eastern Asia. This is important’. ibid.

62Cablegram of 10 September 1914 from Secretary of State for Colonies to Governor-General for forwarding to the Prime Minister, ibid.

63Briefing, ‘Pacific Islands’, ibid.

64ibid.

65Letter, Harcourt to Munro Ferguson, 6 December 1914, NLA MS 696/1306 -07.

66Personal Despatch from Munro Ferguson to Harcourt, 23 January 1915, NLA MS 696 Box 1, Roll 1, item 524-998.

67Cable, Munro Ferguson to Harcourt, 18 February 1915, MS Harcourt Papers, 479, Bodleian Library, Oxford University.

68Letter, Munro Ferguson to Harcourt, 13 May 1915, ibid.

69ibid.

70Telegram, Munro Ferguson to Secretary of State for Colonies, 19 May 1915. NLA MS 696, Box 9, items 6616-6720.

71Letter, Harcourt to Munro Ferguson, 27 March 1915, Harcourt Papers Bodleian Library, ibid. In his letter of 24 March 1915 Harcourt also mentioned handing over not only Solomon Islands but also Bougainville, New Ireland and New Guinea to Australian authority.

72Letter, Harcourt to Munro Ferguson, 13 July 1915, Harcourt Papers, Bodleian Library, ibid

73For a comprehensive account of Hughes’s approach to the New Guinea question and the negotiations at the peace conference, see P. Spartalis, The Diplomatic Battles of Billy Hughes, Hale and Ironmonger, Sydney, 1983 and more recently C. Bridge, William Hughes’ Australia, Haus Publishing, London, 2011.

74Letter, Munro Ferguson to British Prime Minister Asquith, 5 December 1915, NLA Munro Ferguson Papers, MS 696, Box 1, Items 654-812.

75Letter, Munro Ferguson to Bonar Law, 8 November 1915, ibid.

76Letter, Munro Ferguson to Asquith, 5 December 1915, ibid.

77Letter, Munro Ferguson to Secretary of State for Colonies, 25 January 1915, NLA Munro Ferguson Papers MS 696, Box 9, items 6904-6994.

78ibid.

79Letter, G. F. Pearce, Minister for Defence, to Hughes, 14 January 1916. Pearce papers, Australian War Memorial, 3DRL, 2222/1/148. Also in P. Heydon, Quiet Question: A Study of George Forster Pearce, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 1965, p. 231.

80ibid.

81ibid. Pearce repeated a similar argument to the Secretary of his Department in May 1917 and told him that the ‘Commonwealth would strongly object to those islands and territories lying south of the Equator and formerly in German possession being either handed back to Germany or to any other foreign power’. Letter, Pearce to Secretary, Department of Defence, 30 May 1917. NAA B197, 1851/2/81.

82Sydney Morning Herald, 14 and 18 January 1916.

83‘Report on the Japanese Danger’ dated 24 June 1916 and prepared at the end of 1915 attached to letter of 3 February 1917 from the Naval Secretary to the Secretary of the Prime Minister’s Department. NAA MP1049/1, 1915/054.

84ibid.

85ibid.

86‘The Importance to Australia of German New Guinea and the Islands (Lately German) North of the Equator, 11 July 1918. NAA MP 1049/1, 1915/054.

87ibid.

88ibid.

89Hughes reported in The Age, 18 and 19 May 1917, quoted in N. Meaney, Australia and World Crisis, 1914–1923, Sydney University Press, 2009, p. 246.

90Letter from Hughes dated 7 February 1917, ibid. p. 250.

91Letter dated 8 February 1917, ibid.

92Letter dated 13 August 1917, ibid.

93For details of the resolutions passed by the Australian Parliament, see A. Kerr, A Federation in These Seas, ibid., pp. 71- 75.

94Cable from Reading [British Ambassador, Washington] to A. J. Balfour [Foreign Secretary] and W. Long [Colonial Secretary], 2 June 1918, Balfour Papers, British Library, BL ADD 49741, Folio 200.

95Joan Beaumont, Broken Nation: Australians in the Great War, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, 2014, p. 439.

96Hughes speech of 31 May 1918 reprinted in the New York Times, 1 June 1918 p. 9. A slightly different ordering of the speech also appeared in the Argus, 1 June 1918, MP1049/1, 1920/0465. Hughes’s speech was reported extensively in the press in Japan. See reports in NAA B197, 1877/5/155.

97Hughes speech of 1 June 1918 reprinted in the Argus on 13 July 1918. ibid.

98For a fresh history of Hughes’s arguments before the Allied leaders, see Joan Beaumont, Broken Nation, pp. 442-450 and 530-551.

99Imperial War Cabinet (IWC), Meeting No 31, 14 August 1918. NLA Minutes of Meetings of the War Cabinet and the Cabinet 1916–1939. Microfilm G15719-15777.

100IWC Meeting No 36, 5 November 1918, ibid.

101Joan Beaumont, Broken Nation, p. 531 and p. 505.

102Letter, Hughes to Lloyd George, 4 November 1918, House of Lords, London, Lloyd George Papers, F/28/2/7. Also cited in L. F. Fitzhardinge, The Little Digger 19141952: William Morris Hughes A Political Biography , Vol II, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1979, pp. 348-349.

103See letter, Lloyd George to Hughes, 18 November 1918, Lloyd George Papers, ibid.

104Ian Nish, Alliance in Decline: A Study in Anglo-Japanese Relations 1908-1923, The Athlone Press, London, 1972, pp. 196-211.

105Joan Beaumont, Broken Nation, pp. 532-539.

106Secretary’s Notes of a Conversation held in M. Pinchon’s Room at the Quai d’Orsay, Paris, 24 January 1919. Papers relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) The Paris Peace Conference 1919, Vol III, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1943, pp. 720-722.

107Meeting on 27 January 1919, ibid., pp. 738-740.

108Meeting on 27 January 1919, ibid., pp. 746-747.

109See P. Spartalis, The Diplomatic Battles of Billy Hughes and N. Meaney, Australia and World Crisis for comprehensive accounts of Hughes at the Peace Conference.

110Quoted in Fitzhardinge, The Little Digger Vol II , p. 397. The League of Nations approved the mandate on 17 December 1920.

111Australia, House of Representatives, 1919, Debates, Vol LXXXIX, 10 September 1919, pp. 12173-74.

112Andrews contends that Hughes’s arguments at the Peace Conference were based on an antipathy towards Japan and that he pursued an objective to thwart Japanese interests. See E. Andrews, The ANZAC Illusion: Anglo–Australian Relations during World War I, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993, p. 208.

Chapter 2

1For details of the terms of the Washington treaty and subsequent naval disarmament negotiations, see T. B. Millar, Australia in Peace and War, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1978, pp. 96-98.

2For a detailed account of the proposed Pacific Pact, see David Bird, J. A. Lyons – the Tame Tasmanian: Appeasement and Rearmament in Australia 1932–39. Australian Scholarly Publishing, North Melbourne, 2008, pp. 183-190.

3Neville Meaney, Australia and World Crisis 1914–1923, 451.

4Australia, House of Representatives, 1920, Debates, Vol XCIII, 9 September 1920, pp. 4386-4394.

5Australia, House of Representatives, 1921, Debates, Vol XCIV, 7 April 1921, pp. 7262-7270.

6ibid.

7ibid.

8Australia, House of Representatives, 1920, Debates, Vol XCIII, 14 September 1920, p. 4452-4457.

9Letter, Hughes to the Governor-General and the Secretary of State for the Colonies, 7 July 1920, NAA A2219, External Relations, Vol 20.

10Letter, Churchill to Hughes, 13 May 1921, ibid.

11Note from Piesse, Director Pacific Branch to the Secretary, Prime Minister’s Department, 8 December 1920, NAA A2219, External Relations, Vol 20.

12See Neville Meaney, Fears and Phobias: E. L. Piesse and the Problem of Japan 1909–39, National Library of Australia, Canberra, 1966 for a detailed analysis of Piesse’s views on the threat posed by Japan.

13Report on the Military Defence of Australia by a Conference of Senior Officers of the Australian Military Forces, 1920, Vols I and II. AWM 1, 20/7.

14ibid.

15Neville Meaney, Australia and World Crisis 1914–1923, ibid. p. 438. See also P. Twomey, ‘Small Power Security through Great Power Arms Control? – The Australian Perceptions of Disarmament, 19191923’, War and Society, Vol 8, No 1, May 1990, pp. 71-99.

16An Appreciation of the Present Position of Australia with regard to Defence: The Potential Enemy, 1 July 1920, NAA MP 1049, 1920/0215.

17ibid.

18Defence of Mandated Territory, Council of Defence Agenda No 13/1924, Council of Defence Sub-Committee Agenda 7/24 Mandated Territories – Defence Measures: Notes by Military Member of Sub-Committee. NAA B197, 1851/2/211.

19ibid.

20ibid.

21ibid.

22ibid.

23M. Turner, Papua New Guinea, The Challenge of Independence: A Nation in Turmoil, Penguin Books Australia, Ringwood, 1990, p. 7.

24H. Nelson, ‘The Enemy at the Door: Australia and New Guinea in World War II’, Seminar Paper, Tsukuba University, Japan, 1998, p. 8.

25Letter, Lieutenant Governor, Sir Hubert Murray to Prime Minister James Scullin, 28 April 1930. NAA MP729/6. 16/401/187.

26ibid.

27Letter, Wisdom to Secretary, Prime Minister’s Department, 17 May 1930. NAA MP729/6, 16/401/187.

28Letter, Wisdom to Prime Minister Lyons, January 1933 quoted in letter, M. L. Shepherd, Secretary, Department of Defence to Secretary, Prime Minister’s Department February 1935, ibid.

29ibid.

30ibid.

31See article by Hjalmar Schacht, Minister for Economics (1934–1937) in the Nazi Government. H. Schacht, ‘Germany’s Colonial Demands’, Foreign Affairs, Vol 15, No 2, January 1937, pp. 223-234.

32David Bird, J. A. Lyons – The ‘Tame Tasmanian’: Appeasement and Rearmament in Australia, 1932–1939, Australian Scholarly Publishing, North Melbourne, 2008, pp. 144-145.

33ibid., p.145.

34Australia, Senate 1936, Debates, Vol 149, 13 March 1936 p. 121.

35ibid., p. 123.

36Document No 3, Germany – Question of Colonies: Memorandum prepared for Delegation to Imperial Conference, no date, Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, 1937–1938, Vol 1, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1975, pp. 12-14.

37ibid.

38Document No 37, 2 June 1937 Minutes of Eleventh Meeting of Principal Delegates to Imperial Conference, ibid. p. 122.

39Quoted in David Bird, J. A. Lyons – ‘The Tame Tasmanian’, p. 273.

40ibid., p. 274.

41Hughes Address to the New Guinea Mining Association, reported in The Argus, 17 April 1939. See NAA 518, S118/2.

42Hughes Address to the New Guinea Mining Association, Sydney Sun, 19 April 1939. ibid.

43Hughes Address to the New Guinea Mining Association, Sydney Morning Herald, 17 April 1939, ibid.

44Australia, House of Representatives, 1938, Debates, Vol 158, 6 December 1938, pp. 2754-2768.

45Meeting of the Defence Committee, 2 December 1938, ‘Establishment of an Advanced Base to the Northward as part of the extended Defence of Northern Australia’ para 2, NAA A2031/4 Roll 2, 1/1934-88/1938.

46Minute by General Squires to Secretary, Defence Committee, ‘Defence of Port Moresby’, 14 December 1939, NAA A816. 14/302/134.

47Minutes of the Defence Committee, ‘Defence of Port Moresby’, 18 December 1939, ibid.

48War Cabinet Agendum 64/1941, ‘Combined Far Eastern Appreciation of Australian Chiefs of Staff, February 1941’, NAA A2672, 64/1941.

49Sir John Latham, ‘Invasion of Australia’, NAA A5799, 110/1941.

50For the exchange with the settler community and Menzies’s comments on the proposals by the two members of the Victorian Legislative Assembly, see NAA A518, S118/2.

51Minutes of the War Cabinet Meeting, 20 October 1939, Item 56. ‘Defence of New Guinea’, NAA A5954, 803/1.

52Minutes of the War Cabinet Meeting, 25 October 1939, Item 63, ‘Possibility of Obtaining Training Aircraft from Japan’, ibid.

53David Day, The Great Betrayal: Britain, Australia and the Onset of the Pacific War, 1939–1942, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1988, p. 14.

54Peter Stanley, Invading Australia, Viking, Penguin Books, Cambellwell, 2008, p. 133.

55ibid., p.134.

56Neville Meaney, Fears and Phobias: E. L. Piesse and the Problem of Japan 1909–39, National Library of Australia Occasional Papers Series, Canberra, 1996, p. 56.

57Personal cable (no number) dated 24 June 1939 from Menzies to Chamberlain, NAA A1608, F15/1/1.

58Cable dated 29 June 1939 from Chamberlain to Menzies and cable of 20 March 1939, ibid.

59Peter Stanley, Invading Australia, p. 97.

60Minutes of War Cabinet, Agendum 96/1942 ‘Defence of Australia’, NAA A2670, 96/1942.

61Quoted in D. Horner, Inside the War Cabinet: Directing Australia’s War Effort 1939–1945, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, 1996, p. 139.

62See broadcast on 26 January 1943 NAA A5954/69, 579/2 Box O.

63ibid.

64B. Edgar, Warrior of Kokoda: A Biography of Brigadier Arnold Potts, Army Military History Series, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, 1999, p. 126. The remark by MacArthur was recorded by the war correspondent George Johnston.

65Peter Stanley, Invading Australia, p. 102.

66ibid.

67ibid., p. 150.

68Joan Beaumont (ed.), Australia’s War 1939–45, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, 1966, p. 30.

69ibid., p. 188.

70H. Nelson, ‘The Enemy at the Door: Australia and New Guinea in World War II’. A seminar paper delivered at Tsukuba University, Japan, 21 July 1998, p. 8.

71Turner, Papua New Guinea, p. 11.

72Nelson, ‘The Enemy at the Door’, p. 9.

73Cable, Evatt to Sir Owen Dixon, Minister to the United States, 31 March 1943 in Hudson and Stokes (eds) Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, Vol VI, Canberra, p. 316.

74Address on ‘Post War Settlement in the Pacific’ delivered by the Rt Hon Dr H. V. Evatt, Minister for External Affairs, at the Overseas Press Club, New York, 28 April 1943. Reprinted in Current Notes on International Affairs, (CNIA), Department of External Affairs, Vol 14, No 5, 1943, pp. 146-147.

75Text of ANZAC Pact in Millar, Australia in Peace and War, p. 444. An assessment of the ANZAC Pact is in D. Day, ‘Pearl Harbor to Nagasaki’ in Bridge (ed.) Munich to Vietnam, p. 62 and W. Reynolds, ‘Imperial Defence after 1945’, in Lowe (ed.), Australia and the End of Empire, pp. 60-61.

76Statement by the Rt Hon John Curtin, ‘The Defence of the South-West Pacific Region’ to the Australia–New Zealand Ministerial Conference on the Future of the South-West Pacific Region, Canberra, 18 January 1944. NAA A816, 104/301/1 part 1.

77See text of ANZAC Pact in Millar, Australia in Peace and War, p. 448.

78For a description of the role of Conlon and the Directorate in post-war planning, see G. Sligo, The Backroom Boys: Alfred Conlon and Army’s Directorate of Research and Civil Affairs, 1942–46 , Big Sky Publishing, Newport, 2013. See also G. Gray, ‘The Next Focus of Power to Fall under the Spell of This Little Gang’: Anthropology and Australia’s Post-war Policy in Papua New Guinea’, War and Society, Vol 14, No 2, October 1966, pp. 101-17; B. Jinks, ‘Alf Conlon, Directorate of Research and New Guinea’, Journal of Australian Studies, No 2, June 1983, pp. 221-33; B. Jinks, ‘Australia’s Post-war Policy for New Guinea and Papua’, Journal of Pacific History, Vol 17, No 2, April 1982; and B. Jinks, Policy Planning and Administration in Papua New Guinea, 1942-1952 with Special Reference to the Role of Colonel J. K. Murray, PhD thesis, University of Sydney, 1975.

79Letter, Blamey to Curtin, 5 February 1944. NAA CP637/1/1, 45.

80Australia, House of Representatives, 1946, Debates, Vol 188, 7 August 1946, pp. 3853-55.

81The text of the Trusteeship Agreement is in T. B. Millar, Australia in Peace and War, p. 450.

82Cable 393, Evatt to Keith Bailey, 22 November 1946 with the text of a message from Evatt to John Foster Dulles, US Alternate Representative at the UN General Assembly, in Hudson and Way (eds), Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, Vol X, p. 398.

83Council of Defence Agendum ‘The Strategic Appreciation of Australia: Review by the Chiefs of Staff Committee’, September 1947, NAA A816, 14/301/321.

84Council of Defence Minute, 20 April 1948. NAA A5954, 1628/3.

85Joint Planning Staff Report No 12/48. ‘The Case for Manus as a Naval Base’. NAA A9707, 2 para 4 and Defence Committee Minute, ‘The Strategic Importance of Manus’, 29 October 1953. NAA A816, 7/301/64, para 2.

Chapter 3

1Peter Edwards, ‘Learning from History: Some Strategic Lessons from the “Forward Defence” Era’, Strategy, May 2015, p. 8.

2Menzies had been scheduled to visit Indonesia in 1956 but changed his travel plans once the Suez crisis erupted. In his memoirs, Arthur Fadden notes that he served as acting Prime Minister for 692 days from 1949 to his retirement in 1958, or six weeks short of two years. Arthur Fadden, They Call Me Artie: The Memoirs of Sir Arthur Fadden, The Jacaranda Press, 1969, p. 151. The figure is repeated in John Howard, The Menzies Era: The Years that Shaped Australia, Harper Collins Publishers, Sydney, 2014, p. 266.

3Minister for External Affairs Casey visited Jakarta in 1955, Prime Minister Menzies in 1959 and External Affairs Minister Barwick in 1963. Indonesia’s Foreign Minister Subandrio visited Australia in 1959.

4On 27 February 1963 Critchley, accompanied by Ambassador K. C. O. Shann, held a secret meeting with President Sukarno to discuss Malaysia and Confrontation. Critchley (High Commissioner, Kuala Lumpur) had been asked by Canberra to go to Jakarta and to try to convince Sukarno to modify his policies towards Malaysia. Document 44, Australia and the Formation of Malaysia 1961–1966: Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Canberra, 2005, p. 72.

5Letter, Bunting to Tange, 17 January 1963. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 12.

6Despatch No 1 of 4 February 1960 from Laurence McIntyre, Ambassador, Jakarta. NAA A1838 TS696/2/2 part 10.

7See John Murphy, Evatt, A Life, New South, Sydney, 2016, pp. 347-351 for a description of Menzies speech in the Parliament.

8On 28 January 1949 the Good Offices Committee was renamed the United Nations Commission on Indonesia and given enlarged powers.

9Margaret George, Australia and the Indonesian Revolution, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 1980, p. 96.

10See text of Round Table Agreement, NAA A10570, 1.

11Margaret George, Australia and the Indonesian Revolution, ibid., p. 160.

12ibid., p. 145.

13Garry Woodard, Asian Alternatives: Australia’s Vietnam Decision and Lessons on Going to War, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 2004, p. 33. Woodard joined the Department of External Affairs (DEA) in 1952 and served as Ambassador to Burma (1973–1975), China (1976–1980) and High Commissioner to Malaysia (1980–1984). He was the first head of the Policy Planning Unit of DEA established by Tange. He retired to take up an academic post at Melbourne University.

14Anne Henderson, Menzies at War, New South, Sydney, 2014. See page 207 for details of Menzies’s speech to the American Australian Association in New York, October 1948.

15David Goldsworthy, Losing the Blanket: Australia and the End of Britain’s Empire, Melbourne University Press, Carlton South, 2002, p. 24. The quote is drawn from David Lowe, ‘Making Sense of Decolonization’, p. 438.

16Australia, House of Representatives, 1949, Debates, Vol 201, 15 February 1949, p. 269.

17ibid., p. 271.

18Speech by R. G. Menzies, Sydney Town Hall, 20 January 1949. Menzies papers, NLA, MS4936/6/20 Box 254.

19Australia, House of Representatives, 1949, Debates, Vol 206, 16 February 1949, p. 356.

20ibid.

21ibid.

22Australia, House of Representatives, 1950, Debates, Vol 206, 23 February 1950, p. 75.

23Melbourne Sun, 2 January 1950.

24Melbourne Sun, 4 January 1950.

25Sydney Morning Herald, 4 January 1950.

26Sydney Sun, 29 January 1950.

27Woodard, Asian Alternatives, pp. 34-35.

28See David Goldsworthy, Losing the Blanket: Australia and the End of Britain’s Empire, pp. 63-66 for a description of Spender’s policy approach.

29Letter, Spender to Noel-Baker, 14 January 1950, letter attached to Cabinet Memorandum C. P. (50) 136, 26 June 1950. UK Archives CAB 129/40/36. See also David Goldsworthy, Losing the Blanket, pp. 63-70 for a detailed analysis of Australia’s interest in the New Hebrides and Solomon Islands.

30UK Cabinet Notebook, 29 June 1950, UK Archives CAB 195/8/14.

31Cable 12 of 12 September 1950 from London to Canberra from Spender to Menzies. NAA A461, B350/1/19 part 2. In the same cable Spender advised Menzies that the British had told him that the French were sympathetic to the proposal. I am grateful to Stephen Henningham for providing the text of the cable to me.

32David Goldsworthy, Losing the Blanket, p. 64.

33Telex D485, 17 July 1951 from Acting Secretary, Department of Defence to the Secretary, Department of External Affairs, NAA A1838, 935/9/12, part 1.

34Cable 2121 of 15 June 1952 Canberra to London, NAA A1838, TS699/5, part 1.

35David Goldsworthy, ibid, p. 66.

36ibid., pp. 67-70. The Menzies Cabinet discussed the possible acquisition of the Solomon Islands in 1956 and 1959. In 1956 John McEwen, who had served as Minister for External Affairs in Menzies’s wartime Cabinet and who had despatched troops to seize New Caledonia, told his colleagues that he had regarded Australia assuming control of the Solomon Islands as ‘inevitable’ but he also believed that Australia had too many responsibilities and obligations to take on the task. Other ministers (Menzies, Casey and Hasluck) shared his assessment. At the meeting in March 1959 McEwen told his colleagues that ‘Takeovers don’t fit in today’s world – my mind would go more into gradually insinuating yourself in with British’. Cabinet Notebook 1/22 meeting on 15 May 1956 and Cabinet Notebook 1/41 meeting on 3 March 1959. NAA A11099 1/22 and 1/41.

37Cable 16 of 7 January 1950 from Batavia to DEA, Canberra. NAA A4357, 353/3.

38ibid.

39Percy Spender, Politics and the Man, Collins, Sydney, 1972, p. 287.

40Mr Spender’s Visit to Indonesia – Speech broadcast over Macquarie Network, 10 January 1950, NAA A4357, 353/3.

41Letter, Spender to H.E. Mr P. E. Teppema, Netherlands Ambassador, Canberra, 8 February 1950. NAA A1838, TS3034/6/1 part 1.

42ibid.

43R. Chauvel, ‘Up the Creek without a Paddle: Australia, Western New Guinea and Great and Powerful Friends’ in Frank Cain (ed.), Menzies in War and Peace, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, 1997, p. 67.

44Stuart Doran, Western Friends and Eastern Neighbours: West New Guinea and Australian Self-perception in Relation to the United States, Britain and Southeast Asia, 1950–1962, PhD Thesis, Australian National University, July 1999, p. 13.

45ibid., p. 6.

46Quoted in Neville Meaney, ‘Look Back in Fear: Percy Spender, the Japanese Peace Treaty and the ANZUS Pact’, Discussion paper No IS/01/426, The Suntory Centre, September 2001, p. 3.

47See ‘Some Statements on West New Guinea made by Indonesian Leaders since January 1950’, NAA, A1838, TS3036/6/1 part 2.

48Sydney Morning Herald, 1 February 1950, quoted in ‘New Guinea – Miscellaneous – Suggested Annexation of Dutch New Guinea by Indonesia’, NAA A518, CK836/1 part 1.

49Spender’s remarks quoted in The Sun, 1 February 1950. NAA A1838, 309/4/1.

50Letter dated 6 February 1950 from L. N. Palar, Indonesian Ambassador to the United Nations to J. D. L. Hood, Minister in Charge, Australian Mission to the United Nations, New York. Letter forwarded to Canberra by memo No 178 dated 8 February 1950 and by cable 59 dated 8 February 1950 from New York to Canberra. NAA A1838, 309/4/1.

51Cable K374 from Jakarta to Canberra of 11 April 1950. NAA 1838, 309/4/1. In an interview with AAP reported on 6 June 1950 Sukarno argued that Indonesia’s control over West New Guinea would have a positive impact on Australia’s security. See The Age, 6 June 1950. NAA A518, CK836/1 part 1.

52Text of Australian Aide Memoire contained in Cable 265 of 26 April 1950 from UK High Commission Canberra to London, UK Archives FO 371/83703.

53ibid.

54Australia, House of Representatives, 1950, Debates, Vol 206, 9 March 1950, p. 633.

55ibid.

56Australia, House of Representatives, 1950, Debates, Vol 208, 8 June 1950, p. 3973.

57Record of Conversation, Minister of State (Kenneth Younger) and Menzies, 20 July 1950, Foreign Office, London. UK Archives, PREM 8/1148. At the time Foreign Secretary Bevin was ill and Younger was acting as Foreign Secretary.

58ibid.

59ibid.

60ibid.

61Cable 4126 of 1 September 1950 from London to Canberra from Spender to Prime Minister. NAA A1838, TS3036/6/1 part 2.

62ibid.

63Cabinet Notebook 1/8 of 21 November 1950. NAA A11099, 1/8.

64Cable 4126 of 1 September 1950 from London to Canberra. NAA A1838, TS3036/6/1 part 2.

65Royal Netherlands Archives, Dutch–Netherlands Relations 1950–1963, NIB 50-63, No 3587. Record of meeting between Stikker and Spender.

66ibid.

67Despatch No 10/51 of 19 November 1951 from Casey to Menzies reporting on his meeting with Prime Minister Drees and Foreign Minister Stikker on 17 November 1951. NAA A4231, 1951/The Hague.

68Statement to the press dated 29 August 1950 released in The Hague. NAA 1838, 559/1/44.

69Note by UK Prime Minister Attlee, 4 September 1950. UK Archives PREM 8/1121.

70Conversation between the Foreign Secretary and Mr Spender at the Foreign Office, 1 September 1950. UK Archives FO371/83706. The record suggests that Secretary of State Younger was also present at the meeting.

71Letter 19 December 1950 from R. H. Scott (FO) to Sir Esler Dening, UK Roving Ambassador to the Far East, Office of the Commissioner-General, Singapore. UK Archives FO 371/83709.

72ibid.

73Brief dated 1 December 1950 for Bevin’s talks with Gordon-Walker. UK Archives FO 371/83707.

74Letter 19 December 1950 from R. H. Scott (FO) to Sir Esler Dening, ibid.

75Letter 19 December 1950, Foreign Office to Sir Esler Dening, ibid. See also letter 8 December 1950, Nichols, UK Embassy The Hague to J. D. Murray, South East Asia Department, Foreign Office, FO371/83708.

76Minute by Lloyd (FO) dated 14 December 1950. UK Archives FO371/83708.

77Cable 4269 of 8 September 1950 from London to Canberra from Spender to Menzies. NAA A1838, TS851/1/1/6.

78Letter, McBride to Menzies dated 24 October 1950, ‘Australian Strategy in Relation to Communist Expansion in the Pacific, South-East Asia and the Far East During the Cold War Period’. NAA A816, 14/301/407.

79Minute by Chiefs of Staff Committee at Meeting held on Thursday 14 September 1950, Agendum No 17/1950, No 28/1950, ‘Australian Strategy in Relation to Communist Expansion in Pacific, South-East Asia and the Far East Areas during the Cold War Period’. NAA A816/25, 14/301/407.

80Minute by the Defence Committee, 21 September 1950 Agendum No 100/1959 plus attachment, No 172/1950 Strategic Significance of Dutch New Guinea. NAA A5954/69, 1682/13.

81Cabinet Notebook 1/10, 23 January 1951. NAA A11099, 1/10.

82Message from UK Ministers (Bevin and Gordon Walker) contained in letter dated 28 December 1950 from UK High Commissioner, Karachi, to Menzies. Menzies sent Spender the message in Cable 332 dated 28 December 1950 from Karachi to Canberra. NAA A1838, TS3036/6/1, part 2. See cable 6067 of 6 December 1950 from Canberra to London for text of Spender’s instructions to the High Commission. NAA A1838, TS3036/6/1 part 2.

83Cable 18 of 13 January 1951 from London to Canberra. Cable contains the text of Bevin’s letter to Menzies. NAA A1838, TS3036/6/1 part 3.

84Text of letter contained in cable 303 dated 18 January 1951 from London to Canberra. NAA A1838, TS 3036/6/1 part 3.

85Text of letter in cable 188 dated 7 February 1951 from Washington to Canberra. NAA A1838, TS3036/6/1 part 3.

86Cabinet Notebook 1/11, 15 February 1951. NAA A11099, 1/11.

87Richard Chauvel, ‘Up the Creek without a Paddle: Australia, West New Guinea and “Great and Powerful Friends”’, in Frank Cain (ed.), Menzies in War and Peace, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, 1997, p. 67.

88ibid., p. 55.

89Correspondence on this issue over the period 1945 to the late 1940s contained on NAA A518, K815/1/2 part 1.

90General Assembly, First Committee, Summary Notes 727th meeting, 24 November 1954 quoted in Stuart Doran, ‘Western Friends and Eastern Neighbours: West New Guinea and Australian Self-Perception in Relation to the United States, Britain and Southeast Asia, 1950–1962’, PhD Thesis, July 1999, Menzies Library, Australian National University, Canberra, pp. 46-47.

91David Lowe, Menzies and the ‘Great World Struggle’, UNSW Press, Sydney, 1999, p. 48 and p. 54. See also David Lowe, ‘Percy Spender, Minister and Ambassador’ in Joan Beaumont, Christopher Waters, David Lowe with Garry Woodard, Ministers, Mandarins and Diplomats: Australian Foreign Policy Making, 1941–1969, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 2003, pp. 62-87.

92David Lowe, Percy Spender, Minister and Ambassador, ibid., pp. 64-65.

93See comments by UK Foreign Office officials B. C. Keeble, 24 April 1950 and G. D. Young, 29 April 1950 on Spender’s proposal to write to the Indonesian Government setting out Australia’s interest in West New Guinea. UK Archives FO 371/83703.

94In June 1952 Casey advised the British Government that Australia wished to defer consideration of any proposal to assume control over UK responsibilities in the New Hebrides for at least two years. Casey noted the delay in discussions with the French on the terms of Australia’s involvement and that the ‘need for additional administrative services in our existing Australian territories has been growing and we are feeling that our resources in experienced administrative personnel cannot keep pace with our requirements’. Letter, Casey to Oliver Lyttelton, Secretary of State for the Colonies, 19 June 1952. UK Archives CAB 129/62/25.

95Stuart Doran, ‘Western Friends and Eastern Neighbours’, PhD thesis, Australian National University, July 1999, p. 13.

96ibid., p. 21.

97ibid., pp. 30-31.

98Record of Policy Review 30 and 31 January 1963. Officers present: the Minister (Barwick), the Secretary (Tange), Messers Waller, Shaw, Jockel, Rowland, Loveday, Loomes, and Peachey. NAA A1838, 551/13/12 part 1.

99Nicholas Tarling, Britain and the West New Guinea Dispute 1949–62, The Edwin Mellon Press, Lewiston, New York, 2008, see pp. 1-67.

100Garry Woodard, Asian Alternatives, p. 34.

Chapter 4

1Paul Hasluck, Foreign Affairs: Public Addresses and Articles (other than Speeches in Parliament and Official Statements), Vol 1, 1946-1964, Hasluck papers, NLA MS 5274, Box 37, p. 22. For an assessment of Casey as Minister for External Affairs, see Joan Beaumont, Christopher Waters, David Lowe, with Garry Woodard, Ministers, Mandarins and Diplomats, and Melissa Conley Tyler, John Robbins, and Adrian March (eds), R. G. Casey: Minister for External Affairs 1951–60, Australian Institute of International Affairs, Deakin, 2012.

2For a comprehensive analysis of the defence issues facing Australia in the early 1950s see Peter Edwards with Gregory Pemberton, Crises and Commitments: The Politics and Diplomacy of Australia’s Involvement in Southeast Asia Conflicts 1948–1965, Allen & Unwin, North Sydney, 1992, Peter Dennis and Jeffery Grey, Emergency and Confrontation: Australian Military Operations in Malaya and Borneo 1950-1966, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards. 1996, Gregory Pemberton, All the Way: Australia’s Road to Vietnam, Allen & Unwin, North Sydney 1987 and T. B. Millar, Australia in Peace and War, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1978.

3For text of ANZUS Treaty, see T. B. Millar, Australia in Peace and War, pp. 452-454.

4See Peter Edwards with Gregory Pemberton, Crises and Commitments, pp. 162- 163 for a detailed description of the origins of ANZAM.

5Peter Edwards, ‘Learning from History: Some Strategic Lessons from the “Forward Defence” Era’, Strategy, May 2015, pp. 5-25.

6See T. B. Millar, Australia in Peace and War, pp. 454-458 for text of SEATO Treaty, ibid. The participating countries were Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Great Britain and the USA. The treaty did not specify that military planning amongst parties would occur but it did provide for consultations on the subject. It had no standing defence force and gradually lost relevance although the Menzies Government attached considerable importance to its existence, more so than the United States. Millar has described the treaty as a means to ensure that any threat from China or Indochina to the security of the region was contained on the Asian mainland. ibid. p.211.

7See draft report to Cabinet dated 24 August 1951. NAA A1838, 3034/11/28 part 1.

8Minute, Casey to Watt, Record of Conversation with the Indonesian Ambassador, 2 October 1951. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 1.

9Despatch 10/51 of 19 November 1951 from The Hague. NAA A4231, 1951/The Hague.

10ibid.

11Letter, Casey to Eden, 19 January 1952, NAA A1838, 3036/6/1 part 3B.

12Editorial in the Courier Mail, 21 March 1951, ‘Is New Guinea Guarded?’. NAA A518, M16/2/6.

13R. G. Casey, Australian Foreign Minister: The Diaries of R. G. Casey 1951–60, Collins, London, 1972, pp. 80-81.

14Briefing, ‘Dutch New Guinea’, no date, possibly May 1952. NAA A1838, TS 3036/6/1 part 3.

15Comments from interview given by President Sukarno to United Press, 29 August 1952, Department of External Affairs paper ‘Recent Statements by Indonesia on West New Guinea’. NAA A1838, TS 3630/6/1 part 4.

16Letter, Casey to Eden, 7 May 1952, NAA A1838, 3036/6/1 part 3B.

17Statement by the Rt Hon R. G. Casey, Minister for External Affairs, Dutch New Guinea, 7 February 1952. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 1. Australia provided $15.8 million in economic development and technical assistance to Indonesia in the period 1952–53 to 1966–67.

18Meeting, Menzies and Churchill, 27 May 1952, Prime Minister’s Room, House of Commons, UK Archives DO 121/173.

19Meeting, Menzies and Eden, 3 June 1952, Minutes of Meeting held in the Prime Minister’s Map Room, Ministry of Defence. UK Archives DO 121/173.

20Letter, Eden to Casey dated 24 June 1952, NAA A1838, TS 3036/6/1 part 4.

21See David Lowe, Menzies and the ‘Great World Struggle’: Australia’s Cold War 1948–1954, UNSW Press, Sydney, 1999, Chapter 6 in particular.

22Meeting, Menzies and Churchill, 27 May 1952, Prime Minister’s Room, House of Commons. UK Archives DO 121/173.

23Meeting, Menzies and Churchill, 29 May 1952, ibid.

24David Lowe, Menzies and the ‘Great World Struggle’, ibid.

25Peter Edwards, ‘Learning from History: Some Strategic Lessons from the “Forward Defence” Era’, Strategy, May 2015, pp. 5-25.

26Meeting, Menzies and Churchill, 29 May 1952, 10 Downing Street, UK Archives DO 121/173.

27Cabinet Notebook 1/8, 21 November 1950, NAA A11099, 1/8.

28Letter, Casey to J. C. G. Kevin, Minister, Australian Embassy, Djakarta, 25 May 1953. NAA M1129, Kevin, J. C. G.

29Aide Memoire contained in cable 163 of 1 July 1953 from Canberra to The Hague. NAA A1838, TS45/1/3/15/1/2.

30Record of Conversation, Casey and Luns, 30 June 1953, ibid.

31Minute dated 3 July 1953 by Watt reporting conversation with Luns, ibid.

32Letter, Stirling to Casey, 19 May 1955, NAA M1129, Stirling/A.

33Cable 424 of 9 November 1953 from The Hague to Canberra. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 1.

34Letter, Stirling to Casey, 4 August 1953, NAA M1129, Stirling/A.

35Letter, Stirling to Casey, 18 August 1953, ibid.

36A Strategic Basis of Australian Defence Policy, (1953), NAA A816, 14/301/576. Also contained in S. Frühling (ed.), A History of Australian Strategic Policy Since 1945, Defence Publishing Service, Canberra, 2009, pp. 167-197.

37S. Frühling, A History of Australian Strategic Policy Since 1945, ibid., para 37.

38ibid., para 48.

39ibid., para 68.

40ibid., para 69 c (i) and (ii).

41See L. Strahan, ‘The Dread Frontier in Australia’s Defence Thinking’ in G. Cheeseman and R. Bruce (eds), Discourses of Dangers and Dread Frontiers: Australian Defence and Security Thinking After the Cold War, Allen & Unwin, Canberra, 1996. p. 152.

42See Nicholas Tarling, Britain and the West New Guinea Dispute 1949–1962, The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, New York, 2008, Chapter 1 for a detailed account of Britain and Australia’s attempts to frustrate Indonesia’s initiatives to secure UN support for its claim.

43Cabinet Notebook 1/129 meeting on 17 August 1954. NAA A11099, 1/129.

44ibid.

45ibid.

46ibid.

47ibid.

48Cabinet Minute No 3, Without Memorandum – Dutch New Guinea, 17 August 1954. NAA A4940, C508 part 1.

49Letter, Casey to Hoover, Under Secretary of State, 5 November 1954, NAA A1838, 3036/6/1 part 13.

50Memorandum of Conversation, Menzies and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, Washington, 14 March 1955, Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS), 19551957, Vol XXII, Southeast Asia, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1989, pp. 143-144.

51Cabinet submission No 412, Dutch New Guinea, 27 June 1955, and Cabinet Decision No 482 of 28 June 1955. NAA A 4940/1, C508 part 1.

52Cabinet Notebook 1/137 meeting on 28 June 1955 Submission 412 ‘Dutch New Guinea’. NAA A11099 1/137.

53ibid.

54See cable 322 of 29 September 1955 from New Delhi to Canberra and cable 1074 of 25 September 1955 from Washington to Canberra. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 2.

55See DEA minute of 30 November 1955 from R. Fernandez to J. Quinn. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 2.

56Text of Joint Statement attached to memorandum No 1231 of 3 November 1955 from Australian Embassy Djakarta to Canberra. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 2.

57Savingram 20 Canberra to All Posts dated 10 November 1955. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 2.

58Cable 291 of 4 November 1955 from The Hague to Canberra. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 2.

59K. C. O. Shann, Report of Asian–African Conference at Bandung, 9 May 1955, NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 6.

60Letter, Spender to Tange, 17 January 1956, NAA A1838, 3036/6/1A.

61Letter, Tange to Secretary, Department of Defence, 13 March 1956. NAA A1838, TS3036/6/1 part 4.

62ibid.

63Minute by Defence Committee, 30 May 1956, Agendum No 54/1956 and Attachment, No 129/1956 Strategic Importance of New Guinea. NAA A2031, 129/1956. Tange was present at the Defence Committee meeting along with the Secretary of the Department of Defence (Shedden), Chief of the Air Staff (McCauley), Chief of the General Staff (Wells) and Chief of the Naval Staff (Dowling).

64ibid.

65ibid.

66ibid.

67Letter, Casey to Lester Pearson, 10 January 1957, NAA A1838, 3036/6/1A.

68Peter Edwards, ‘Learning from History: Some Strategic Lessons from the “Forward Defence” Era’, Strategy, May 2015, p. 8.

69Figure quoted in the biography of R. G. Menzies by A. W. Martin, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Vol 15, Melbourne University Press, Carlton South, 2000.

Chapter 5

1Menzies had visited Batavia, capital of the Netherlands East Indies, on 28 January 1941 en route to London. He held talks with the Dutch Governor General. A. W. Martin and P. Hardy (eds), Dark and Hurrying Days: Menzies’s 1941 Diary, National Library of Australia, Canberra, 1993.

2Cabinet Notebook 1/23, 30 November 1956. NAA A11099, 1/23.

3The Strategic Basis of Australian Defence Policy (1956), pp. 199-245 in S. Frühling (ed.), A History of Australian Strategic Policy Since 1945, Defence Publishing Service, Canberra, 2009.

4ibid., p. 206.

5ibid., p. 209.

6ibid., p. 232.

7ibid., p. 244.

8Cabinet Notebook 1/23, 22 February 1957. NAA A11099, 1/23.

9ibid.

10ibid.

11ibid.

12Cabinet Notebook 1/33, 8 August 1956. NAA A11099, 1/33. Notebook 1/33 also contains further details of the debate over the priority to be attached to the budget for the defence force.

13Cabinet Notebook 1/25, 1 July 1958. NAA A11099, 1/25.

14Peter Edwards, Australia and the Vietnam War, Newsouth, Sydney 2014, p. 40.

15Record of Conversation, McIntyre and Dr Subandrio, 13 May 1957. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 4.

16Memo 1852 of 18 October 1957 from Djakarta to Canberra. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 5.

17Letter, McIntyre to Casey, 13 November 1957, NAA M1129, McIntyre.

18United States Minutes of ANZUS Council Meeting, Washington, 4 October 1957. FRUS 1955–1957, Vol XXII, pp. 466-470.

19Cabinet Notebook 1/36, 11 December 1957. NAA A11099, 1/36.

20ibid.

21ibid.

22McEwen had served as Minister for Commerce and Agriculture from 1949 until 1956 when the portfolio was abolished and the Department of Trade created.

23I am indebted to Paul O’Donnell, Charles Sturt University, Regional Archives for an informative biography of McEwen including the times he acted as Prime Minister.

24ibid.

25ibid.

26Text of letter in cable 1298 of 12 December 1957 from Canberra to Washington. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 6.

27ibid.

28Department of External Affairs Press Statement 116 of 12 December 1957 ‘Cabinet Discussion on Indonesia’. NAA A1838, TS696/2/2 part 5.

29Text of letter in cable 1369 Canberra to Washington of 31 December 1957. NAA A6706, 34.

30ibid.

31Letter, Menzies to Macmillan dated 31 December 1957 contained in cable SC10 of 1 January 1958 from Canberra to Washington. NAA A6706, 34.

32Cable 176 of 7 June 1958 Canberra to Ottawa. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 8.

33Letter, McIntyre to Casey dated 2 January 1958. NAA A1129, McIntyre/L.

34Letter, Casey to Menzies, 29 July 1958, NAA A3401,37.

35Cabinet Submission 1312 of August 1958 ‘Netherlands New Guinea and Indonesia’. NAA A4940, C508 part 1. Discussed in Cabinet on 12 August 1958.

36ibid., para 1 of submission.

37ibid., para 2.

38Minute by Defence Committee on 19 June 1958, Agendum No 74/1958, Item No 86/1958, Strategic Importance of New Guinea, NAA A2031, 86/1958. Minute by Defence Committee on 28 July 1958, Agendum No 94/1958, Item No 103/1958, Importance of Indonesia to Australia and Regional Defence, NAA A2031, 103/1958.

39Minute by Defence Committee on 19 June 1958, Agendum No 74/1958, Item No 86/1958, ‘Strategic Importance of New Guinea’, para 6. NAA A2031, 86/1958.

40ibid.

41ibid.

42ibid., para 8.

43ibid., para 15.

44ibid., para 11.

45ibid., para 3 c.

46Cabinet Notebook 1/26, 12 August 1958, NAA A11099, 1/26.

47ibid.

48ibid.

49ibid.

50ibid.

51ibid.

52ibid.

53ibid. Frederick Scherger was Chief of the Air Staff and later the Air Force. In 1961 he was appointed Chair of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, the most senior position in the Defence Force. He held that post until May 1966.

54ibid.

55ibid.

56ibid.

57Cabinet Notebook 1/26, 13 August 1958, ibid.

58ibid.

59ibid.

60ibid.

61ibid.

62Cable 1773 of 9 September 1958 Washington to Canberra, NAA A1838, TS3036/6/1 part 6.

63ibid.

64ibid.

65ibid.

66Record of Conversation, Acting Minister McBride and H.E. Dr Helmi, Ambassador of Indonesia, 21 August 1958. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 8.

67Cable 724 of 21 November 1958 from Jakarta to Canberra. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 9.

68Cable 712 of 13 November 1958 from Jakarta to Canberra. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 9. McIntyre made the same suggestion to Subandrio in October 1958 and reminded him of the strength of public feeling in Australia on the New Guinea question and its objections to the threatened use of force. Cable 685 of 24 October 1958 from Jakarta to Canberra. NAA A3092, 221/11/6 part 2A.

69Cable 680 of 22 October 1958 from Jakarta to Canberra. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 8.

70Cabinet Notebook 1/40, 10 December 1958, NAA A11099 1/40.

71ibid.

72ibid.

73Cabinet Notebook 1/40, 5 January 1959, NAA A11099, 1/40.

74ibid.

75ibid.

76ibid.

77ibid.

78ibid.

79ibid.

80Cable 119 of 6 February 1959 from Canberra to Washington. NAA A3092, 221/11/6 part 3A.

81Cabinet Notebook 1/40, 9 February 1959, ibid.

82ibid.

83Cabinet Minute, Decision No 36, 11 February 1959. NAA A4943, Vol 1.

84Cabinet Notebook 1/40, 13 February 1959. NAA A11099, 1/40.

85Discussions between Mr Casey and Dr Subandrio, 12 February 1959. The discussion took place during a flight between Canberra and Melbourne. NAA A1838, 3034/10/11/5 part 1.

86Cabinet Notebook 1/40, 13 February 1959, ibid.

87Cabinet Minute Decision No 36 of 11 February 1959. NAA A4943, Vol 1.

88At his press conference in Canberra on 11 February 1959, Subandrio responded to a question regarding the possible use of force by drawing on the same language he had used in the Cabinet discussions. He said that ‘If I say that we are not going to use force in the first place it is because I’m convinced – or we are convinced – that nowadays no force can be employed for territorial claims not even by big powers and certainly not by Indonesia. Nobody has ever been successful in using force for their territorial claims. Secondly if I use force I know I’ve not only to face the Netherlands – or perhaps Australia – but that I have also to face the power of the United States and Britain’. Transcript of Dr Subandrio’s press conference, Parliament House, Canberra, 11 February 1959. NAA A4940, C2314.

89The text of the Joint Announcement was tabled in the House of Representatives by Casey on 18 February 1959. Australia, House of Representatives Debates Vol 22, 18 February 1959, pp. 37-39.

90ibid. pp. 38-39.

91Sydney Daily Mirror, 16 February 1959. NAA A1838, 3036/6/1 part 35.

92Sydney Sun , 16 February 1959, ibid.

93Sydney Daily Mirror , 16 February 1959, ibid.

94Australia, House of Representatives, 19 59, Debates Vol 22, 18 February 1959, p. 39.

95ibid., 24 February 1959, p. 197.

96ibid., pp. 214-216.

97Mackie, Australia and Indonesia 1945–1960, p. 307.

98Strategic Basis of Australian Defence Policy January 1959 in S. Frühling (ed.), A History of Australian Strategic Policy Since 1945, Defence Publishing Service, Canberra, 2009, p. 253

99ibid., para 14, p. 255.

100ibid., para 10, p. 269.

101ibid., para 44, p. 261.

102Cabinet Notebook 1/41, 23 March 1959. NAA A11099, 1/41.

103ibid.

104ibid.

105Cabinet Notebook 1/45, 29 October 1959. NAA A11099, 1/45. (The debate on the Paper had been adjourned in March and resumed in October 1959.)

106Cabinet Notebook 1/41, 23 March 1959, NAA A11099, 1/41. The question of whether Australia should acquire tactical nuclear weapons as a means of strengthening the defence force had been raised by Senator Spooner, Minister for National Development and Alexander Downer, Minister for Immigration.

107Cabinet Notebook 1/45, 29 October 1959, ibid.

108ibid. In his public remarks Menzies expressed no doubts or reservations about a US response to a possible attack on West New Guinea. In an address to the Washington Press Club on 25 May 1959 he said ‘I scarcely see how the United States under all these circumstances in the East, or ourselves, or Great Britain, or whoever it may be, could be indifferent in that event, and I’m sure that they wouldn’t be’. Washington Press Club Luncheon, Washington, 25 May 1959. NLA Papers of R. G. Menzies, MS4939/6/118 Series 6, Box 268 Folder 118.

109ibid.

110Cabinet Notebook 1/45, 9 November 1959 and 24 November 1959. NAA A11099, 1/45. At the Cabinet meeting on 9 November the Minister for Defence, Athol Townley, had described the Army as ‘rundown’.

111Speech at Dinner given by Indonesia’s First Minister Djuanda, 2 December 1959, NLA Papers of R. G. Menzies, MS 4936/6/118, Series 6, Box 268, Folder 122.

112Speech at Merdeka Barat, Jakarta, 5 December 1959, NLA Papers of R. G. Menzies, MS4936/6/118, Series 6, Box 268, Folder 122.

113Cable 629 of 5 December 1959 from Jakarta to Canberra. NAA A1838, 3034/10/11/5 part 2.

114Briefing note ‘Australian Trade with Indonesia’, NAA A1838, TS3036/6/1/6.

115Jemma Purdey, ‘Scholarships and Connections: Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea’, Working Paper Series Two, Alfred Deakin Research Institute, August, 2004, p.8.

116Summary of Conversation at Bogor Palace 6 December 1959 between President Sukarno and the Right Honourable R. G. Menzies. NAA A1838, 3034/10/11/5 part 2. The extracts quoted below are from this record.

117Cable 190 of 24 December 1959 from Canberra to London contained the record of the meeting and drew attention to the ‘one new element’, i.e. Sukarno’s endorsement of Subandrio’s undertaking not to use force. Menzies responded positively to a request from Allen Dulles, Director of the CIA, for a copy of the record. A copy was also passed to the State Department. See cable 37 of 8 January 1960 from Canberra to Washington. NAA A1209, 1959/1194.

118Cabinet Notebook 1/158, 15 December 1959. NAA A11099 1/158.

119ibid.

120ibid.

Chapter 6

1Cabinet Notebook 1/55, 11 January 1962, NAA A11099, 1/55.

2Despatch from Lord Carrington, UK High Commissioner, Canberra to London, 1 October 1959. UK Archives DO 35/9011. Paul Hasluck has also provided a pen portrait of members of the Cabinet in the 1950s and 1960s in Paul Hasluck, The Chance of Politics, Text Publishing, Melbourne, 1997.

3J. D. Legge, Sukarno: A Political Biography, Allen Lane The Penguin Press, London, 1972, p. 311.

4ibid., p. 319

5ibid., p. 329.

6Despatch 1/1960, 4 February 1960, NAA A1838 TS696/2/2 part 10.

7Submission No 550 The Future of Netherlands New Guinea; Submission No 551 The Military Importance of Netherlands New Guinea to Australia; and Submission No 554 The Unity of New Guinea. NAA A4940, C508 part 2.

8See Christopher Waters, ‘The Last of Australian Imperial Dreams for the South West Pacific: Paul Hasluck, the Department of Territories and a Greater Melanesia in 1960’, The Journal of Pacific History, Vol 51, No 2, 2016, pp. 169-185.

9Letter, Peter Heydon, Acting Secretary, DEA to Shaw, Ambassador, Jakarta, 16 May 1960. NAA A1838, TS3036/6/1 part 10.

10Cabinet Submission 550 The Future of Netherlands New Guinea, NAA A4940, C508 part 2.

11ibid.

12ibid.

13ibid.

14ibid.

15Cabinet submission 552 The Militiary Importance of Netherlands New Guinea to Australia, 19 February 1960. NAA A4940, C508 part 2.

16Annex to report by the Defence Committee ‘The Military Importance of Netherlands New Guinea to Australia’, para. 27. NAA A4940, C508 part 2.

17Letter, Hasluck to Menzies, 26 February 1960. NAA A4940, C508 part 2.

18ibid.

19In a memorandum of Tange to Sir Edwin McCarthy, Ambassador, The Hague, 28March 1960, Tange advised McCarthy of the outcome of the Cabinet deliberations but added that ‘none of this has come to public knowledge in any way in Australia. The Cabinet met at night and I do not believe that even the fact of the meeting was known to the press. At any rate the meeting does not appear to have been reported’. Unnumbered memo of 28 March 1960, signed by Tange. NAA A1838, TS3036/6/1 part 10.

20See Christopher Waters, ‘The Last of Australian Imperial Dreams for the South West Pacific: Paul Hasluck, the Department of Territories and a Greater Melanesia in 1960’, The Journal of Pacific History, Vol 51, No 2, 2016, pp. 169-185.

21Cabinet Notebook 1/46 of 2 March 1960. NAA A11099, 1/46.

22ibid.

23ibid.

24ibid.

25ibid.

26Letter, Dr Subandrio to Menzies. The letter is undated and was carried to Canberra by Shaw at the end of January 1961. NAA A1838, 3036/6/1 part 44.

27Record of Conversation, Menzies and Shaw, 30 January 1961. NAA A1838, 3036/6/1 part 44.

28See Paul M. McGarr, The Cold War in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013 for an analysis of the Kennedy Administration’s approach to South Asia.

29Cabinet Notebook 1/60, meeting on 30 April 1963. NAA A11099, 1/60.

30I am indebted to Stuart Doran for providing me with an unpublished paper on ‘United States Policy toward the West New Guinea Dispute, 1949–1962’.

31Cable 3217 of 30 November 1960 from Washington to Canberra, ‘Netherlands New Guinea’. NAA A4940, C508, part 2.

32ibid.

33ibid.

34ibid.

35Garry Woodard, Asian Alternatives, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 2004, p. 127.

36Cabinet Notebook 1/49, meeting on 12 December 1960. NAA A11099 1/49.

37The newly appointed Secretary of State, Dean Rusk, had told Beale in January 1961 that his thoughts on a possible solution were along the lines of a ‘trusteeship resting on self-determination’. Beale had taken the opportunity of the call on Rusk to set out Australia’s objections to a possible takeover of West New Guinea by an ‘expansionist or a Communist Indonesia’, ‘infiltration into our territory, propaganda and subversion of a primitive native people’ and the ‘laying of claims to other parts of New Guinea’. Cable 185 of 27 January 1961 from Washington to Canberra. NAA A1838, TS3036/6/1 part 11. For details of the new Kennedy Administration’s views, see R. Hilsman, To Move a Nation: The Politics of Foreign Policy in the Administration of John F. Kennedy, Doubleday and Company, New York, 1967. A later assessment is in T. Maga, John F. Kennedy and the New Pacific Community, 1961–1963, Macmillan Press, London, 1990.

38For details of the British option, see UK cable No 552 of 6 March 1960 from Washington, and minute from F. A. Warner FCO to R. Ledward, British Embassy Washington, of 7 March 1961. UK Archives FO371/160007. In Australia, the idea of a federation was promoted by the Sydney lawyer (and later Governor-General) John Kerr.

39Cabinet Minute 21 February 1961, Decision No 1229, Submission No 696 United Nations Trusteeship for Netherlands New Guinea. NAA A4940, C508 part 2.

40Memorandum from the President’s Deputy Special Assistant for National Security Affairs (Rostow) to the Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs (Johnson). 12 May 1961. FRUS, 1961–1963, Vol XXIII, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1994, p. 391.

41Memorandm for the President. Subject: Memorandum for Meeting with Prime Minister Menzies, 22-24 1961, Indonesia and West New Guinea, Kennedy Presidential Library, NSF, Australia 1/1/61-3/2/61, Box 8.

42ibid.

43ibid.

44Summary record of meeting at White House, 24 February 1961. Participants: The President, Prime Minister Menzies, Australian Ambassador Beale, the Secretary of State and Assistant Secretary of State Parsons. ibid.

45ibid.

46ibid. The communiqué issued at the end of the meeting made no reference to West New Guinea or Indonesia. It did refer to the two leaders reiterating their strong faith in SEATO and ANZUS as bulwarks for the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. NAA A1209, 1969/375.

47Cable 131 of 4 March 1961 from Geneva to Canberra for McEwen and Holt. NAA A1838 TS3036/6/1 part 12.

48ibid. Menzies gave a brief report of his meeting with Kennedy to Cabinet on his return to Canberra but did not provide any details of the conversation regarding West New Guinea. See Cabinet Notebook 1/50, 10 April 1961. NAA A11099, 1/50.

49Woodard, Asian Alternatives, p. 37 and p. 127.

50Record of a meeting held at the White House, 5 April 1961. Present: Prime Minister Macmillan and Foreign Secretary, Lord Home and President Kennedy and Secretary of State Rusk plus others. UK Archives CAB 133/244.

51ibid.

52Cable 844 of 8 April 1961 from Washington to Canberra. From Beale to Menzies. NAA A 1209, 1961/590.

53Cable 1703 of 11 April 1961 from London to Canberra, ibid.

54Cable 825 of 6 April 1961 from Washington to Canberra for Prime Minister from Beale. NAA A1838, TS3036/6/1 part 12.

55ibid.

56Memorandum of Conversation, 10 April 1961, West New Guinea. Participants: The President, George Ball, Under Secretary for Economic Affairs and Foreign Minister Luns and the Ambassador of the Netherlands and others. FRUS, 1961–1963, Vol XXIII p. 347.

57ibid.

58Memorandum of Conversation, 10 April 1961 ‘West New Guinea’, Participants: Secretary of State Rusk, Foreign Minister Luns and others. ibid, pp. 352- 356.

59Memorandum of Conversation, 24 April 1961. Participants: President Kennedy and President Sukarno plus officials. FRUS, 1961–1963, Vol XXIII, pp. 382-390.

60ibid.

61ibid., p. 390.

62Record of Meeting between Australian Ministers and General Nasution and Admiral Martadinata, Cabinet Room, Canberra, 18 April 1961. NAA A4940, C3306.

63ibid.

64Report of Meeting with General Nasution, Minister for National Security and Chief of Staff of the Army, Republic of Indonesia, Kirribilli House, Sydney, 26 April 1961. NAA A 4940, C3306. Menzies used a speech in Parliament on international issues to report on the conversations with General Nasution. He referred to the assurance he had given Nasution that Australia had no secret military arrangement with the Netherlands. He also referred to Nasution’s renewed assurance that Indonesia would not use force to secure its claim. Menzies told the House that Nasution had rejected the need for an act of self-determination for West New Guinea as it was part of Indonesia and had rejected any form of trusteeship unless its purpose was to transfer West New Guinea to Indonesia after a brief intervening period. Text of Statement contained in NAA A4940, C508 part 3. Menzies spoke along similar lines at a Press Conference on 30 April. See NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, MS4936, Series 40, Box 576, Folder 42. On the question of support for the concept of self-determination I am indebted to James Ingram, a senior Australian diplomat who served in the South East Asia Branch of External Affairs from 1961 to 1962 and then in the Australian Embassy in Jakarta from 1962 to 1964, for his insights into the policy developments in External Affairs at his time. Interview with James Ingram, 23 and 30 May 2016, Canberra.

65Cable 146 of 21 April 1961 from Canberra to Wellington. From Menzies to Holyoake. NAA A1838, TS3036/6/1/6.

66Minute, Heydon, DEA to Minister (Menzies), 20 April 1961 and report by Blakeney on visit, ibid.

67Content of Aide Memoire contained in Cabinet Submission No 1305 ‘Netherlands New Guinea’, of 12 August 1961. NAA A4940, C508 part 2.

68ibid.

69See Cabinet Notebook 1/52, 16 August 1961. NAA A11099 1/52.

70ibid.

71ibid.

72ibid.

73ibid.

74ibid.

75Cabinet Notebook 1/50, 1 May 1961 ‘Laos and SEATO’, ibid.

76Cabinet Notebook 1/52, 16 August 1961. NAA A11099 1/52.

77Cabinet Notebook 1/54, 24 October 1961. NAA A11099 1/54.

78Despatch No 15 of 3 October 1961 from Jakarta. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 11.

79UK cable No 665 of 13 December 1961 from Washington. UK Archives FO 371/160009.

80UK cable No 836 of 20 December 1961 from Jakarta, ibid.

81See Nicholas Tarling, Britain and the West New Guinea Dispute 1949–1962, The Edwin Mellor Press, Lewiston, New York, 2008 for a detailed account of the meeting. See Stuart Doran, ‘Toeing the Line: Australia’s Abandonment of “Traditional” West New Guinea Policy’, The Journal of Pacific History, Vol 36, No 1, 2001, pp. 5-18 for an assessment of Australia’s response to the meeting.

82Comment retold by Lord Harlech, British Ambassador in Washington, in oral history interview held at the John F. Kennedy Library and quoted in Paul. M. McGarr, The Cold War in Asia, Britain, the United States and the Indian Subcontinent, 1945–1965, Cambridge University Press, 2013, p. 138.

83Record of a meeting at Government House, Bermuda, 22 December 1961. UK Archives CAB133/299. Those present included President Kennedy, Secretary of State Rusk, Prime Minister Macmillan and Foreign Secretary Lord Home. There was no reference to West New Guinea in the communiqué issued following the meeting.

84ibid.

85ibid.

86ibid.

87Letter, Macmillan to Menzies, 27 December 1961 UK Archives CAB 21/5557. An extract of the letter is contained on NAA A1838, TS3036/6/1 part 14.

88ibid.

89Record of Conversation, Tange and W. Belton, US Charge d’Affaires, 3 January 1962. NAA A1838 TS696/2/2 part 10.

90ibid.

91ibid.

92Minute, Bunting to Prime Minister, 11 January 1962. NAA A4940, C508 part 4.

93Cabinet Submission 10, ‘West New Guinea’, and supplementary memorandum, 11 January 1962. NAA A4940, C508 part 3.

94Woodard, Asian Alternatives, p. 46.

95ibid., p. 39.

96S. Doran, ‘Toeing the Line: Australia’s Abandonment of ‘Traditional’ West New Guinea Policy’, The Journal of Pacific History, Vol 36, No 1, 2001, pp. 14-15.

97Cabinet Submission 10, ‘West New Guinea’, Supplementary memorandum, ibid.

98ibid.

99ibid.

100Cabinet Notebook 1/55, 11 January 1962, ‘West New Guinea’. NAA A11099, 1/55.

101ibid.

102ibid.

103I am indebted to James Ingram for his comments on the role of Robert Hamilton Snr and Tange in advocating the policy of self-determination in the Department of External Affairs.

104Cabinet Notebooks 1/55 ibid.

105ibid.

106ibid.

107ibid.

108ibid.

109ibid.

110Cabinet Minute 11 and 12 December 1962, Decision No 3. NAA A4940, C508 part 3.

111Statement No 2/1962, ‘West New Guinea’ by the Prime Minister, the Rt Hon R. G. Menzies, 12 January 1962, ibid.

112Press Statement, Hasluck, Port Moresby, 17 February 1962. NAA A1838, 3036/6/1 part 65. Barwick, House of Representatives, Debates, 1962 Vol 34, 25 March 1962, p. 897.

113Cable 74 of 15 January 1962 from Barwick to Beale. NAA A1838, TS 3036/6/1 part 14.

114ibid

115ibid.

116Cable 107 of 16 January 1962 from Washington to Canberra, ibid.

117ibid.

118ibid.

119See Pemberton, All the Way, p. 105.

120Cabinet Notebook 1/56, 15 March 1962. NAA A11099, 1/56.

121Meeting of ANZUS Council, Canberra, 8th and 9th May 1962. NAA 1838, 3034/10/1 part 11. The Australian Cabinet met with Rusk and New Zealand Prime Minister Holyoake on 8 May prior to the Council meeting. West Berlin, nuclear testing, disarmament issues, Laos and Vietnam were discussed but not Indonesia or West New Guinea. Cabinet Notebook 1/56, 8 May 1962. NAA A11099, 1/56.

122Communiqué 1962 ANZUS Council Meeting, Current Notes on International Affairs (CNIA) Vol 33, No 5, 1962 pp. 5-8.

123Record of Conversation, Sir Garfield Barwick and President Sukarno and others, Bogor Palace, Jakarta, 2 July 1962. NAA A1838, 3034/10/11/7 part 1.

124ibid.

125Record of Conversation, Sir Garfield Barwick and Dr Subandrio, Jakarta, 3 July 1962, ibid.

126Minister’s Press Conference at Sydney Airport, 5 July 1962. NAA A3034/10/1 part 11.

127Record of Meeting at Admiralty House, London, 4 June 1962. Present: Menzies, Prime Minister Macmillan and Foreign Secretary Lord Home. UK Archives DO 169/91.

128Cabinet Notebook 1/57, 6 August 1962. NAA A11099, 1/57. See also Cabinet Minute 6 August 1962, Decision No 374. NAA A4904, C508 part 4.

129Text of letter contained in cable 612 of 17 August 1962 from Canberra to Jakarta. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 11.

130Woodard, Asian Alternatives, p. 46.

131Edwards, Australia and the Vietnam War, p. 66.

132Pemberton, All the Way, p. 100 and p. 105.

133Doran, ‘Western Friends and Eastern Neighbours’, p. 225.

134ibid.

135Alan Renouf, The Frightened Country, Macmillan Company, South Melbourne, 1979.

136Pemberton, All the Way, p. 105.

Chapter 7

1Letter, Menzies to Macmillan, 15 January 1962. UK Archives PREM 11/3644.

2UK High Commission Canberra ‘Notes on Australian Ministers’, Biographical Sketches of Menzies Cabinet Members. UK Archives DO 164/67.

3Australian crafted assessments of the ministers in Menzies’s Cabinet can be found in Paul Hasluck The Chance of Politics, Paul Hasluck, Foreign Affairs, Vols I and II, NLA Hasluck Papers MS5274, Box 37, Joan Beaumont, Christopher Waters, David Lowe, with Garry Woodard, Ministers, Mandarins and Diplomats: Australian Foreign Policy Making 1941–1969, and Melissa Conley Tyler, John Robbins and Adrian March (eds), Ministers for Foreign Affairs, The Australian Institute of International Relations, Deakin, 2014.

4I am indebted to Michael Wilson, a departmental colleague of Shann from the early 1950s, for his assessment of Shann’s style and approach to work.

5Report by James Ingram, ‘Indonesian Politics – Final Reflections’. No date but likely to be written in June or July 1964. NAA A1838, 3034/2/1 part 42. Ingram had served in Jakarta from 26 July 1962 until 7 July 1964.

6For a document-based study of the formation of Malaysia, see Moreen Dee (ed.), Australia and the Formation of Malaysia 1961–1966, Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2005. Also Moreen Dee, ‘Not a matter for negotiation’: Australia’s commitment to Malaysia 1961–1966, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2005 and D. Lee and M. Dee, ‘Southeast Asian Conflicts’ in Goldsworthy (ed.), Facing North, Vol 1, pp. 262-309. John Subritzky, Confronting Sukarno: British, American, Australian and New Zealand Diplomacy in the Malaysian–Indonesian Confrontation, 1961–65, Macmillan Press, London, 2000. Gregory Pemberton, All the Way: Australia’s Road to Vietnam, Allen & Unwin, North Sydney, 1987 and Peter Edwards with Gregory Pemberton, Crises and Commitments: The Politics and Diplomacy of Australia’s Involvement in Southeast Asian Conflicts 1948–1965, Allen & Unwin, North Sydney, 1992. The most thorough account of Confrontation remains J. A. C. Mackie. Konfrontasi: The Indonesia–Malaysia Dispute 1963–1966,Oxford University Press, London, 1974.

7J. Subritzky, Confronting Sukarno, p. 18.

8The date for the inauguration of the Federation was later amended to 16 September 1963 following a wish to await the outcome of a United Nations survey (the Michelmore Report) of the wishes of the population of the territories.

9J. Subritzky, Confronting Sukarno, p. 33.

10See Moreen Dee, ‘Not a Matter for Negotiation’: Australia’s Commitment to Malaysia 1961–1966, p. 7 and Subritzky p. 39.

11Dee, ibid., p. 7.

12Moreen Dee, ‘In Australia’s own interests: Australian Foreign Policy during Confrontation 1963–1966’, PhD thesis, University of New England, 2001, p. 54.

13Cable 283 of 8 February 1961 from Washington to Canberra contains report of meeting between Beale and Dulles. NAA A1838 TS3036/6/1 part 11.

14Letter, H. D. Anderson to A. J. Eastman (DEA Canberra), 3 June 1962, NAA A1838, 3036/6/1 part 74.

15Department of External Affairs, Minister’s North American Brief, ‘West New Guinea: Implications of Indonesian Control’, September 1962, NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 11.

16Record of Conversation, Menzies and Shann, 31 October 1962, NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 12.

17Record of Discussion, Barwick, Tange and Shann, 29 October 1962, ibid.

18Letter, Barwick to Shann, 9 January 1963, ibid.

19ibid.

20ibid.

21Letter, Shann to Barwick, 7 February 1963, NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 13.

22Despatch No 1, ‘Some First Impressions of Indonesia’, Shann, 21 January 1963, NAA A4231, 1963 South East Asia.

23Address by the Minister for Territories, the Hon Paul Hasluck, to the Annual Congress of the Public Service Association of Papua and New Guinea at Port Moresby, 1 September 1962, NAA A3092 221/13/4/part 3.

24Record of Conversation, Barwick and General Suadi, Indonesian Ambassador, 21 January 1963, NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 12.

25Letter, Waller to Shann, 24 January 1963, ibid.

26ibid.

27Letter, Bunting to Tange, 17 Janaury 1963, ibid. Tange annotated the letter that Barwick agreed with the Prime Minister’s instruction.

28Letter, Kimber (UK High Commission, Canberra) to Bunting, 15 January 1963 with attachment ‘Instructions sent to the British Ambassador Washington’. NAA A4940, C3739. Also contained in cable 115 of 11 January 1963 from Washington to Canberra. NAA A1838, 696/3/3 part 2. The talks were later expanded at Australia’s request to include New Zealand.

29Attachment to letter, Kimber to Bunting, 15 January 1963. NAA A4940, C3739.

30ibid.

31See Record of Conversation, Tange and Kimber, UK Deputy High Commissioner, 17 January 1963. NAA A1838 3034/10/1 part 12. Garry Woodard, Asian Alternatives, p. 72.

32Record of Conversation, Tange and Kimber, ibid.

33Note for Cabinet, ‘Indonesia’, 5 February 1963, NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 12.

34ibid.

35Note, ‘Indonesia – Quadripartite Talks in Washington’, Tange to Barwick, 4 February 1963, NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 12.

36ibid.

37Cabinet Notebook 1/59, 5 February 1963, NAA A11099, 1/59.

38ibid.

39ibid.

40ibid.

41ibid.

42ibid.

43Cabinet Minute 5 February 1963, Decision No 632 ‘Indonesia – Quadripartite Talks’. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 12. See also despatch from the UK High Commission, Canberra, ‘Australian Attitude Towards Malaysia’, 19 March 1963 which analysed the dilemma facing Australia as it sought to support Malaysia and at the same time not offend Indonesia. It described Indonesia as ‘the most important external problem for the Australian Government’ while ‘a fundamental aim of Australian policy is the maintenance of good relations with Indonesia’. UK Archives, DEFE 7/1559.

44ibid.

45Record of Ambassadorial Discussion on Indonesia, Washington, 11 and 12 February, 1963. NAA A1945, 146/1/14 and A1945, 41/4/1. Australia was represented by Ambassador Howard Beale and Sir Arthur Tange, Secretary, Department of External Affairs.

46ibid.

47Cable 334 of 3 February 1963 from Washington to Canberra from Beale to Menzies and Barwick. NAA A6364, WH1963/01

48ibid.

49Cable 401 of 11 February 1963 from Washington (from Tange) to Canberra, ‘Australian Defence Position’. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 13.

50ibid.

51ibid.

52Record of Conversation, Tange, Waller and Brennan, 4 January 1963. NAA A1838, 696/3/3 part 2. Waller and Brennan were senior officers of the Department of External Affairs.

53Cable 587 of 5 March 1963 from Washington to Canberra. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 13.

54See Cabinet Submission No 552 of 6 February, ‘Australia’s Strategic Position’, NAA A4940, C3640; Cabinet Submission No 560 of 15 February 1963, ‘The Strategic Importance to Australia of New Guinea’, NAA A4940, C3750; Cabinet Submissions No 603 and 651 of 29 April 1963, 2 May 1963 and 7 May 1963, ‘Defence Review’, NAA A4940, C3640; Cabinet Submission No 651 of 18 February 1963, ‘Territory of Papua/New Guinea – Immediate Defence Moves’, NAA A4940, C3750; Cabinet Submission No 551 of 8 February 1963, ‘Retention of Australian Forces in Malaya’, NAA A4940, C1473 part 1; and Cabinet Submission No 601, ‘Australian Cooperation with Indonesia in New Guinea’.

55Cabinet Notebook 1/60, 25 February 1963 and 25 March 1963. NAA A11099, 1/60. In January 1963 the government announced that it would purchase a third guided missile destroyer and acquire four Oberon class submarines.

56Cabinet Submission No 552 of 6 February and attached Report by the Defence Committee on ‘Australia’s Strategic Position’, NAA A4940, C3640.

57ibid.

58ibid.

59Cabinet Minute of 5 March 1963 Decision No 675. NAA A4940, C3640.

60ibid.

61Cabinet Submission 560, Report by the Defence Committee ‘The Strategic Importance to Australia of New Guinea’, February 1963, NAA A4940, C3750.

62ibid., para. 8 (d).

63ibid., para. 27.

64Woodard, ibid., p. 86.

65Briefing note, Alan Griffith, Prime Minister’s Department, on Cabinet Submissions Nos 560 and 561, undated, likely to be March 1963. NAA A4940, C3750. Sir Peter Lawler, Deputy Secretary, Prime Minister’s Department throughout this period, advised the author in a personal interview of Griffith’s close relationship with McEwen.

66ibid.

67Woodard, ibid., p. 274.

68Cabinet Submission No 561, ‘Territory of Papua New Guinea – Immediate Defence Moves’, 7 February 1963, para. 6, NAA A4940, C3750. See also Edwards with Pemberton, Crises and Commitments, pp. 269-72 for details of the Defence review and Cabinet’s decisions to increase Australia’s defence preparedness. The major decisions arising from the 1963 Review were the enlargement of the Army to provide for a field force of three battle groups in addition to the battle group in Malaysia, the reconstitution of the Regular Army reserve, the enlargement of the Citizens’ Military Force and the acquisition of 40 Mirage III fighters, 18 Caribou aircraft and 8 additional Iroquois helicopters. The Navy was increased with the acquisition of an escort maintenance ship. Cabinet also agreed to the despatch of a team of experts, led by the Chief of the Air Staff, to investigate the options for a medium range bomber with strike and reconnaissance capabilities. This would eventually lead to the purchase of the F-111 aircraft.

69Minute on Defence and External Affairs Cabinet Papers, Bunting, 4 March 1963, NAA A4940, C3389. There is no addressee on this minute. It was most likely given to the Prime Minister for use in Cabinet.

70Cabinet Notebook 1/61, 2 May 1963. NAA A11099, 1/61.

71In a minute dated 13 October 1969, J. L. Legge, Defence Liaison Officer, Department of Territories, commented that ‘the mainspring of the proposal [to establish the Territory Intelligence Committee and increase intelligence surveillance] was the situation vis-a-vis Indonesia … and [to service] the requirement for information on internal developments in Papua New Guinea as the Territory moved towards self-determination’. NAA A452, 1962/7075.

72Cabinet Notebook 1/61, 2 May 1963. NAA A11099, 1/61.

73ibid. Comments reflect note in the margin of Notebook recording a meeting on 9 May between Menzies, Paltridge, Sherger, Hicks and Bunting. See Cabinet Minute 8 May 1963 Decision No 791 for details of the decisions made by Cabinet. NAA A4940, C3750.

74Cabinet Decision No 791, 8 May 1963, para. 2, NAA A4940, C3750. See also Cabinet Submission No 118, ‘Papua New Guinea – Military Requirements’, 7 April 1964, ibid. The submission from the Minister for the Army provided details on the program to improve local service facilities as a consequence of strengthening the defence role in Papua New Guinea.

75ibid.

76Cabinet Submission No 388, Report by the Chiefs of Staff Committee, ‘Defence of Papua/New Guinea – Airfield Requirements’, August 1964, para. 6(e), NAA A4940, C3750.

77Cabinet Decision No 440, 3 September 1964, NAA A4940, C3750.

78Australia, House of Representatives 1963, Debates, Vol 38, 22 May 1963, pp. 1668-72. Menzies later repeated his remarks in a radio broadcast during a visit to Port Moresby, 6 September 1963, Current Notes on International Affairs (CNIA), Vol 34, No 9, 1963, pp. 53-56. In a minute dated 28 May 1963 Gordon Jockel, A/g First Assistant Secretary Division 1 to Secretary, said that the Defence Statement had been written by the Prime Minister ‘in his own crystal-clear language and with Indonesia evidently very much in mind’. NAA A1838 3034/10/1 part 14.

79See Press and Radio Conference by the Prime Minister, the Rt Hon Sir R. G. Menzies, 14 July 1963, NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, MS 4936, Series 40, Box 576, Folder 43. Speech in House of Representatives, 25 September 1963 on Malaysia and Defence, NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, MS 4936, Series 6, Box 277, Folder 187. 1963 General Election Policy Speech delivered on 12 November 1963 by Menzies (‘we have made it clear that we will defend Papua and New Guinea against attack, as if it were part of the Australian mainland. That promise of ours is, as a result of ANZUS, completely backed by the United States’) and Liberal Party pamphlet Policy Speech, 12 November 1963. NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, MS4936, Series 6, Box 277, Folders 190 and 191.

80Broadcast by Sir Robert Menzies, Port Moresby, 6 September 1963. The Prime Minister in Papua New Guinea, issued under the authority of the Hon Paul Hasluck, M.P., Minister of State for Territories, 1963. Also in CNIA, September 1963, Department of External Affairs, Canberra, 1963.

81Minute, ‘Defence Policy and Indonesia’, on meeting between Tange and departmental officers, 28 May 1963, NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 14.

82For details of the evolution of Confrontation and Australia’s involvement in the conflict, see Peter Dennis and Jeffery Grey, Emergency and Confrontation, Part 2, pp. 167-325, Allen & Unwin, 1996; Peter Edwards with Gregory Pemberton, Crises and Commitments: The Politics and Diplomacy of Australia’s Involvement in Southeast Asian Conflicts 1948–1965, Allen & Unwin, 1992, Chapters 14 and 15; and Gregory Pemberton, All The Way: Australia’s Road to Vietnam, Allen & Unwin, Chapters 6, 7 and 8.

83Record of Conversation Barwick and Peter Thomas, UK Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 4 April 1963. UK Archives FO371/169690.

84Cabinet Notebook 1/61 of 7 June 1963, ‘Meeting with Averell Harriman’. NAA A11099, 1/61.

85ibid.

86Letter, Larmour (UK High Commission, Canberra) to Anthony Golds, Head Far East and Pacific Department, Commonwealth Relations Office, 7 June 1963. UK Archives DO 169/92.

87Record of Conversation between the Rt Hon Harold Macmillan and the Rt Hon Sir Robert Menzies, Admiralty House, London, 24 June 1963, others present. NAA A1209, 1968/9231 and UK Archives DO169/92.

88ibid.

89The possibility of Portuguese Timor being absorbed into Indonesia had been identified in the British paper passed to Canberra in January 1963 and had been nominated as an example of Indonesia’s ambitions in the region. It had also been discussed in Cabinet in Canberra and had been accepted as a near-inevitability by ministers. However, East Timor remained a Portuguese colony until the collapse of Portuguese colonial rule and its takeover by Indonesia in 1975.

90Record of Conversation between Menzies and UK Secretary of Defence, the Hon Peter Thorneycroft, 19 June 1963, London. Record attached to memo No 1007 of 21 June 1963 from Australian High Commission London to Canberra. NAA A1209, 1968/9231.

91Record of Meeting, Menzies and Rusk, 8 July 1963, NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 16.

92ibid.

93ibid.

94Press Radio and Television Conference by the Prime Minister, the Rt Hon Sir R. G. Menzies, 14 July 1963. NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, MS 4936, Series 40, Box 576, Folder 43.

95Extract of Barwick’s interview in Wellington on 27 May 1963 contained in cable 260 of 28 May 1963 from Wellington to Canberra. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 14.

96Letter, Menzies to Barwick, 8 August 1963. NAA A1838, 3006/4/7 part 10.

97Cabinet Notebook 1/61, 6 August 1963. NAA A11099, 1/61.

98Cabinet Notebook 1/61, Cabinet Committee of Foreign Affairs and Defence, 12 August 1963, ibid. Malphindo was a loose confederation of Malay states comprising Malaya, the Philippines and Indonesia established in June 1963 at the initiative of President Macapagal of the Philippines to help defuse tensions between Indonesia and Malaya.

99Cabinet Notebook 1/61, 6 August 1963, ibid.

100Larmour (UK High Commission, Canberra) advised London that ‘He, himself [i.e. Menzies] seems certainly not at all disposed to trust Sukarno, either over Malaysia or in his wider ambitions for the future’. Letter, Larmour to Golds of 26 July 1963, UK Archives DO 169/92. Menzies told the visiting Japanese Prime Minister, Ikeda, on 1 October 1963 that ‘Sukarno’s performance over Malaysia was deplorable’. He said that Australia had exercised a ‘great deal of patience with Sukarno and had made a great deal of allowances … but to go on following this course would be retreating before his obduracy. His international behaviour was now so bad that pressure must be brought to bear upon him to come back to accepted international standards of behaviour’. Minute, Waller to Tange, 1 October 1963 recording briefing by Bunting on discussions between Menzies and Ikeda. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 17.

101Cabinet Notebook 1/61, 12 August 1963, ibid. The Cabinet’s rejection of the idea of a non-aggression pact is contained in Cabinet Minute Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee, 12 August 1963, Decision No 976 (FAD). NAA A1838, TS383/6/1 part 7.

102See Pemberton, All the Way: Australia’s Road to Vietnam, pp. 166-191 for an examination of the debate over the application of the ANZUS treaty to Malaysia.

103See Memorandum of Conversation, President Kennedy and Holt, 2 October 1963, FRUS, Vol XXIII, pp. 730-734. Kennedy made clear that, contrary to the Australian view, the United States did not accept that the ANZUS Treaty came into effect if Australian troops were attacked by Indonesian guerrilla units in North Borneo. He also disagreed with the Australian assessment that it needed to be made clear to Sukarno that Indonesia faced US power as well as UK and Australian power.

104In his speech in the House of Representatives on 15 October 1963, advising the House that an election had been called, Menzies spoke almost entirely on foreign and defence policy issues. He identified three major policy differences: the government’s support and Labor’s objection to the establishment of a US-controlled Very Low Frequency (VLF) naval radio signaling station in Port Hedland, West Australia; the defence of Malaysia with Labor calling for a treaty to cover the deployment of troops to Malaysia; and Labor’s support for a nuclear-free zone south of the Equator. Menzies speech contained in NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 17.

105Content of decision contained in Cable 565 of 15 August 1963 from Canberra to Kuala Lumpur and cable 885 of 19 August 1963 Canberra to Jakarta. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 16.

106Australia, House of Representatives 1963, Debates, 25 September 1963, pp. 1338-1339. Tange advised the Defence Committee on 26 September 1963 that the final sentence of Menzies’s statement ‘should be regarded as a carefully defined statement of intent to provide Malaysia with military assistance if certain circumstances arise. It is to be clearly understood that Britain has full responsibility with Malaysia for the defence of Malaysia against external aggression and that any assistance given by Australia would be supplementary to that given by Britain. Such assistance should not be, or be seen to be, simply a part of British military effort. It is important that Australian forces do not become regarded by other countries as assisting so-called imperialist or neo-colonialist purposes’. Assistance had to be in response to a request from Malaysia. Minute by the Defence Committee, 26 September 1963, NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 18.

107See Memorandum of Conversation, President Kennedy and Holt, 2 October 1963, ibid.

108Broadcast by Sir Robert Menzies, Port Moresby, 6 September 1963, The Prime Minister in Papua and New Guinea, issued under the authority of the Hon Paul Hasluck, MP, Minister of State for Territories. In his speech at the opening of the Sirinumu Dam in New Guinea on 7 September Menzies told his audience that ‘Jerusalem can be built in Papua and New Guinea’. NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, MS4936, Series 6, Box 277, Folder 186.

109Cable 825 of 14 September 1963 Jakarta to Canberra. NAA A1838, 3034/10/11/7 part 2.

110At the time of Barwick’s meeting with Sukarno the Michelmore Enquiry and Report sponsored by the UN Secretary General at the request of Malaya, Philippines and Indonesia to ascertain the views of the population of Sarawak and North Borneo on inclusion in Malaysia had just concluded. It had found the population of both territories in favour of inclusion into Malaysia.

111Cable UN1250 of 28 September 1963. Conversation, Barwick, Rusk and US Ambassador to the UN, Adlai Stevenson. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 17.

112Record of Conversation, Barwick and George Ball (Under Secretary of State for Economic and Agricultural Affairs), 15 October 1963. Barwick told Ball ‘the Australian public was now rather unhappy about Indonesia; their attitude was that Sukarno was looking about with greedy eyes, which might next fall on Timor – and then on East New Guinea’. NAA A1838, 250/9/10/2 part 1.

113Record of Conversation, Barwick and Walt Rostow (Counsellor and Chair, Policy Planning Council, Department of State), 15 October 1963. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 17.

114Cable UN1308 of 5 October 1963 Meeting between Barwick and Rusk. NAA A1838, 270/1/1 part 1.

115US Memorandum of Conversation, 17 October 1963, Kennedy and Barwick. FRUS 1961–1963 Vol XXIII and Kennedy Library, Australia, General, 10/18/63–11/16/63 Folder Box 8.

116ibid. For an analysis of the Kennedy Administration’s policy towards Indonesia, see R. Hilsman, To Move A Nation: The Politics of Foreign Policy in the Administration of John F. Kennedy, Doubleday and Company, New York, 1967 and Timothy P. Maga, John F. Kennedy and the New Pacific Community 1961–63, Macmillan, London, 1990.

117UK Brief for Quadripartite Talks, October 1963. UK Archives FO371/169909.

118Record of Four Power Talks, Washington, 16 October 1963. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 17.

119Cable SAV 85 of 5 October 1963 New York to Canberra, ibid.

120The Record of Understanding covering ANZUS can be found on NAA A1838, 270/1/1 part 3.

121See Memorandum of Conversation, President Kennedy and Holt, 2 October 1963, FRUS, Vol XXIII, pp. 730-734.

122The question of the geographic application of the ANZUS Treaty and whether it continued to cover Malaysia after the end of confrontation was raised again by Australia in October 1967 during a visit to Washington by Hasluck, Minister for External Affairs. See cable 4241 of 9 October 1967 from Washington. NAA 4940, C1473 part 3.

123Report, Lamour (UK High Commission, Canberra) to London, 22 October 1963, UK Archives FO 371/169909.

124Woodard, Asian Alternatives, p. 340

125ibid., p. 106

126Peter Edwards, ‘Learning from History: Some Strategic lessons from the “Forward Defence” Era’, Strategy, May 2015, p. 16.

Chapter 8

1Broadcast No 6 on 26 November 1963 by the Prime Minister the Rt Hon Sir Robert Menzies, ABC National Stations. NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, MS4936, Series 6, Box 278, Folder 195.

2Final Broadcast 27 November 1963 by the Prime Minister the Rt Hon Sir Robert Menzies over National Television. NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, MS4936, Series 6, Box 278, Folder 196.

31963 Policy Speech delivered by the Prime Minister, the Rt Hon Sir Robert Menzies, 12 November 1963. NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, MS 4936, Series 6, Box 277, Folder 190. The statement was repeated in a pamphlet produced by the Liberal Party of the Policy Speech, 12 November 1963. NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, MS4936, Series 6, Box 277, Folder 191.

4There is some debate as to the circumstances of Barwick’s elevation to the High Court with Edwards and Pemberton drawing attention to Barwick’s loose references to the application of ANZUS during a press conference in Sydney on 17 April 1964 and subsequent debate in Parliament (see Edwards with Pemberton, Crises and Commitments, p. 281). Menzies has recorded in his papers that Barwick approached him on 25 March 1964 about the impending retirement of Sir Owen Dixon and his wish to succeed him on the court. The two met again on 20 April when Barwick confirmed his wish to succeed Dixon. Barwick also told Menzies that he did not intend to contest his seat at the next general election. NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies MS4936 Box 578, Folder 55.

5The Department of Territories was renamed the Department of External Territories on 28 February 1968.

6A. W. Martin, Robert Menzie:, A Life, Vol 2 1944–1978, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 1999. p. 487.

7See R. Hilsman, To Move A Nation: The Politics of Foreign Policy in the Administration of John F. Kennedy, pp. 405-407.

8In a comment to Canberra in May 1964 on the state of Indonesian politics Shann said ‘I am fairly sure that the Indonesians have little idea where they are going at the moment, I am quite sure that I don’t’. Cable 541 of 19 May 1964 from Shann from Djakarta to Canberra. NAA A1838 3034/10/1 part 20.

9Despatch No 5/1963 of 29 November 1963. NAA 4231, 1963 South East Asia.

10Letter, Barwick to Shann, 31 December 1963. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 18.

11ibid.

12ibid.

13ibid.

14Dee, In Australia’s Own Interests, p. 196.

15Letter, Shann to Barwick, 17 January 1964. NAA A1838 3034/10/4 part 19.

16ibid.

17ibid.

18ibid.

19Extract of the Roy Milne Lecture of 25 January 1964 contained in cable 198 of 25 January 1964 from Canberra to Washington. NAA A1838 3034/10/1 part 19. Hasluck made similar comments in a speech on 6 January 1964 to the Summer School of the Council of Adult Education, Melbourne, when he said that ‘if the Territory of the new state [of Papua New Guinea] is to be kept inviolable it will only be … because Australia and her allies are ready and able to fight any aggressor who threatens it … Up to the point of self government we have to defend Papua and New Guinea and protect it from invasion, subversion or pressure from any quarter’. Text of speech on NAA A1838 936/1/3.

20Letter, Macmillan to Menzies 20 September 1963 NAA A6705 35.

21Letter, Barwick to Duncan Sandys, Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations, 16 December 1963. Text of letter in cable 5286 of 16 December 1963 from Canberra to London. NAA A1838 270/1/1 part 2.

22ibid.

23Submission No 1 ‘Military Implications for Australia of the Malaysian Situation’, 19 December 1963. NAA A4940, C1473 part 1.

24Cabinet Notebook 1/65 meeting on 19 December 1963. NAA A11099, 1/65.

25ibid.

26ibid.

27Message, Menzies to Home, 24 December 1963 attached to letter, Bunting to UK High Commissioner Oliver, 24 December 1963. NAA A6706, 35.

28ibid.

29Department of External Affairs paper ‘British/Malaysian Request for the Use of Australian Forces’. The paper is undated but would appear to have been written in December 1963. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 18.

30Text of Hasluck’s statement to the House of Representatives contained in cable AP50 of 16 April 1964. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 20. On 17 March 1964 the government announced the decision to assist Malaysia in the form of material training and the secondment of Australian officers to assist Malaysia in developing and expanding its own forces. On 16 April the government announced the decision to provide two RAN Coastal minesweepers with the provision of two further vessels to be considered in early June. An Army engineer squadron with plant and equipment would be provided to construct airfields, roads and bridges in Borneo and four Iroquois helicopters would be made available for operations on the Thai–Malaysia border. The movement of the personnel and equipment would be undertaken by HMAS Sydney. For additional comment, see Edwards with Pemberton, Crises and Commitments, p. 289 and Pemberton, All The Way, pp. 224-231.

31Cabinet Notebook 1/65, meeting on 15 January 1964. NAA A11099, 1/65.

32Cabinet Notebook 1/65, meeting on 28 January 1964, ibid.

33ibid.

34Record of Conversation, Home and McEwen, London, 16 March 1964. UK Archives PREM 13/800.

35Cabinet Notebook 1/66 of 12 and 29 May 1964. NAA A11099 1/66.

36Report by the Defence Committee ‘Australian Forces for the Defence of Malaysia’ attached to Cabinet Submission No 136 of 14 April 1964 ‘Australian Forces for the Defence of Malaysia’. NAA A4940, C1473 part 1.

37ibid.

38Edwards with Pemberton, Crises and Commitments, p. 291.

39See NAA A452, 1964/5917 and NAA: A452, 1972/4342.

40Record of Conversation, Hasluck and General Nasution, 5 June 1964. NAA A1838 3034/10/1 part 21.

41Memorandum of Conversation, President Johnson and Hasluck 16 July 1964, FRUS, 1964–1968, Vol XXVII Document 2.

42Records of Conversations Hasluck and Rusk, 16 July 1964 and Hasluck and McNamara 16 July 1964. NAA A4940 C1473 part 1.

43Record of Conversation Hasluck and McNamara, 16 July 1964. NAA A4940, C1473 part 1.

44ANZUS Council Meeting 17–18 July 1964, Washington, Summary Record of Discussion. NAA A1838 270/2/14.

45ibid.

46Pemberton, All the Way, p. 217.

47Cabinet Notebook 235 of meeting on 1 July 1964. NAA A11099, 235. Cabinet Notebook 1/66 of meeting on 12 May 1964. NAA A11099 1/66.

48Cable 3245 of 3 July 1964 from Canberra to London from McEwen to Menzies. NAA A1838 TS687/9/3 part 1.

49Submission 368 of 5 August 1964. NAA A1945 24/2/21. Decision 440 of 3 September 1964 in NAA A4940 C3750.

50Submission 388 of 27 August 1964. Decision 439 of 3 September 1964. NAA A4940 C3750.

51Woodard, Asian Alternatives, p. 289.

52Submission 399 of 28 August 1964 ‘Defence Implications of the Situation in Vietnam’. NAA A4940 C4643 part 1.

53Cabinet Notebook 1/69 of 1 September 1964. NAA A11099 1/69.

54Cabinet Minute, 3 September 1964, Decision No 451 (FAD) NAA A4940 C4643 part 1.

55‘Strategic Basis of Australian Defence Policy (1964)’ in Stephen Frühling (ed.) A History of Australian Strategic Policy Since 1945, Defence Publishing Services, Canberra, 2009, pp. 309-336.

56Notes on Cabinet Submission No 493 by A. Griffith, 2 November 1964, NAA A4940, C3640.

57ibid.

58ibid.

59See Despatch 4/1964, 2 September 1964, “Indonesia – Abandonment of Non- Alignment’, NAA A1838, 3034/2/1 part 42.

60ibid.

61Cabinet Notebook 1/70, 4 November 1964, NAA A11099 1/70.

62ibid.

63ibid.

64ibid.

65ibid, 5 November 1964.

66Cabinet Minute 4 November 1964 Decision No 592. NAA A5828 Vol 2.

67Australia, House of Representatives 1964, Debates, Vol 44, 10 November 1964, p. 2716. In his early, hand-written drafting of the Defence Statement, Menzies had referred to Indonesia’s hostility towards Malaysia as part of building ‘an Indonesian Empire’. He had also written that ‘in spite of all promises made in the past the Indonesian leaders may well be prepared to send people across the frontier of West New Guinea to stir up trouble in Papua and New Guinea’. Although these words were not used in the final text they reveal Menzies’s continuing mistrust of Sukarno in particular and Indonesia in general. Handwritten drafts of the Defence Statement held in Menzies papers. NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, MS 4936, Series 6, Box 281, Folders 214 and 215.

68Subritzky, Confronting Sukarno, pp. 134-135.

69Speech to the Liberal Party of Australia (NSW Division), 7 October 1964. NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, MS 4936, Series 6, Box 281, Folder 211.

70Report to the Nation 19 November 1964 delivered by the Prime Minister. NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, MS4936, Series 6, Box 281, Folder 216. Also contained in cable 1230 of 20 November 1964 from Canberra to Jakarta. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1.

71Television speech by Menzies, 25 November 1964. NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, MS4936, Series 6, Box 281, Folder 217.

72Television speech by Menzies, 30 November 1964. NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, ibid.

73Final broadcast in election campaign, 2 December 1964. NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, ibid, Folder 218.

74Cabinet Notebook 1/236 of meeting on 18 January 1965. NAA A11099, 1/236.

75ibid.

76Message, McEwen to Wilson, 19 January 1965. Cable 269 of 19 January 1965 from Canberra to London. NAA A1838, TS687/9/3 part 1.

77Cabinet Notebook 1/235 of 17 December 1964. Meeting of the Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee, 17 December. NAA A11099, 1/235.

78Record of Conversation between Menzies, Wilson and Holyoake on 1 February 1965. Also present were UK Foreign Secretary Stewart, Defence Secretary Healey, Commonwealth Secretary Bottomley, and the Chief of the Defence Staff, Lord Mountbatten. UK Archives FO371/18126.

79Record of Conversation, Hasluck and Lydman, 11 February 1965 NAA A1838 3006/4/7 part 33.

80Australia, House of Representatives 1965, Debates, Vol 45, 23 March 1965, pp. 230-238.

81See Pemberton, All The Way, for an analysis of the decision to send a battalion to Vietnam, pp. 279-297, and Edwards with Pemberton, Crises and Commitments, pp. 351-375.

82Minute, Bunting to Menzies 7 April 1965, NAA A4940 C4643 part 2.

83Cabinet Notebook 1/72, meeting on 7 April 1965. NAA A11099 1/72. A more polished and final version of the Cabinet discussion of 7 April is attached to the Cabinet Minute and Decision No 859. NAA A4940, C4643 part 2.

84Cabinet Notebook 1/72 meeting on 7 April 1965. NAA A11099 1/72.

85ibid.

86Meeting on 21 April 1965, ibid.

87Cabinet (Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee) Minute, 7 April 1965 Decision No 859 and cable 883 of 9 April 1965 from Canberra to Washington. NAA A4940, C4643 part 2.

88Cable 2980 of 14 April 1965 from London to Canberra and cable 1281 of 13 April 1965 from Washington to Canberra, ibid.

89Speech by Sir Robert Menzies at Young Liberal Rally, Hawthorn Town Hall, Melbourne, 21 May 1965. NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, MS4936, Series 6, Box 282, Folder 224.

90Press, radio and television conference by Sir Robert Menzies at Parliament House, Canberra. NLA Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, MS4936, Series 40, Box 577, Folder 44.

91Cabinet Notebook 1/75 meeting of 10 August 1965, Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee. NAA 11099 1/75.

92ibid.

93ibid.

94Furlonger’s assessment contained in Jakarta Despatch No 5 18 January 1973 ‘The Soeharto Regime: Australian–Indonesian Relations (Part 1)’, NAA A1838 3034/10/6/9 part 1. Furlonger had served in the Joint Intelligence Organisation as well as in senior positions in External Affairs before his appointment as Ambassador to Jakarta in 1972. Furlonger was later appointed the first Director-General of the Office of National Assessments.

95Peter Edwards, Australia and the Vietnam War, New South Publishing, Sydney, 2014, p. 132.

96ibid., p. 139.

97Defence Committee report No 5/1966 ‘Review of Defence Situation in Papua/ New Guinea’, 11 February 1966 attached to Cabinet Submission 71, ‘Papua New Guinea – Ultimate Status’, 10 March 1966 and Defence Committee Report No 9/1966 ‘Future of Papua/New Guinea – Defence Considerations’, 17 February 1966, NAA A1946, 1968/838.

98Strategic Basis of Australian Defence Policy 1983, Chapter 6 para 31. NAA A11116 CA805 part 1.

Chapter 9

1Peter Edwards, Australia and the Vietnam War, p. 187.

2Cable 415 of 15 April 1966 from Djakarta to Canberra. NAA A4359, 201/2/2.

3Record of Conversation, Wilson and Hasluck, London, 19 April 1966. UK Archives PREM 13/890 and PREM 13/1945, C675175.

4ibid.

5ibid.

6Summary record of meeting between Malik and Hasluck, 9 August 1966. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1 part 28.

7Minute, Jockel to H. D. Anderson, 28 March 1967. NAA A1838, 3034/10/1/4 part 1.

8Letter, Knott to Garner, Permanent Under-Secretary of State, Commonwealth Office, London, 11 August 1966. The letter included a report by Hasluck on his visit to Indonesia which he had asked to be passed to the UK Government. UK Archives FO 371/186041.

9Cabinet Notebook 1/81, 16 August 1966. NAA A11099, 1/81.

10Cabinet Notebook 1/91 meeting of 28 February 1968. NAA A11099, 1/91. Cabinet Notebook 1/258 contains a record of the same meeting prepared by Peter Lawler. There are some differences between the two records but not such as to change the sense of Cabinet’s views.

11Cabinet Notebook 1/258, NAA A11099, 1/258.

12See Speech by Prime Minister Gorton at banquet given by President Suharto, Jakarta, 13 June 1968. NAA A1209, 1968/8679.

13Cabinet Notebook 1/272 meeting of 27 March 1969 Submission No 515 ‘Australian Aid Programme for Indonesia 1969/70’. NAA A11099 1/272.

14Cabinet Submission 182, March 1970 ‘Australian Aid to Indonesia’ and Decision No 257 of 25 March 1970. NAA A5869, Vol 9.

15Cabinet Submission 684 of 15 February 1971 ‘Review of Strategic Controls Over Exports to Indonesia’ and Decision No 10 of 12 March 1971. NAA A5869, Vol  3.

16See NAA A1838, 3034/10/7/1 part 2 for text of communiqué issued on 7 February 1972 following President Suharto’s visit to Canberra and NAA A1838, 3034/10/4/5 part 4 for text of communiqué issued on 8 June 1972 following Prime Minister McMahon’s visit to Jakarta.

17See UK Archives CRO DEF 89/77/2 and DO 164/67 for the records of Mountbatten’s discussions in Canberra.

18David Goldsworthy, Losing the Blanket: Australia and the End of Britain’s Empire, Melbourne University Press, Carlton South, 2002, p. 158.

19Cabinet Notebook 1/238, FAD Committee meeting on 10 January 1966. NAA A11099, 1/238.

20ibid.

21Cabinet Notebook 1/77, meeting on 19 January 1966. NAA A11099, 1/77.

22Cabinet Notebook 1/78, meeting on 26 January 1966. NAA A11099, 1/78.

23In addition to the Australian and British ministers, the New Zealand Minister for Defence, Dean Eyre, also participated. See Cabinet Decision No 22 (FAD) of 2 February 1966 for a full, edited record of the discussions, NAA A5839, Vol 1. Cabinet Notebook 1/324 contains the unedited record of the meeting. NAA A11099, 1/324.

24Cabinet Decision No 22 (FAD) of 2 February 1966. NAA A5839, Vol 1.

25ibid.

26Cabinet Notebook 1/324 of 1 February 1966. This reference is not included in the record of the meeting contained in Decision No 22 of 2 February 1966, ibid.

27Cabinet Notebook 1/324 of 1 February 1966. NAA A11099 1/324.

28ibid, meeting on 2 February 1966.

29Curiously, such was the Cabinet’s uneasiness at the prospect that Britain could decide to leave the region that it rejected a submission later in the year from the Attorney-General, Snedden, that Australia should abolish the right of legal appeals to be heard by the Privy Council in London. The initiative was too sensitive given ‘the importance for Australia of encouraging the maintenance of a British presence East of Suez’. Decision No 339 of 13 July 1966 and Submission No 254 ‘Appeals to the Privy Council’. NAA A5841, Vol 9.

30ibid, meeting on 2 February 1966 of Holt, McEwen, Hasluck, McMahon and Gorton prior to resumed meeting with Healey.

31Record of meeting between Paul Hasluck and Keith Holyoake, Wellington, 7 May 1966. NAA A1838 370/8/5/2.

32Note on Discussion in Prime Minister’s Office between Holt and Vice President Humphrey, 19 February 1966. NAA A1209, 1966/7066.

33ibid.

34Cabinet Minute, Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee, 19 February 1966 Decision No 25 (FAD). NAA A5839 Vol 1.

35Holt referred to ‘our special responsibilities in New Guinea’ when he wrote to President Johnson after the visit of Vice President Humphrey. Letter forwarded to the White House by the Australian Ambassador on 25 February 1966. Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum, Austin, Texas, Head of State Correspondence File (Box1).

36Cabinet Notebook 1/78 meeting on 15 February 1966. NAA A11099, 1/78. In the formal Cabinet Minute of the meeting the ministers’ comments have been recorded as asking whether ‘there would be sufficient capacity and flexibility left in the force at home to respond effectively to any increase or spread of hostile Indonesian activity’. Cabinet Minute, 15 February 1966 Decision No 32. NAA A5839, Vol 1.

37Cabinet Minute of 2 March 1966, Decision No 60. NAA A5839, Vol 1.

38Australia, House of Representatives, 1966, Debates, Vol 50, 24 March 1966, p. 618.

39For details of Australia’s commitment to the Vietnam War in 1967, see P. Edwards, A Nation at War: Australian Politics, Society and Diplomacy during the Vietnam War 1965–1975, pp. 139-156, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, 1997.

40Cabinet Notebook 1/319 meeting of 28 July 1967. NAA A11099, 1/319.

41Cabinet Notebook 1/87 meeting of 28 September 1967. NAA A11099, 1/87.

42Cabinet Notebook 1/87 meeting of 6 September 1967, ibid.

43Cabinet Notebook 1/85 meeting of 18 July 1967, ibid.

44Rusk’s comments contained in cable 44 from Rusk to the Department of State and the President, Canberra, 6 April 1968, FRUS 1964–1968 Vol XXVII, Mainland Southeast Asia: Regional Affairs, Document 36.

45Letter, Charles Johnson to Sir John Johnson, Commonwealth Office, London, 1 August 1968. UK Archives PREM 13/1945, C675175.

46See, for example, the discussion of Submission No 81 ‘Military presence in Malaysia and Singapore’, 15 May 1968. Cabinet Notebook 1/326. NAA A11099, 1/326. The uncertainty generated by the Cabinet’s indecision over a continued forward defence commitment to Malaysia resulted in Secretary of State Rusk calling in Ambassador Waller to clarify whether Australia was ‘withdrawing’ from Malaysia. Hasluck warned that we ‘must try to breakdown appearance of crisis, uncertainty etc’ to which Gorton replied ‘But we are in a period of crisis’. Cabinet Notebook 1/326,. ibid.

47Paul Hasluck, Foreign Affairs, Public Addresses and Articles (Other than Speeches in Parliament and Formal Official Statements), Vol II 1964–1968, NLA Hasluck Papers, MS5274, Box 37, p. 7.

48See, for example, Cabinet Notebook 1/110 of meeting on 22 April 1970 to discuss a response to President Nixon’s announcement of a withdrawal of troops from Vietnam and the testy exchange between Gorton and Fraser. At one point Gorton cut off his Defence Minister in mid-sentence. NAA A11099 1/110.

49Cabinet Notebook 1/256 meeting of 12 January 1968. NAA A11099, 1/256.

50ibid.

51David Goldsworthy, Losing the Blanket, p.170.

52Cabinet Notebook 1/101, meeting on 29 May 1969. NAA A11099, 1/103.

53ibid.

54See discussion recorded in Cabinet Notebook 1/320 of meeting on 25 January 1968.

55David Goldsworthy, Losing the Blanket, p. 176.

56Relevant section of Five Power Arrangements quoted in T. B. Millar, Australia in Peace and War, p. 246, Australian National University Press, 1978. See also Andrea Benvenuti, Anglo–Australian Relations and the ‘Turn to Europe’, The Royal Historical Society, The Boydell Press, 2008, pp.153-162.

57Cabinet Decision of 18 September 1968 and Cabinet Submission No 274 ‘Papua New Guinea: Strength of the PIR’. NAA A1838, TS698/2 part 4.

58Cabinet Notebook 1/102, meeting on 22 July 1969, NAA A11099 1/102.

59An earlier round of talks had taken place in January 1966 in Port Moresby between Barnes and the Select Committee. Barnes had briefed the Cabinet on these talks in Submission No 1 of 27 January 1966 ‘Papua New Guinea – Constitutional Development’. Barnes advised the Cabinet that he intended to bring forward a submission on the possible long-term relationship between Australia and the Territory. Text of Submission No 1 and background information contained in Stuart Doran (ed.), Documents on Australian Foreign Policy: Australia and Papua New Guinea 1966–1969, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Canberra, 2006, pp. 20-34. A copy of Cabinet Decision No 23 of 15 February 1966 in response to the submission is on p. 59.

60ibid. Text of submission No 71 of 10 March 1966 ‘Papua and New Guinea: Ultimate Status’ in pp. 86-103.

61ibid. p. 91.

62ibid. p. 91.

63ibid. p. 92. The text of the Defence Committee’s report was attached to the Submission and is reproduced as pp. 99-103.

64Cabinet Notebook 1/78, meeting on 29 March 1966. NAA A11099, 1/78.

65Cabinet Minute 24 and 29 March 1966, Decision No 138. NAA A5839, Vol 1.

65aReport by Sir Henry Bland, 31 March 1969, ‘Some Observations on my Visit to PNG’, 16–22 March 1969, NAA A1838 TS689/2, part 4.

66Submission 577, 9 May, 1969, ‘Papua and New Guinea: National Unity and Public Order’, in Doran (ed.), Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, Australia and Papua New Guinea 1966-1969, pp. 760-763.

67Gorton referred to Biafra again in a TV interview broadcast on 19 July 1970. Cable 43 from Canberra to Lagos of 5 August 1970 contains transcript of TV interview on Channel 7 on 17 July 1970 and broadcast on 19 July 1970. NAA A1838, 936/3/21 part 4. In the interview Gorton said ‘I think it is not putting it too high to say that if one were not careful something even like a Biafran situation could develop if we just moved out and said “Right, you are on your own. We wash our hands of you”. I believe it possible’.

68Cabinet Notebook 1/274 meeting on 20 May 1969. NAA A11099 1/274.

69Cabinet Decision No 1044 of 20 May 1969 in Doran (ed.), Australia and Papua New Guinea, ibid, pp. 771-772.

70Defence Committee Minute of 2 September 1969, ‘Violence in Rabaul’, NAA A452, 68/5748 part 1.

71See note by G. L. V. Hooton, Attorney-General’s Department, ‘Military Aid to the Civil Power in Papua/New Guinea’, 26 March 1971 for a detailed chronology of the role played by the issue of the calling out of the PIR in the political confrontation between Gorton and Fraser. See also a note prepared by Governor-General Hasluck dated July 1970 in NAA M1768 Item 2. See also I. Hancock, John Gorton: He Did It His Way, pp. 291-294 for a further account of the political crisis. In March 1971 when Malcolm Fraser resigned as Minister for Defence he cited Gorton’s handling of the decision-making behind the call out of the PIR as one of the reasons he could no longer serve in his government.

72Study in relation to Internal Security, Report by Interdepartmental Committee. 11 September 1972, NAA A452 T29, 1975/26.

73National Intelligence Committee Report ‘International Developments up to 1980’, NAA A452, 1970/4122.

74Speech by Prime Minister Gorton, ABC Radio, Port Moresby, 6 July 1970. ibid.

75Handwritten comment by Waller to Deputy Secretaries Shann and Border, 8 December 1971, NAA A1838 3080/10/1 part 1.

76See A1838, TS689 parts 3 to 6 for details of the review of the Defence Forces in Papua New Guinea.

77Defence Committee Minute of 17 September 1970. Agendum 14/1970 Minute No 19/1970, Review of Defence Forces in Papua/New Guinea. NAA A1838, 679/2/2/4 part 7.

78See Australian Defence Review, Department of Defence, 28 March 1972, Australia, House of Representatives, Debates Vol 77, 28 March 1972.

79ibid.

80ibid.

81For details on the crisis, see note prepared by Governor-General Hasluck dated July 1970, ‘Events Associated with Proposal to Use Defence Forces to Maintain Civil Order in Papua New Guinea, July 1970’, NAA M1768 Item 2. In Malcolm Fraser’s ‘Political Memoirs’ he and Margaret Simons refer only to Fraser telephoning the Governor-General while the Note prepared by Hasluck records Fraser as calling on him. Malcolm Fraser and Margaret Simons, Malcolm Fraser: The Political Memoirs, pp. 205-207. Cabinet Notebook 1/111 meeting on 19 July 1970. NAA A11099, 1/111. See also Cabinet Decision No 486 of 21 July 1970, ‘Military Aid to the Civil Power in Papua and New Guinea’, NAA A452, 1961/3329, part 5 and the Explanatory Note attached to the Minute for the Executive Council, 19 July 1970, NAA A432, 1961/3329.

82Cabinet Notebook 1/87 of 6 September 1967. NAA A11099. 1/87.

83Cabinet Notebook 1/34 of 4 September 1956. NAA A11099, 1/34.

84Cabinet Notebook 1/56 of 1 May 1962. NAA A11099. 1/56.

85Garry Woodard, Asian Alternatives, p. 346.

86Submission No 107 of 19 May 1971, ‘The Strategic Basis of Australian Defence Policy – 1971’ and Decision No 197 of 8 June 1971. NAA A5908, 107. See ‘Strategic Basis of Australian Defence Policy March 1971’, pp. 411ff. in S. Frühling (ed.) A History of Australian Strategic Policy Since 1945, Defence Publishing Service, Canberra, 2009. See P. Dibb and R. Brabin-Smith, ‘Indonesia in Australian Defence Planning’, Security Challenges, Vol 3, No 4, November 2007, pp. 78-79.

87S. Frühling (ed.), ibid., p. 413.

88ibid., p. 414.

89ibid.

90ibid.

91ibid.

92ibid., p. 415.

93Cabinet Minute, Decision No 452, 23 June 1970, NAA A5869, Vol 19.

94Press Release No 907, 20 May 1971, ‘National Unity’, NAA A1209, 1971/9229.

95Letter, Waller to Hay, 14 December 1971 NAA A1838, 3080/10/1 part 1.

96Department of Defence, Australian Defence Review, Australian Parliament, 1972.

97Australia, House of Representative, 1972, Debates Vol 77, 28 March 1972, p. 1252.

98Statement by Minister for Defence to the Administrator’s Executive Council, 15 June 1972, NAA A1838, 3080/4/1 part 1.

99Comments made by W. Conroy in Record of Conversation W. L. Conroy, Director, PNG Department of Foreign Relations and Trade and L. H. Border, A/g Deputy Secretary, Department of Foreign Affairs, 6 August 1973. NAA A1838, 3080/1/2/3A, part 1A.

100Cable PR11590 from Commander PNG Force to Defence, 15 June 1972, NAA A1838, 3080/4/1 part 1.

101Interview with Minister for Defence, David Fairbairn, Australian Broadcasting Commission, 15 June 1972, Port Moresby.

Chapter 10

1Whitlam was sworn in as Prime Minister on 5 December following the general election held on 2 December. He also held the portfolio of Minister for Foreign Affairs until 6 November 1973. Don Willesee served as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 6 November 1973 to 11 November 1975. Lance Barnard served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Defence from 5 December 1972 to 6 June 1974. Bill Morrison served as Minister for External Territories from 19 December 1972 to 30 November 1973, Minister Assisting the Minister for Foreign Affairs in matters relating to Papua New Guinea from 30 November 1974 to 6 June 1975 and Minister for Defence from 6 June 1975 to 11 November 1975.

2For an overview of Labor’s policy approach to Papua New Guinea, see P. Westerway, ‘The ALP and New Guinea’, New Guinea, June/July 1965, pp. 37-39; Downs, The Australian Trusteeship, Chs 13–14; E. G. Whitlam, The Whitlam Government 1972–1975, Viking Press, Ringwood, 1985, pp. 71-101; E. G. Whitlam, Text of Address given by the Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs when opening the Australian Institute of Political Science Summer School, Canberra, 22 January 1973, in D. Pettit (ed.), Selected Readings in Australian Foreign Policy, Sorrett Publishing, Toorak, 1973; K. Beazley Snr, ‘The Future of Papua New Guinea’, World Review, Vol 11, No 2, July 1972, pp. 3-18; J. Griffin (ed.), A Foreign Policy for an Independent Papua New Guinea, Angus and Robertson in association with the Australian Institute of International Affairs, Sydney 1974, contains ‘Labor’s Plans for Papua New Guinea’, Statement by the Leader of the Opposition Mr E. G. Whitlam, Port Moresby, 12 January 1970, pp. 145-49; E. G. Whitlam, Beyond Vietnam: Australia’s Regional Responsibility, Victorian Fabian Society, Pamphlet 17, Melbourne, 1968; E.G. Whitlam, ‘Australia and Her Region’, in J. McLaren (ed.), Towards a New Australia, Victorian Fabian Society, Melbourne, 1972, pp. 17-19; and G. Pemberton, ‘Whitlam and the Labor Tradition’ in D. Lee and C. Waters (eds), Evatt to Evans: The Labor Tradition in Australian Foreign Policy, Allen & Unwin, Canberra, 1997, pp. 131-62. An analysis of the transfer of power can be found in H. Nelson, ‘Liberation: The End of Australian Rule in Papua New Guinea’, The Journal of Pacific History, Vol 35, No 3, 2000, pp. 269-80.

3The details of Whitlam’s visits to Papua New Guinea are available in E.G. Whitlam, ‘The Decolonisation of Papua New Guinea’, paper delivered at ‘Hindsight’ seminar, A Retrospective Workshop: Decolonisation and Independence in Papua New Guinea, ANU Canberra, 3–4 November 2002. In 1971 the House of Assembly adopted Papua New Guinea as the official name of the country. Henceforth in this book the term Papua New Guinea or PNG will be used.

4Text quoted in E.G. Whitlam, The Whitlam Government 1972–1975, p. 79.

5Quoted by R. Waddell, ‘January–April 1970’ in C. Moore with M. Kooyman (eds), A Papua New Guinea Political Chronicle 1967–1991, Crawford House Publishing, Bathurst, 1998, p. 100. Chief Minister Somare later told Australian Ambassador to Indonesia, Bob Furlonger, that ‘he had been impressed with Mr Whitlam in the past and that many of the things he had said during his visit in 1970 had had the agreement of the Pangu Party’. See Record of Conversation Furlonger and Somare, 5 December 1972, Port Moresby. NAA A452, 1972/3190.

6Text of Labor’s Plan for New Guinea in Canberra Times, 13 January 1970, p. 7.

7Downs, The Australian Trusteeship, p. 464.

8ibid., p. 465.

9The Australian, p. 8, 3 July 1970.

10Comments made by Tange to J. F. Robertson, Secretary, New Zealand Department of Defence and Lt General R. J. Webb, 21 January 1973. NAA A1838, 689/2/9 part 5.

11In an interview on arrival in Port Moresby, 3 January 1971, Whitlam said, in relation to the future of Papua New Guinea, ‘Australia has to decide whether or not she is willing to continue as a colonial power. This is a decision by Australians about Australia’s place in the world … The Australian Labor Party will not accept a colonial rule on Australia’s behalf ’. Text reprinted in The Canberra Times, 4 January 1971, NAA A 5882, CO66 part 1.

12Policy statement delivered by Whitlam on 13 November 1972. NAA A1838, 3080/11/6/2 part 1.

13ibid.

14Barnard had visited Papua New Guinea with Whitlam in July 1960.

15For a description of Morrison and his approach to Papua New Guinea, see Donald Denoon, A Trial Separation: Australia and the Decolonisation of Papua New Guinea, Pandanas Books, Canberra, 2005. p. 105. See also W. Morrison, ‘Papua New Guinea: The Quiet Achievement’ in T. Bramston, The Whitlam Legacy, The Federation Press, Annandale, 2013.

16Comments by Morrison to author, 4 November 2002 and comments at ‘Hindsight’ seminar, Australian National University, Canberra, 3–4 November 2002. See Donald Denoon, A Trial Separation, pp. 145-150 for details and a critique of Australia’s approach to the defence relationship with PNG.

17Hank Nelson, Papua New Guinea: Black Unity or Black Chaos, Penguin Books, Ringwood, 1972, pp. 236-237.

18Donald Denoon, Trial Separation, p. 4.

19Sydney Morning Herald, 2 January 1975, Editorial ‘As the Sun Sets’.

20Papua New Guinea Press Release No 3437 of 3 December 1972, ‘Chief Minister Congratulates A.L.P’. NAA A1838, 3080/11/6/2 part 1.

21Address by Lance Barnard, Deputy Leader of the Australian Labor Party, to the Army Staff College, Queenscliff, 1 May 1972, NAA A1838, 3080/4/1 part 1.

22ibid.

23ibid.

24Walsh and Munster, Documents on Australian Defence and Foreign Policy 1968–1975, Paper by Joint Intelligence Organisation, 11 January 1973, pp. 293-98.

25ibid.

26Record of Meeting between Minister for Defence, Minister Assisting the Minister for Defence and Minister for External Territories, Canberra, 18 January 1973, NAA A452 1972/4109.

27See letter, Morrison to Barnard, 16 January 1973, NAA A 452, 1972/3889. Morrison argued ‘whilst it had to date been able to maintain law and order, there is as least some doubt as to whether, without being strengthened, it will be able to do so in the future … I think that early consideration should be given to the formation of a police field force which could engage in the control of law and order in rural areas, controlling riots and border supervision. … The possibility of PIR personnel being used in the proposed field force could be explored’.

28ibid. See also W. Morrison, ‘Draft Notes on the Transfer of Defence Powers’, Paper presented at ‘Hindsight’ seminar, Australian National University, Canberra, 3–4 November 2002. Morrison had served in Kuala Lumpur as Deputy High Commissioner before being elected to Parliament in 1969.

29ibid.

30ibid.

31ibid.

32Record of Meeting between Barnard and Morrison, 11 April 1973. Others present: David Hay, Secretary, Department of External Territories and G. Blakers, Deputy Secretary, Department of Defence. NAA A452, 1972/3889.

33ibid.

34Donald Denoon, A Trial Separation, pp. 147-148.

35Record of Conversation Furlonger and Somare, 5 December 1972, Port Moresby. NAA A452, 1972/3190. Furlonger had visited Papua New Guinea in July 1970 as Director, Joint Intelligence Organisation.

36ibid.

37Cable 5290 of 11 December 1972 from Jakarta to Canberra, ibid.

38ibid.

39Cable 675 of 12 February 1973 from Jakarta to Canberra. ibid.

40ibid.

41Record of Meeting, Chief Minister of Papua New Guinea and Minister for Defence, Minister Assisting the Minister for Defence (Senator Bishop), and Minister for External Territories, Canberra, 18 January 1973, NAA A452, 1972/4109.

42ibid.

43ibid.

44Ron May, The Changing Role of the Military in Papua New Guinea, Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Canberra, 1993, pp. 14-56.

45Text of Address, Minister for Defence, Lance Barnard, to the Administrator’s Executive Council, Port Moresby, 25 January 1973, NAA A1838, 3080/4/5, part 1.

46ibid.

47ibid.

48ibid.

49Minute, Jackson to Blakeney DFA, 13 April 1973. NAA A9737, 1991/70805. Minute reported conversation with G. R. Marshall, Chief Planning Officer, Defence Planning, Department of Defence.

50ibid.

51Telex 519 of 1 February 1973 from the Department of External Territories, Canberra, to Administrator, Port Moresby. Press conference held on aircraft descending into Canberra on 29 January 1973. According to the telex message, Barnard initially used the word ‘essential’ to describe Manus and the refuelling base and this was later amended to ‘desirable’. NAA A452, 1972/4109.

52Minute, Hay (Secretary Department of External Territories) to FAS (GL), John Greenwell, 30 January 1973 reporting debriefing by Gordon Blakers (Deputy Secretary, Defence) on Barnard’s visit. Ibid.

53ibid.

54Letter, Somare to Morrison, 18 May 1973. NAA A4087, D923/1/1. Morrison wrote to Barnard on receipt of Somare’s letter seeking a transfer of part of the budget for the PNGDF to the Police Force.

55Record of conversation, Whitlam and Somare, Port Moresby, 20 February 1973, NAA A1838, 3080/16/15 part 1.

56Speech, Prime Minister Whitlam at a Papua New Guinea Government Dinner, Port Moresby, 18 February 1973, NAA A1838, 3080/16/15 part 1.

57Address by Prime Minister Whitlam at a state banquet given by the Government of Indonesia, Jakarta, 20 February 1973. NAA A1838, 3080/16/15 part 1.

58Speech by Minister for Defence, National Press Club, Canberra, 15 March 1973, NAA A1838, 677/1, part 11.

59Australia, House of Representatives, 1973, Debates, Vol 84, 24 May 1973, pp. 2646.

60ibid. Peacock had used similar language in June 1972 when he said ‘while Australia will remain important to Papua New Guinea, we should not seek to build an exclusive relationship based on a mistaken belief that past assistance places Papua New Guinea under an obligation to us. Looked at from Papua New Guinea’s point of view, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines and Japan, as well as the island nations of the Pacific, will have important places in the eyes of Papua New Guinea Governments’. Speech reprinted in W. J. Hudson, New Guinea Empire: Australia’s Colonial Experience, Cassell, Melbourne, 1974, p. 115.

61Letter, Somare to Whitlam, 6 August 1973. NAA A1838, 3080/4/4 part 2. Various annotations on the letter by departmental officers indicate a sense of confusion as to what had motivated Somare to write three months after the speech had been delivered. Whitlam had made no reference to a defence treaty.

62News Release No 1229 of 17 May 1973 ‘Policy Guidelines Agreed’. NAA A1838, 3080/4/1 part 3.

63Defence Committee Agendum, ‘Strategic Basis Paper 1973’, 29 and 31 May 1973, NAA A1838, 677/3, part 22. A copy of the Strategic Basis Paper is also contained in S. Frühling (ed.), A History of Australian Strategic Policy Since 1945, Defence Publishing Service, Canberra, 2009. The extracts following are taken from the edition released in Frühling’s book.

64ibid., para. 50.

65Report by the Joint Planning Committee, ‘Australian Access to Base Facilities in Papua New Guinea after Independence, 28 June 1973’, NAA A1838, 3080/4/5 part 1. The Joint Planning Committee was established in 1940 to advise the Defence Committee and the Chiefs of Staff Committee on operational aspects of defence planning, plans for combined operations, co-ordination of inter-service training and strategic appreciation. The Department of Foreign Affairs was represented on the Committee.

66ibid.

67ibid.

68Defence Committee Minute No 8/1973, ‘Australia’s Defence Relations with Papua New Guinea’, 1 November 1973, NAA A4087, D923/13/3 part 1.

69Minute, Pritchett to Tange, October 1973, ‘Australia’s Defence Interests with Papua New Guinea’. Pritchett told Tange that ‘because of practical exigencies I have not called together a writing group but have written the paper myself ’. He did, however, consult ‘as to the concept’ with Defence and Foreign Affairs officials. NAA A4087, D923/13/3 part 1.

70Minute, Border to Waller, 7 February 1973, NAA A1838, 689/2/9 part 1.

71Defence Committee Agendum No 5/1973, Minute No 8/1973, Minute of meeting on 1 November 1973, Australia’s Defence Relations with Papua New Guinea. NAA A4087, D923/13/3 part 1. The subsequent extracts have been taken from the paper ‘Australia’s Defence Relations with Papua New Guinea’.

72R. O’Neill, ‘Australia’s Future Defence Relations with Papua New Guinea’, Australian Outlook, Vol 26, No 2, August 1972, p. 201.

73H. Bull (ed.), Foreign Policy for Australia: Choices for the Seventies, Australian Institute of Political Science, Proceedings of the 39th Summer School, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1973, p. 149.

74H. Bull, quoted in ‘Summary of Discussion’, in E. Wolfers (ed.), Australia’s Northern Neighbours: Independent or Dependent?, Nelson, Melbourne, 1976, p. 180.

75J. A. C. Mackie, Konfrontasi: The Indonesia–Malaysia Dispute 1963–1966, Oxford University Press, London, 1974.

76J. A. C. Mackie, ‘The External Dimension: Regional Problems and Policy Decisions Confronting Australia’, in Wolfers (ed.), Australia’s Northern Neighbours, p. 180.

77F. A Mediansky, ‘Defence’, in W. J. Hudson (ed.), Australia’s New Guinea Question, Nelson, in association with the Australian Institute of International Affairs, Melbourne, 1975, p. 140.

78Comments by Professor O. Harries, in Bull (ed.), Foreign Policy for Australia, p. 172.

Chapter 11

1P. Mench, The Role of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force, Development Studies Centre, Monograph No 2, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1975, p. 78.

2Morrison’s account was conveyed to the author at the ‘Hindsight’ seminar, Australian National University, 4 November 2002.

3According to an article in Tribune, the union leader Bill Hartley spoke on the issue and argued that ‘such a treaty could involve Australia in military activity in PNG to defend the unity of the country against the tendency to communal disintegration which is evident today’. Tribune, July 17–23, 1973.

4Mench, The Role of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force, p. 74.

5See comment by Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Whitlam on departmental minute, 20 July 1973, NAA A1838, 689/1 part 1.

6See text of the 1962 ANZUS Communiqué, Canberra, 8–9 May 1962, CNIA, Vol 33, No 5, 1962.

7J. Starke, The ANZUS Treaty Alliance, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 1965, p. 145.

8See handwritten comment by Tange on a draft Defence Committee report, 7 February 1963, NAA A1838, 696/3/3 part 3.

9Attachment, ‘Australia’s Defence Relations with Papua New Guinea: Note on PNG and ANZUS’, Defence Committee Minute No 8/1973, ‘Australia’s Defence Relations with Papua New Guinea’, 1 November 1973, NAA A1838, 3080/4/5 part 1. The US Embassy advice was contained in a letter, 7 May 1973, ibid.

10ibid.

11ibid.

12James Curran, Unholy Fury: Whitlam and Nixon at War, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 2015.

13Record of the Joint Australian/Papua New Guinea Steering Committee on the Transfer of Defence Power, Canberra, 5–6 February 1974, para. 5, NAA A1838, 3080/4/1 part 1.

14Record of the Australia/Papua New Guinea Ministerial Defence Meeting, Canberra, 4 April 1974, NAA A1838, 3080/4/1 part 5.

15ibid.

16ibid.

17ibid.

18Mench, The Role of the Defence Force in Papua New Guinea, pp. 92–93.

19Papua New Guinea House of Assembly 1974, Debates, Vol III, no 28, p. 3681. Speech by Albert Maori Kiki, Minister for Defence, Foreign Relations and Trade, 25 April 1974.

20ibid., p. 3685.

21Submission Pritchett to Barnard, 9 July 1974, NAA A9737, 1991/70805.

22ibid.

23ibid.

24Records of Conversation, Sir Victor Smith with Somare and Kiki, Port Moresby, 15 and 16 July 1974, NAA A1838, 689/2/12/1 part 1.

25Speech by Minister for Defence at the CGSE Opening Royal Military College, Duntroon, 12 August 1974. NAA A1838, 3081/2/6/3/1 part 2.

26Australia, House of Representatives, 1974, Debates , Vol 91, 24 October 1974, p. 2819.

27See Australia, House of Representatives, 1975, Debates, Vol 10, 4 March 1975, p. 984 and Statement ‘Transfer of Defence Power to Papua New Guinea’ dated 4 March 1975, tabled by Barnard. The statement repeated the description of the future defence relationship set out in Barnard’s speech in Parliament on 24 October 1974.

28ibid.

29ibid.

30Papua New Guinea House of Assembly 1974, Debates , Vol III, no 38, pp. 4965- 4966, 24 October 1974.

31Department of Foreign Affairs submission, 3 September 1975, NAA A1838, 689/2/18 part 1.

32Annotation by Whitlam on submission from B. C. Hill, First Assistant Secretary, Pacific and Western Division, Department of Foreign Affairs, 25 June 1974. NAA A1838, 1490/17/5, part 4.

33Letter, Whitlam to Somare 19 June 1975 in cable CH232318 from Canberra to Port Moresby, 19 June 1975. NAA A1838, 3081/2/6/3 part 4.

34See W. Way (ed.) with D. Browne and V. Johnson, Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of Portuguese Timor, 1974–1976, Melbourne University Press, Carlton South, 2000, for a number of examples of Australian officials drawing attention to the impact on Papua New Guinea of Indonesia’s actions against East Timor. See, in particular, Document No 24, ‘Brief for Whitlam’, Canberra 2 September 1974, pp. 90-93; Document No 81, Letter from Barnard to Willesee, Canberra 11 February 1975, pp. 176-80; and Document No 393, Cable to Canberra from Jakarta, 5 January 1976, pp. 652-60. In Barnard’s letter to Willesee (Document No 81), Barnard notes ‘A further aspect concerns Papua New Guinea. At present there seems little awareness of Portuguese Timor; but we cannot be confident that this would continue were Indonesia to take immoderate action in Timor. I would expect people in Papua New Guinea to think about the implications for their relations with Indonesia and in this respect to look again at their defence relationship with Australia. This could well be at the very time that we are finalising a defence relationship with PNG that, at the wish of both parties, will now contain no Australian commitment to the security of PNG after independence. Such a commitment would, of course, have direct implications for the structure of the Defence Force and for the size of our defence expenditure’.

35May, The Changing Role of the Military in Papua New Guinea, p. 15.

36The critical section of this document noted that ‘the Papua New Guinea authorities will in good time provide to the Australian High Commissioner information, reports and assessments about politically sensitive situations in which Australian loan personnel might be involved’. The document noted that the arrangements allowed for direct consultation between the High Commissioner and the Papua New Guinea authorities. Department of Defence, Documents Relating to Interim Defence Arrangements between Australia and Papua New Guinea, tabled in the House of Representatives, 9 October 1975.

37ibid. See text of Joint Statement ‘PNG – Interim Arrangements for Post- Independence Defence Relations’, 9 October 1975.

38ibid. See text of letter from Morrison to Kiki, dated 10 September 1975.

39Submission, Blakeney (FAS, Defence Division, Foreign Affairs) to Minister, ‘PNG: Future Defence Relations with Australia’, undated. NAA A9737, 1991/70805.

Chapter 12

1Press Statement of 5 May 1967 by Malcolm Fraser. The University of Melbourne Digitised Collection, Malcolm Fraser Visit to PNG, 5 May 1967. Fraser had also visited Port Moresby in February 1968.

2Editorial in The Age, 11 April 1972 ‘Changing Pace’.

3Letter, Peacock to Somare, 11 May 1972. NAA A1838, 3080/10/1 part 2.

4Speech by Andrew Peacock, Minister for External Territories, ‘Independence – Papua New Guinea Style’, to the Australian Institute of International Affairs, Melbourne, 4 July 1972. NAA A1838, 3080/11/1/2 part 1.

5Speech by Peacock to the New South Wales Branch of the Australian Institute of International Affairs, Sydney, 8 June 1972, ‘Future Relations Between Australia and Papua New Guinea’, NAA A1838, 3080/10/1 part 2.

6J. Killen, Inside Australian Politics, Methuen Haynes, 1985, p. 170.

7Letter, Somare to Fraser, 30 January 1976. NAA A10756, LC211.

8Cabinet Decision No 280 (FAD), 26 February 1976. NAA A13075, 280 FAD.

9ibid.

10Cabinet Notebook 3/13 meeting on 26 February 1976, NAA A11099, 3/13.

11Minute, Renouf to G. Feakes, First Assistant Secretary, South East Asia and PNG Division, DFA, 2 March 1976. NAA A1838. 3081/2/6/3 part 17.

12Letter of 15 September 1976, G. R. Marshall, Senior Assistant Secretary, Strategic Analysis and International Policy Division, Department of Defence, to M. Lyon, Assistant Secretary, PNG Branch, DFA. Marshall had earlier conveyed a similar message to the Director of Joint Intelligence Office. In that message Marshall had said the paper requested by the Cabinet should ‘examine all possibilities for Australian involvement in ensuring a united PNG – including the use of force from Australia, particularly if other powers or interest groups become involved on the side of the secessionists’. Defence Department minute, 23 June 1976 Marshall to DJIO and DGJOP. NAA A1838, 3081/2/6/3/1 part 5.

13P. Hastings, ‘Interview with Prime Minister Fraser’, Sydney Morning Herald, 7 May 1976.

14Peacock wrote to Fraser on 12 April 1977 seeking his formal agreement that officials not proceed with the paper. Fraser replied on 26 April 1976 agreeing to Peacock’s recommendation but asking that the situation be kept under review. NAA A1838, 3081/2/6/3/1.

15Foreign Affairs and Defence Submission No 7, February 1976, ‘Australia’s Defence Relations with Papua New Guinea’. NAA A10756, LC264 part 1.

16ibid.

17ibid.

18ibid.

19ibid.

20Cabinet Decision No 289 (FAD) of 2 March 1976. NAA A13075, 289/FAD.

21Minute, I. D. Emerton, FAS Cabinet and Parliamentary Division, Prime Minister and Cabinet to Prime Minister, 4 March 1976 and letter, J. L. Menadue, Secretary to Cabinet to E. W. Dwyer, Acting Secretary, Department of Defence, 23 March 1976. NAA A10756, LC264 part 1.

22See letter, Menadue to Dwyer. ibid

23Joint Communiqué issued on 4 March 1976. Australian Foreign Affairs Record, Department of Foreign Affairs, Canberra, March 1976, pp. 153-156.

24Submission No 487 of July 1976, ‘Australia’s Defence Relations with Papua New Guinea’, NAA A10756, LC264 part 1.

25Briefing note to the Prime Minister from Allan Griffith, First Assistant Secretary, External Relations and Defence Division, Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, 10 July 1976. ibid.

26Cabinet Notebook 3/19, meeting on 14 July 1976. NAA A11099, 3/19.

27ibid.

28Papua New Guinea Parliament 1976, Debates, Vol 1, No 17, p. 2260, 2 December 1976, Defence Report 1975–1976.

29‘Australian Strategic Analysis and Defence Policy Objectives (September 1976)’, in S. Frühling (ed.), A History of Australian Strategic Policy Since 1945, pp. 543-623.

30ibid. See Chapter 6.

31ibid, p. 589.

32ibid.

33ibid., p. 590.

34ibid., p. 591.

35ibid., p. 592.

36ibid., p. 594.

37ibid.

38Australian Parliament 1976, ‘Australian Defence’, Presented to Parliament by the Minister for Defence, the Hon D. J. Killen, November 1976.

39Cabinet Submission No 946 ‘Australia’s Defence relations with Papua New Guinea’ and Decision No 2021 (FAD) of 16 December 1976. NAA A10756, LC264 part 1.

40ibid.

41ibid.

42Cabinet Notebook 3/60, meeting on 16 December 1976, NAA A11099, 3/60.

43Text of Press Conference by Prime Minister Somare, 13 January 1977, Jakarta. NAA A1838, 689/2/28 part 5.

44Agreed Summary Record of Meeting, Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea and Prime Minister of Australia, 8 February 1977. NAA A1838, 3081/10/11/4 part 5.

45ibid.

46Joint Statement by the Prime Minister and the Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea on the Defence Relationship Between Papua New Guinea and Australia, 11 February 1977. ibid.

47Transcript of Prime Minister Fraser’s Press Conference, 11 February 1977, Port Moresby. NAA A1838, 3080/18/1 part 1.

48Papers of Malcolm Fraser. NAA M1269, 9 part 2.

49Australia, House of Representatives, 1977, Debates, Vol 103, 23 February 1977, pp. 345-346.

Chapter 13

1Port Moresby Ministerial Directive from Senator Don Willesee, Minister for Foreign Affairs, to T. K. Critchley, 5 April 1974. NAA A1838, 3036/10/6/1 part 6.

2See speech by E. G. Whitlam, ‘Papua New Guinea – The Dangers of Separatism’, Monash University, 29 July 1971. NAA M170, 71/61, Personal Papers of Prime Minister E. G. Whitlam. Kim Beazley served in the Australian Paarliament from 1945 to 1977 and was Minister for Education in the Whitlam Government.

3Cabinet Submission No 4956 and Decision No 9702 of 11 August 1987. NAA A14039, 4956.

4ibid.

5ibid., Attachment C, para 21.

6ibid., Submission, para 9.

7ibid., Attachment C, para 5.

8For an interpretation of Dibb’s work, see Peter J. Rimmer amd R. Gerard Ward, ‘The Power of Geography’ in Desmond Ball and Sheryn Lee (eds.), Geography, Power, Strategy and Defence Policy: Essays in Honour of Paul Dibb, ANU Press, Australian National University, Canberra, 2016, pp. 45-69.

9Cabinet Submission No 4956, Attachment C, para 8. NAA A14039, 4956.

10ibid.

11ibid., para 23.

11aibid., Attachment D, paras 10 and 11.

12Decision No 9702, 11 August 1987. NAA A14039, 4956.

13ibid.

14Text available on website of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, www. dfat.gov.au/geo/png/jdpgr_aust_png.

15Text available on website of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, www. dfat.gov.au/geo/png/joint-declaration.

16ibid.

17Cabinet Submission 209 of 6 June 1983 ‘Australian Defence Relations with Papua New Guinea’, NAA A11116, CA3159 part 1.

18P. Dibb, Review of Australia’s Defence Capabilities, AGPS, Canberra, 1986, p. 37.

19Australia, Senate 1989, Debates, Vol 138, 6 December 1989, p. 4023.

202016 Australian Defence White Paper, Department of Defence, Canberra, 2016, para 3.7.

21Stewart Firth, ‘Security in Papua New Guinea: The Military and Diplomatic Dimensions’, Security Challenges, Vol 10, No 2 (2014), p.109.

22PNG Defence White Paper 2013, Independent State of Papua New Guinea, Port Moresby, 2013, p. 31.

23Stewart Firth, ‘Security in Papua New Guinea: The Military and Diplomatic Dimensions’. ibid.

24The Age, 31 July 1972, p. 31.

Australia's Northern Shield?

   by Bruce Hunt