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Anzac Memories: Living with the Legend [New Edition]

NOTES

Where an entry in these notes consists solely of a name and page number (e.g. Stabb, pp. 6–7.), it refers to a transcript of an interview. A number following the name in such entries (e.g. Langham 2, p. 6.) indicates a particular interview in a series. See the bibliography for details.

Introduction to the first edition

1    Boyd C. Thomson, Boyhood’s Fancies, Brown, Prior & Co., Melbourne, 1917, p. 8.

2    Alistair Thomson, ‘Known Unto God’, Ormond Chronicle, 1981, pp. 31–4.

3    Alistair Thomson, ‘Gallipoli — A Past That We Can Live By?’, Melbourne Historical Journal, 14, 1982, pp. 56–72; Age, 20 and 24 June 1966.

4    Alistair Thomson, ‘O Valiant Hearts — How the Mighty Have Fallen’, Farrago, 61, 22 April 1983, pp. 10–11.

5    Alistair Thomson, ‘“They were finished with you and you were finished”: Memories of Western Suburbs Veterans of the Great War of 1914–1918’, City of Footscray Historical Society Newsletter, 1984, pp. 389–90.

6    References to debates about oral history and memory, and to the writings of the Popular Memory Group, are cited in Appendix 1.

7    Graham Dawson & Bob West, ‘“Our Finest Hour”? The Popular Memory of World War Two and the Struggles over National Identity’, in National Fictions: World War Two in British Film and Television, Geoff Hurd (ed.), BFI Publishing, London, 1984, pp. 10–11. For this theory of composure, see chapter 1 of Graham Dawson, Soldier Heroes: Britishness, Colonial Adventure and the Imagining of Masculinities, Routledge, London, 1994.

8    Dawson & West, ‘“Our Finest Hour”?’, pp. 10–11.

9    ibid., p. 10.

10  ibid., p. 28; Richard Wollheim, Freud, Fontana, Glasgow, 1971, pp. 65–107.

11  The stories of Percy’s written testimony were repeated in the interview and adopted the same basic form and punchlines, although my questions sometimes provoked more background detail.

12  Bill Langham, Interview 2, 30 March 1987, p. 33.

13  Langham 2, p. 2; Langham, Interview 1, 29 May 1983, p. 7; Langham 2, p. 4. For an analysis of the ‘populist’ ideology of ‘the people’ against ‘the power bloc’, see Ernesto Laclau, Politics and Ideology in Marxist Theory, New Left Books, London, 1977.

14  Langham 1, pp. 1, 5 and 7; Langham 2, p. 25; Langham 1, p. 4.

15  Langham 2, p. 35; see ibid., Précis notes, p. 1.

16  Langham 2, pp. 12, 24, 35.

17  Fred Farrall, Interview 1, 7 July 1983, Précis notes, p. 1.

18  Farrall 1, Précis notes.

19  See, for example, the story about Bill Fraser’s warnings about the war in Farrall 1, p. 9; Fred Farrall, ‘Trade Unionism in the First AIF 1914–1918’, Recorder, 54, October 1971, p. 34.

20  Farrall 1, pp. 8–9. In fact Andrew Fisher made his famous ‘last man and last shilling’ speech as an election pledge in July 1914 just before he became Prime Minister of a new Labor government.

1 The diggers’ war

1    C. E. W. Bean, The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Vol. vi, The AIF in France: May — The Armistice 1918, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1942, p. 1098.

2    C. E. W. Bean, The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–18, Vol. i, The Story of Anzac: The First Phase, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1921, p. 15; Canberra Times, 7 April 1990.

3    Richard White, ‘Motives for Joining Up: Self-sacrifice, Self-interest and Social Class, 1914–1918’, Journal of the Australian War Memorial, 9, October 1986, pp. 3–16; Denis Winter, Death’s Men: Soldiers of the Great War, Allen Lane, London, 1978, pp. 1 and 32–6.

4    Stan D’Altera, Interview, 8 May 1983, pp. 4–8.

5    Alf Stabb, Interview, 7 September 1983, pp. 6–7.

6    James McNair, Interview, 27 May 1982, pp. 3–5.

7    Jack Flannery, Interview, 1 May 1983, p. 12.

8    E. L. Cuddeford, Interview, 6 September 1983, p. 5.

9    Ern Morton, Interview 1, 21 June 1985, p. 3.

10  Sid Norris, Interview, 13 September 1983, pp. 2–3.

11  Jack T. Glew, Interview, 6 September 1983, pp. 2–3.

12  Charles Bowden, Interview, 2 July 1983, pp. 14–17 and 40.

13  Leslie David, Interview, 27 May 1983, pp. 14–23.

14  Albert C. Linton, Interview, 12 June 1983, pp. 7–8.

15  Ted McKenzie, Interview, 29 April 1983, p. 10.

16  D’Altera, pp. 7–8.

17  Suzanne Brugger, Australians and Egypt, 1914–1919, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 1980.

18  R. Lewis, ‘The Spirit of Anzac — Myth or Reality’, Journal of History, xi, 4, 1980, p. 4; Kevin Fewster, ‘The Wazza Riots’, Journal of the Australian War Memorial, 4, April 1984, pp. 47–53; Morton 1, p. 5; and see Norris, pp. 16–17; Stabb, p. 20; Flannery, p. 29; and Bowdon, p. 24.

19  Jeffrey Williams, Discipline on Active Service: The 1st Brigade, First AIF, 1914–1919, B. Litt. thesis, Australian National University, 1982, p. 72; and C. E. W. Bean, The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Vol. iii, The AIF in France 1916, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1929, pp. 56–62. See also C. E. W. Bean, Two Men I Knew, Angus & Robertson, Sydney 1957, p, 165; Michael McKernan, The Australian People and the Great War, Collins, Sydney, 1984, pp. 116–49; Bean, Vol. vi, pp. 15 and 1085; C. E. W. Bean, Anzac to Amiens, Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 1946, p. 191; Peter Charlton, Pozières: Australians on the Somme 1916, Methuan Haynes, North Ryde, 1980, p. 145; Bean, Vol. iii, p. 699.

20  D’Altera, pp. 11–12.

21  Stabb, pp. 18 and 26.

22  Bill Williams, Interview 2, 1 April 1987, pp. 10–11.

23  Linton, pp. 8–9; Morton 1, p. 12; Stabb, p. 12.

24  Winter, Death’s Men, pp. 46–9.

25  Currey O’Neill (ed.), Bill Harney’s War, Currey O’Neill Press, Melbourne, 1983, p. 20; Glew, p. 18.

26  Ern Morton, Interview 2, 26 March 1987, pp. 1–2; Flannery, pp. 22–3.

27  Bill Bridgeman, Interview, 1 May 1983, p. 26.

28  McNair, pp. 9–11.

29  Bowden, pp. 27–9.

30  David, pp. 21–4 and 37.

31  For discussion of the military effectiveness of the AIF, see Jane Ross, The Myth of the Digger, Hale & Iremonger, Sydney, 1985, pp. 28–30; Winter, Death’s Men, pp. 46–9; Jeffrey Grey, A Military History of Australia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1990, p. 111; cf. Bean Vol. vi, p. 1078.

32  Cuddeford, p. 11.

33  Flannery, p. 24.

34  Morton 1, pp. 7–8.

35  Linton, pp. 10–11.

36  McNair, pp. 7–8, 13 and 19.

37  See, among others, Paul Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory, Oxford University Press, London, 1975; John Keegan, The Face of Battle, Jonathan Cape, London, 1976; Denis Winter, Death’s Men; Eric Leed, No Man’s Land: Combat and Identity in World War 1, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1979. For feminist analyses, see: Elaine Showalter, The Female Malady: Women, Madness and English Culture 1830–1980, Virago, London, 1987, pp. 167–194; M. R. Higonnet et al. (eds), Behind the Lines: Gender and Two World Wars, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1987; Michael Roper and John Tosh (eds), Manful Assertions: Masculinities in Britain since 1800, Routledge, London, 1991.

38  R. G. Lindstrom, Stress and Identity: Australian Soldiers During the First World War, MA thesis, University of Melbourne, 1985, p. 96. For this type of Anzac experience see, for example: O’Neill, Bill Harney’s War, p. 26; A. Baxter, We Will Not Cease, The Caxton Press, Christchurch, 1968, pp. 226–7; Morton 1, p. 12; McNair, p. 16; Farrall, Interview 2, 2 April 1987, p. 14. See also the findings of the Australian official medical historian A. G. Butler, The Australian Army Medical Services in the War of 1914–1918, Vol. iii, Special Problems and Services, Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 1943, pp. 77–91.

39  For references about Australian self-inflicted wounds and desertion see Thomson, The Great War and Australian Memory: A Study of Myth, Remembering and Oral History, D. Phil. Thesis, University of Sussex, 1990, p. 77. See also Butler, The Australian Army Medical Services, pp. 79–80.

40  Stabb, pp. 12–16.

41  Morton 1, pp. 10 and 18–23.

42  Cuddeford, p. 1.

43  Farrall 1, pp. 25–6. On the Australian mutinies of 1918 see Bean, Vol. vi, pp. 933–40.

44  Stabb, p. 11; Norris, pp. 11–13; McKenzie, p. 13.

45  Glew, p. 12; A. J. McGillivray, Interview, 12 September 1983, pp. 6 and 7. For a superb account of British responses under the strain of trench warfare, see Winter, Death’s Men, pp. 137–40.

46  Leed, No Man’s Land, p. 26; Winter, Death’s Men, p. 137.

47  Langham 1, pp. 13, 18.

48  Linton, p. 13.

49  D’Altera, p. 16. See also Bill Gammage, The Broken Years: Australian Soldiers in the Great War, Penguin, Ringwood, 1975, pp. 84–8; Lindstrom, Stress and Identity, p. 230.

50  Bean, The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Vol. iv, The AIF in France 1917. Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1937, p. 144; A. G. Butler, The Digger: A Study in Democracy, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1945, pp. 17–20. See also Farrall 2, pp. 11–12; Flannery, p. 23; and Graham Seal, ‘Two Traditions: The Folklore of the Digger and the Invention of Anzac’, Australian Folklore, 5, 1990, pp. 37–60.

51  Williams 2, pp. 10–11. See Farrall 2, p. 42; Percy Bird, Interview 1, 8 September 1983, pp. 10 and 18. See also Robin Gerster, Big-noting: The Heroic Theme in Australian War Writing, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1987, pp. 148–58.

52  For analysis of Australian troop-ship and trench papers, see Graham Seal, ‘“Written in the Trenches”: Trench Newspapers of the First World War’, Journal of the Australian War Memorial, 16, April 1990, pp. 30–8; and David Kent, ‘Troopship Literature: “A Life on the Ocean Wave”, 1914–19’, Journal of the Australian War Memorial, 10, April 1987, pp. 3–10.

2 Charles Bean and the Anzacs

1    Patsy Adam-Smith, The Anzacs, Nelson, Melbourne, 1978, pp. 357–8.

2    For details of Bean’s early life, see Dudley McCarthy, Gallipoli to the Somme: The Story of C. E. W. Bean, John Ferguson, Sydney, 1983, pp. 1–50.

3    Bean, Anzac to Amiens, p. 9.

4    C. E. W. Bean, With the Flagship in the South, William Brooks, Sydney, 1909, pp. 129–30.

5    Bean, With the Flagship in the South; Flagships Three, Alston Rivers, London, 1913; On the Wool Track, Alston Rivers, London, 1910; and The Dreadnought of the Darling, Alston Rivers, London, 1911.

6    Sydney Morning Herald, 13 July 1907.

7    See Bean, On The Wool Track; Graeme Davison, ‘Sydney and the Bush: An Urban Context for the Australian Legend’, Historical Studies, 18, 71, October 1978, pp. 191–209; Richard White, Inventing Australia, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1981, pp. 63–84 and p. 126.

8    Bean, Anzac to Amiens, pp. 6–7; and see Bean, Vol. i, p. 550; Bean, On The Wool Track, p. 152. For debates about the radical bush legend and the conservative pioneer legend, see Russell Ward, The Australian Legend, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1958; J. B. Hirst, ‘The Pioneer Legend’, Historical Studies, 18, 71, October 1978, pp. 316–37.

9    C. E. W. Bean, The Dreadnought of the Darling, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1956, pp. 218–19.

10  C. E. W. Bean, What to Know in EgyptA Guide for Australian Soldiers, Société Orientale de Publicité, Cairo, 1915; Bean, Two Men I Knew, p. 43. See Brugger, Australians and Egypt, 1914–1919.

11  Argus, 20 January, 1915, p. 9.

12  AWM Private Records: K. S. Mackay, 25 February 1915; F. M. Rowe, 28 February 1915.

13  Quoted in McCarthy, Gallipoli to the Somme, p. 332.

14  Kevin Fewster (ed.), Gallipoli Correspondent: The Frontline Diary of C. E. W. Bean, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1983, p. 39.

15  Argus, 8 May 1915.

16  See Kevin Fewster, ‘Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett and the Making of the Anzac Legend’, Journal of Australian Studies, 10, June 1982, pp. 17–30.

17  C. E. W. Bean, Australians in Action: The Story of Gallipoli, W. A. Gullick, Government Printer, Sydney, 1915, p. 28; C. E. W. Bean, Diary 6, 29 April 1915, p. 11, Bean Papers, AWM, 3DRL 606/6; Fewster, Gallipoli Correspondent, p. 103; Bean, Vol. i, pp. 547–52. Unless otherwise cited, references to Bean’s diaries are to the copies held in the Bean Papers, AWM, 3DRL 606.

18  Quoted in McCarthy, Gallipoli to the Somme, p. 328.

19  Fewster, Gallipoli Correspondent, pp. 153–4.

20  See McCarthy, Gallipoli to the Somme, p. 276; C. E. W. Bean, Letters from France, Cassell & Co., London, 1917, pp. 11–12; Bean’s diary of 13 June 1916, quoted in Tim Morris, The Writings of C. E. W. Bean in France during 1916, BA thesis, University of Melbourne, 1985, p. 20.

21  See Ross McMullin, Will Dyson: Cartoonist, Etcher and Australia’s Finest War Artist, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1984, pp. 147–51 and 175–6.

22  Fewster, Gallipoli Correspondent, p. 135.

23  ibid.; and Bean, Vol. i, p. x. See C. E. W. Bean, ‘The Writing of the Australian Official History of the Great War — Sources, Methods and Some Conclusions’, Royal Australian Historical Society, Journal and Proceedings, xxiv, 2, 1938, p. 92. The term ‘cutting edge’ was used by Bean in ‘Our War History’, Bulletin, 27 May 1942, p. 2.

24  Quoted in McCarthy, Gallipoli to the Somme, p. 177.

25  Bean, Diary 4, p. 8 and Diary 5, p. 23.

26  Denis Winter, ‘The Anzac Book: A Reappraisal’, Journal of the Australian War Memorial, 16, April 1990, p. 58. See also Fewster, Gallipoli Correspondent, p. 65; David Kent, ‘The Anzac Book: A Reply to Denis Winter’, Journal of the Australian War Memorial, 17, October 1990, pp. 54–5.

27  Winter, ‘The Anzac Book: A Reappraisal’, p. 58.

28  See Fewster, Gallipoli Correspondent, pp. 163–4; and McCarthy, Gallipoli to the Somme, pp. 233 and 104.

29  Fewster, Gallipoli Correspondent, p. 16.

30  Bean, Diary 17, 26 September 1915, pp. 24–34; Bean, Letters from France, p. 189; and see Kevin Fewster, Expression and Suppression: Aspects of Military Censorship in Australia during the Great War, PhD thesis, University of New South Wales, 1980, pp. 100–6.

31  Bean, Diary 17, 26 September 1915, pp. 24–34. Denis Winter claims (in ‘The Anzac Book: A Reappraisal’, p. 61) that this vital passage was added to the diary when Bean reworked it in 1916 or 1924, and was thus influenced by experiences in France. There is no textual evidence to support this claim.

32  C. E. W. Bean, The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Vol. ii, The Story of Anzac: From May 4, 1915 to the Evacuation, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1924, p. 427; and see Peter Stanley, ‘Gallipoli and Pozières: A Legend and a Memorial: Seventieth Anniversary of the Gallipoli Landing’, Australian Foreign Affairs Record, 56, 4, April, 1985, p. 287; Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory, pp. 21–3.

33  McCarthy, Gallipoli to the Somme, p. 247; Bean, Letters From France, p. 115.

34  Bean, Diary 17, 26 September 1915, pp. 24–34. For a study of European literary evocations of the ordinary soldier as hero, see Andrew Rutherford, The Literature of War: Five Studies of Heroic Virtues, Macmillan, London, 1978.

35  Age, 1 January 1916; Bean diary, 23 December 1915 and 26 December 1915, in Fewster, Gallipoli Correspondent, pp. 200–1; Richard Ely, ‘The First Anzac Day: Invented or Discovered?’, Journal of Australian Studies, 17, November 1985, p. 55.

36  Bean, Diary 17, 26 September 1915, pp. 24–34; Argus, 22 April 1916. See also Stuart Sillars, Art and Survival in First World War Britain, Macmillan, Basingstoke, 1987.

37  Bendigo Advertiser, 19 October 1916, Bean Papers, AWM, 3DRL 6673/234.

38  McCarthy, Gallipoli to the Somme, pp. 351–2; H. McCann, ‘When It’s All Over’, in C. E. W. Bean (ed.), The Anzac Book, Cassell & Co., London, 1916, p. 151; Thomas Loutit to Bean, 23 May 1919, quoting his son’s letter of 22 June 1915, Bean Papers, AWM, 3DRL 6673/10.

39  D. A. Kent, ‘The Anzac Book and the Anzac Legend: C. E. W. Bean as Editor and Image Maker’, Historical Studies, 21, 84, April 1985, p. 378; Winter, ‘The Anzac Book: A Reappraisal’, p. 58.

40  Bean, The Anzac Book, p, xiv; Kent, ‘The Anzac Book and the Anzac Legend’, pp. 380–90; cf. Winter ‘The Anzac Book: A Reappraisal’, p. 61. See also Stanley, ‘Gallipoli and Pozières’, pp. 281–7, Kent’s influential article has recently been the subject of severe criticism by John Barrett (‘No Straw Man: C. E. W. Bean and Some Critics’, Australian Historical Studies, 23, 90, April 1988) and Denis Winter (‘The Anzac Book: A Reappraisal’). These critics have made some necessary empirical corrections to Kent’s article, but have not provided any evidence to rebut his main arguments.

41  Signaller McCann, ‘Killed in Action’, in The Anzac Book, p. 105; Kent, ‘The Anzac Book and the Anzac Legend’, pp. 380 and 383. See also Bean’s own poem ‘Non Nobis’ in The Anzac Book, p. 11.

42  Kent, ‘The Anzac Book and the Anzac Legend’, pp. 380 and 390.

3 Memories of war

1    Bird 1, pp. 1–2.

2    Percy Bird, Interview 2, 7 April 1987, pp. 7–8.

3    Bird 1, pp. 8–9.

4    Bird 1, p. 18.

5    Bird 1, p. 31.

6    A. W. Keown, Forward with the Fifth, Melbourne, Speciality Press, 1921, p. 188.

7    ibid., p. 177; Bird 1, p. 15.

8    Bird 2, pp. 6 and 24.

9    Bird 1, p. 21.

10  Bird 2, pp. 13 and 5; Bird 1, p. 13.

11  Bird 1, p. 12, and see pp. 9, 13, 15 and 20; and Bird 2, pp. 3–5.

12  Bird 1, p. 10; Bird 2, p. 22.

13  Bird 1, pp. 16 and 20; Bird 2, pp. 21–2; and see Keown, Forward with the Fifth, p. 22; and Bean, Vol. vi, p. 6.

14  Bird 1, pp. 10, 17 and 18.

15  See, for example, the interviews with Jack Glew and Jack Flannery.

16  Bird 1, p. 11; Bird 2, p. 26; Bird 1, pp. 15–16.

17  Bird 2, p. 26. For other versions of the story about the French women see Adam-Smith, The Anzacs, p. 307; Bean, Anzac to Amiens, p. 410.

18  Langham 1, pp. 1–3 and 28; Langham 2, pp. 1 and 33.

19  Langham 1, p. 6.

20  ibid., p. 7.

21  ibid., p. 9.

22  ibid., p. 7; Langham 2, p. 3.

23  Langham 2, pp. 3–4.

24  Langham 2, p. 4; Langham 1, p. 19.

25  ibid., p. 26.

26  Langham 1, p. 20.

27  ibid., 1, pp. 14 and 19.

28  ibid., p. 17. For the Jacka legend (‘That’s the sort of fellow Captain Jacka was’) see also Farrall 1, p. 29; Farrall 2, p. 5; and Flannery, p. 18.

29  Langham 2, p. 4.

30  ibid., pp. 4, 12, 16 and 21; see Elaine Showalter, ‘Rivers and Sassoon: The Inscription of Male Gender Anxieties’, in Behind the Lines.

31  Langham 1, pp. 12–13; Langham 2, p. 15.

32  See Langham 1, pp. 14–19; Langham 2, p. 11.

33  Langham 2, p. 15. On the shared language of coping, see Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory, pp. 114–35.

34  Langham 2, p. 21.

35  ibid., p. 20.

36  ibid., p. 18. For similar conversion experiences, see Morton 1, p. 18; Farrall 1, p. 22; cf. Bird, The 5th Battalion, 1916 and 1917, France. Unpublished manuscript, 1983, p. 3. The conversion effect of a meeting with the enemy was also a common theme in war literature, such as Barbusse’s novel Under Fire (Dent, London, 1926, pp. 154–5).

37  Langham 2, pp. 20–1.

38  Langham 1, p. 10; Langham 2, pp. 8 and 19–20.

39  Langham 1, p. 11.

40  Langham 2, pp. 7, 9 and 13.

41  Bill Langham’s remembering of Australian behaviour out of the line, and of the relations between officers and men in the AIF, also shows how experiences that matched the Anzac legend became highlighted in his memory and generalised in terms of the legend. See Langham 1, pp. 10, 13 and 17; Langham 2, pp. 10–13.

42  Farrall 1, pp. 1 and 8.

43  ibid., p. 4.

44  ibid., p. 59.

45  See Farrall 2, pp. 37–8.

46  Farrall 1, p. 11.

47  Farrall 2, p. 1.

48  Farrall 1, p. 23.

49  ibid., pp. 12–13.

50  Farrall 2, p. 7.

51  Farrall 1, p. 14.

52  ibid., pp. 20–1.

53  ibid., pp. 17 and 26.

54  ibid., p. 22.

55  ibid., p. 28.

56  ibid., pp. 25–26 and 62.

57  Farrall 2, p. 26b.

58  Farrall 1, p. 29.

59  Farrall 2, p. 12; Farrall 1, p. 18.

60  Farrall 1, p. 29; Farrall 2, pp. 5 and 11.

61  Farrall 2, p. 42.

62  ibid., pp. 38, 42 and 69–70.

4 The return of the soldiers

1    Bean, Anzac to Amiens, pp. 529–31. On repatriation see Ian Turner, ‘1914–19’, in A New History of Australia, F. K. Crowley (ed.), Heinemann, Melbourne, 1974, p. 354; Tony Gough, ‘The Repatriation of the First Australian Imperial Force’, Queensland Historical Review, vii, 1, 1978, pp. 58–69; Marilyn Lake, The Limits of Hope: Soldier Settlement in Victoria 1915–38, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1987, pp. 195–6.

2    McNair, p. 14.

3    Gough, ‘The Repatriation of the First AIF’, p. 62; Leslie Parker [Angela Thirkell], Trooper to the Southern Cross, Faber & Faber, London, 1934, pp. 228–9.

4    McNair, pp. 14–15.

5    Glew, p. 9; D’Altera, p. 20; and Percy Fogarty, Interview, 3 June 1983, p. 13.

6    Flannery, p. 36. See also Bird 1, p. 13; Langham 1, p. 23; McNair, pp. 21–2; and Glew, p. 9.

7    Flannery, p. 36; Gough ‘The Repatriation of the First AIF’, p. 60; and see Farrall 1, p. 23. Other veterans fought against attempts to take pensions from them: Stabb, p. 22; D’Altera, p. 13; Fogarty, p. 13.

8    D’Altera, p. 22. Alf Stabb, Charles Bowden, Fred Farrall, and Albie Linton also used their gratuity to buy a house. Ted McKenzie, Percy Fogarty and Fred Farrall bought War Service Homes.

9    Norris, p. 21; Langham 1, p. 24; Flannery, p. 35. And see Gough, ‘The Repatriation of the First AIF’, pp. 60–1.

10  Bridgeman, p. 16; Cuddeford, p. 22; Bird 1, p. 27; Langham 1, pp. 27–8; Farrall 1, p. 46; D’Altera, p. 29.

11  Morton 2, p, 27; Williams, Interview 1, 10 April 1983, p. 25; Farrall 1, pp. 18 and 33–4. See Anthony Ellis, The Impact of War and Peace on Australian Soldiers 1914–1920, BA thesis, Murdoch University, 1979, p. 28; Butler, The Australian Army Medical Services in the War of 1914–1918, pp. 142–3.

12  Glew, pp. 14–15; Farrall 1, p. 54.

13  D’Altera, pp. 19 and 28; Stabb, p. 25.

14  Glew, p. 15; McGillivray, p. 16.

15  Flannery, pp. 25, 34, 39 and 53; McGillivray, p. 29.

16  D’Altera, p. 55; Cuddeford, p. 24; Morton 1, p. 26; Bowden, p. 40. See Judith A. Allen, Sex and Secrets: Crimes Involving Australian Women Since 1880, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1990, p. 131.

17  Ian Turner, ‘1914–19’, p. 354; Brunswick and Coburg Leader, 1919, passim; Margaret Glyde, uptaped interview, 12 June 1982.

18  Allen, Sex and Secrets, p. 131. For debates about the impact of returned servicemen on the ongoing Australian battle between feminism and masculinism, see: Marilyn Lake, ‘The Politics of Respectability: Identifying the Masculinist Context’, Historical Studies, 22, 86, 1986, pp. 116–31; Judith A. Allen, ‘Mundane Men: Historians, Masculinity and Masculinism’, Historical Studies, 22, 89, 1987, pp. 617–28.

19  D’Altera, p. 17.

20  Bowden, p. 29; David, p. 37.

21  Alf Stabb, Percy Bird, E. L. Cuddeford and James McNair returned to protected employment.

22  Morton 1, p. 28; Fogarty, p. 11; D’Altera, p. 19; Farrall 1, p 44; Norris, p. 21; Glew, pp. 14–16.

23  Langham 1, p. 21; Farrall 1, p. 19.

24  Langham 1, p. 21; McGillivray, p. 14. See Lake, The Limits of Hope.

25  D’Altera, p. 18; Morton 1, p. 28.

26  Langham 1, p. 27. See Bird 1, p. 26.

27  D’Altera, pp. 14–19; Fogarty, p. 15, Contrast the experience of E. L. Cuddeford, p. 22.

28  See Stabb, p. 24; Cuddeford, p. 22.

29  For the role of ex-servicemen in industrial and civil violence see: Raymond Evans, ‘“Some Furious Outbursts of Riot”: Returned Soldiers and Queensland’s “Red Flag” Disturbances, 1918–1919’, War and Society, 13, 2, September 1985, pp. 75–98; David Hood, ‘Adelaide’s “First Taste of Bolshevism”: Returned Soldiers and the 1918 Peace Day Riots’, Journal of the Historical Society of South Australia, 15, 1987, pp. 42–53; Anthony Perrottet, ‘Politics of the Anzac Myth’, National Times, 25 April 1986, pp. 22–3.

30  Terry King, On the Definition of ‘Digger’, unpublished paper, La Trobe University, 1983, p. 13.

31  Herald, 22 July 1919; Argus, 22 July 1919; Weekly Times, 26 July 1919; Brunswick and Coburg Leader, 25 July 1919, 1 August 1919.

5 The battle for the Anzac legend

1    Ian Turner, ‘1914–19’, p. 318.

2    J. Popple, A Wary Welcome: The Political Reaction to the Demobilisation of the AIF, paper presented at the Australian War Memorial Conference, 1987, p. 1; Ian Turner, ‘1914–19’, p. 345; McKernan, The Australian People and the Great War, p. 12.

3    Evans, ‘Some Furious Outbursts of Riot’, p. 82.

4    ‘One Big Union Manifesto to Returned Soldiers’, 16 November 1918, quoted in King, On the Definition of ‘Digger’, p. 8; Labor Call, 20 February 1919, p. 3.

5    Quoted in Popple, A Wary Welcome, p. 12. See also: Evans, ‘Some Furious Outbursts of Riot’, pp. 86–90; Anthony Perrottet, ‘Politics of the Anzac Myth’, pp. 22–3; King, On the Definition of ‘Digger’, p. 6. For an account of Australia’s postwar secret armies, see Michael Cathcart, Defending the National Tuckshop, McPhee Gribble/Penguin, Melbourne, 1988.

6    Brisbane Courier, 29 March 1919, quoted in Evans, ‘Some Furious Outbursts of Riot’, p. 89. Terry King introduced me to the concept ‘genuine digger’, which he outlines in On the Definition of ‘Digger’ and in ‘The Tarring and Feathering of J. K. McDougall: “Dirty Tricks” in the 1919 Federal Election’, Labour History, 45, November 1983, pp. 54–67.

7    See G. L. Kristianson, The Politics of Patriotism: The Pressure Group Activities of the Returned Servicemen’s League, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1966, pp. 1–25; Marilyn Lake, ‘The Power of Anzac’, in Australia: Two Centuries of War and Peace, M. McKernan & M. Browne (eds), Australian War Memorial and Allen & Unwin, Canberra, 1988, pp. 200–2.

8    Terry King, W. M. Hughes and M. P. Pimental: Soolers and Soldiers, 1918–1919, unpublished paper, La Trobe University, 1984.

9    Labor Call, 15 May 1919, p. 10; and 26 June 1919, p. 2; Lake, ‘The Power of Anzac’, pp. 202–4.

10  Report of deputation to Acting Prime Minister Watt, 5 June 1918, General Files 1918, RSL papers, Ms 6609, National Library of Australia. This report is cited in Lake, ‘The Power of Anzac’, p. 205.

11  Truth, 21 January 1919; Brunswick and Coburg Leader, 25 July 1919, 1 August 1919, 5 September 1919. David Englander, ‘Troops and Trade Unions, 1919’, Modern History, 37, March 1987, p. 9.

12  Lake, The Power of Anzac, p. 200, quoting from a 1916 federal and State conference. For a local example, see Brunswick and Coburg Gazette, 5 June 1919.

13  Kristianson, The Politics of Patriotism, p. 14.

14  Morton 1, p. 23; McGillivray, p. 16.

15  Farrall 1, p. 17; D’Altera, p. 12.

16  Bowden, p. 37; Stabb, p. 27; Harold Blake, Interview, 17 May 1982, p. 30.

17  Morton 1, pp. 23–4; Norris, pp. 13–14; Farrall 1, 17–28; Les Barnes, Interview, 13 May 1982, pp. 5–6.

18  McGillivray, p. 17; Stabb, p. 28.

19  Langham 1, p. 35; D’Altera, p. 39. See also Gammage, The Broken Years, pp. 210–11.

20  Flannery, p. 48; H. McQueen, ‘The Social Character of the New Guard’, Arena, 40, 1975, p. 84.

21  Morton 1, p. 26.

22  Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, Verso, London, 1983; George Mosse, The Nationalisation of the Masses, Howard Fertig, New York, 1975; K. S. Inglis, ‘Monuments and Ceremonies as Evidence for Historians’, ANZAAS Congress Papers 834/26, September 1977. For a feminist analysis, see Carmel Shute, ‘Heroines and Heroes: Sexual Mythology in Australia 1914–1918’, Hecate, 1, 1, 1975, pp. 7–22.

23  See David Cannadine, ‘War and Death, Grief and Mourning in Modern Britain’, in Mirrors of Mortality: Studies in the Social History of Death, Joachim Whaley (ed.), Europa, London, 1981.

24  For histories of war memorials see Michael McKernan, Here is Their Spirit: A History of the Australian War Memorial, 1917–1990, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, 1991; and references in Thomson, The Great War and Australian Memory, p. 170.

25  Queensland Anzac Day Commemoration Committee Minutes, 18 August 1920 and 4 August 1932, quoted in Mansfield, World War I, Foundation Myths and the Anzac tradition: A Reappraisal, paper presented at the Australian War Memorial Military Conference, 1982, pp. 9 and 14.

26  O’Neill, Bill Harney’s War, pp. 34 and 54.

27  Brunswick and Coburg Leader, 21 March 1919; 23 May 1919; 4 May 1923; and see J. C. Sullivan, The Genesis of Anzac Day: Victoria and New South Wales, 1916–1926, BA thesis, University of Melbourne, 1964.

28  Quoted in Peter Sekuless and Jacqueline Rees, Lest We Forget, Rigby, Dee Why West, 1986, pp. 47–8.

29  Inscriptions recorded by the author at Gallipoli and in France. See McMullin, Will Dyson, p. 247; Inglis, ‘A Sacred Place: The Making of the Australian War Memorial’, War and Society, 3, 2, September 1985, p. 109; and E. Holt, ‘Anzac Reunion’, in Best Australian One-act Plays, W. Moore & T. J. Moore, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1937.

30  George Mosse, ‘Two World Wars and the Myth of the War Experience’, Journal of Contemporary History, 21, 1986, p. 494; Gerster, Big-noting, pp. 119–20.

31  Brunswick and Coburg Gazette, 2 May 1930 and 24 April 1931.

32  Argus, 26 April 1926.

33  Maurice French, ‘The Ambiguity of Empire Day in New South Wales 1901–1921’, Australian Journal of Politics and History, 24, April 1978, pp. 61–74.

34  Inglis, ‘Monuments and Ceremonies’, pp. 19–22.

35  See Mansfield, World War I, Foundation Myths and the Anzac Tradition, p. 13.

36  Inglis, ‘Men, Women and War Memorials: Anzac Australia’, Daedalus, 116, 4, Fall, 1987, p. 54, quoting from Reveille, 30 April 1928.

37  Queensland ADCC Minutes 9 October 1922, quoted in Mansfield, World War I, Foundation Myths and the Anzac Tradition, pp. 11 and 15; Argus, 26 April 1924.

38  John McQuilton, ‘A Shire at War: Yackandandah, 1914–1918’, Journal of the Australian War Memorial, 11, October 1987, pp. 11–13; Sullivan, The Genesis of Anzac Day, p. 37, quoting the official organ of the Melbourne RSSILA, Realm, 30 April 1923.

39  Sullivan, The Genesis of Anzac Day, p. 49.

40  Victorian Parliamentary Debates, Vol. 169, 23 September 1925, pp. 1271–2; Argus, 14 October 1925.

41  Mr J. T. Moroney in the Daily Telegraph, 22 April 1922. See Sullivan, The Genesis of Anzac Day, p. 26.

42  Loughlin MP, quoted by Sullivan, The Genesis of Anzac Day, p. 54.; The Worker, 28 April 1926.

43  Argus, 27 April 1926.

44  Ward, The Australian Legend, p. 233; Philip Kitley, ‘Anzac Day Ritual’, Journal of Australian Studies, 4, June 1979, p. 69.

45  Sullivan, The Genesis of Anzac Day, pp. 55–7.

46  Bean, Two Men 1 Knew, p. 226. See also the Victorian Parliamentary Debates, Volume 169, September 23 1925, pp. 1272–4.

47  Inglis, ‘A Sacred Place’, p. 104; Inglis, ‘Memorials of the Great War’, Australian Cultural History, 6, 1987, p. 12; Stephanie Brown, Anzac Rituals in Melbourne, 1916–1933: Contradictions and Resolution within Hegemonic Process, BA thesis, University of Melbourne, 1982, p. 39.

48  Labour Daily, 25 April 1927.

49  See Farrall 1, p. 63; D’Altera, p. 16; Morton 1, p. 19; Len Fox, The Truth about Anzac, Victorian Council Against War and Fascism, Melbourne, 1936; Holt, ‘Anzac Reunion’, pp. 214–15.

50  Williams 2, p. 31; Morton 1, pp. 40–1 and Morton 2, pp. 22–3; Norris, pp. 28–9.

51  Bridgeman, p. 25; Bowden, p. 38.

52  D’Altera, p. 53.

53  Lee Sackett, ‘Marching into the Past: Anzac Day Celebrations in Adelaide’, Journal of Australian Studies, 17, November 1985, pp. 18–30.

54  C. E. W. Bean, Gallipoli Mission, Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 1948, pp. 110–11.

55  C. E. W. Bean, ‘Techniques of a Contemporary War Historian’, Historical Studies, 2, 6, November 1942, pp. 78–9; Bean, ‘The Writing of the Australian Official History of the Great War’, pp. 85–112; Bean, ‘Our War History’.

56  Bean, ‘The Writing of the Australian Official History of the Great War’, p. 92.

57  Bean, ‘Our War History’, p. 2.

58  Bean, ‘Techniques of a Contemporary War Historian’, p. 79; Bean, ‘Our War History’, p. 2. For such criticisms see S. Encel, ‘The Study of Militarism in Australia’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, 3, 1, April 1967, pp. 2–18; Grey, A Military History of Australia, pp. 1–7. For comparisons with other military historians, see Keegan, The Face of Battle, pp. 13–72.

59  Bean, ‘Techniques of a Contemporary War Historian’, p. 66.

60  ibid., p. 72; Bean, ‘The Writing of the Australian Official History of the Great War’, p. 103.

61  Bean to Liddell Hart, 30 June 1941, Liddell Hart Papers 4/37, Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives, King’s College Library, University of London.

62  C. E. W. Bean, ‘Memorandum: Censorship for Libel’, 9 October 1919, quoted by Stephen Charles Ellis, ‘The Censorship of the Official Naval History of Australia in the Great War’, Historical Studies, 20, April 1983, p. 367. See also Bean, ‘The Writing of the Australian Official History of the Great War’, p. 86.

63  For the Sub-Committee’s work see ‘Report on the Work of the Historical Section’, 15 February 1928, Cabinet Papers, CAB 16/52; Sub-Committee minutes, 9 March 1928, CAB 16/53, Public Records Office, Kew, London. For Foreign Office intervention see Aspinall-Oglander Papers, OG/111, Country Records Office, Isle of Wight. For correspondence between Bean and the British Historical Section see Bean Papers, AWM, 3DRL 7953/27–34. See also Peter Pederson, ‘Introduction’, Bean, Vol. iii, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, 1982; and Denis Winter, Haig’s Command: A Reassessment, Viking/Penguin, London, 1991.

64  See Bean, Vol. i, pp. 258–61, 310, 338, 425, 453, 462 and 492–6; Vol. ii, pp. 427–8, 658, 660 and 682; Vol. iii, pp. 599 and 940–1; Vol. v, pp. 27–30; Vol. vi, pp. 875–6, 933; Bean, Anzac to Amiens, p. 287. Edmonds to Bean, 7 February 1928, Bean Papers, AWM, 3DRL 7953/34.

65  Bean to Gellibrand, c. March 1929 and 19 May 1929, Gellibrand Papers, AWM, 3DRL 6405/14; Bean to Captain Falls, 6 July 1936, and Bean to Edmonds, 15 November 1938, Bean Papers, AWM, 3DRL 7953/30; Bean to Edmonds, 17 June 1931, Bean Papers, AWM, 3DRL 7953/27. See also Ellis, ‘The Censorship of the Official Naval History of Australia in the Great War’.

66  Bean, ‘Techniques of a Contemporary War Historian’, p. 79; Bean, vol. i, p. x; Bean, In Your Hands, Australians, Cassell & Co., London, 1918, p. 96.

67  Bean, Vol. vi, p. 1078; parks and playgrounds movement quoted from Ross McMullin, ‘C. E. W. Bean: A Man Who Should Be Remembered’, Canberra Times, 17 November 1979, p. 13; Bean to Gellibrand, 29 June 1933, Gellibrand Papers, AWM, 3DRL 6405/14. In the final volume of the history Bean placed less emphasis on the importance of the bush, and highlighted instead the general influence of the young, frontier society.

68  Reveille, 1 March 1936, pp. 8–9, quoted in Gerster, Big-noting, p. 128; Humphrey McQueen, From Gallipoli to Petrov, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1984, p. 51; Bean, Vol. iii, pp. 518–19; but contrast p. 599.

69  ‘Supermen’ quote from a letter Bean wrote to Gavin Long more than a decade after the war, McCarthy, Gallipoli to the Somme, p. 282; Bean, Vol. i, pp. 606–7; Bean to Gellibrand, 29 June 1933, Gellibrand Papers, AWM, 3DRL 6405/14.

70  Bean, Vol. vi, pp. 7–8, 11 and 1074–5. For the nature and influence of postwar pacifism see: B. Bessant, ‘Empire Day, Anzac Day, the Flag Ceremony and All That’, Historian, 25, October 1973, pp. 36–43; Jeff Popple, A Very Temperate Reaction, BA thesis, University of New South Wales, 1980, p. 83. For Bean’s own changing ideas about the causes of war, see C. E. W. Bean, War Aims of a Plain Australian, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1943, p. 143.

71  Bean, Anzac to Amiens, p. 142; Bean, Vol. ii, p. 910; Bean Vol. vi, pp. 401–3 and 1087–9.

72  Bean, Anzac to Amiens, p. 529; Bean, Vol. i (University of Queensland Press, 1981), Preface to the 3rd edn; and see Times Literary Supplement, 6 March 1922; The Bulletin, 17 November 1921; Alistair Thomson, ‘History and “Betrayal”: The Anzac Controversy’, History Today, 43, January 1993, pp. 8–11.

73  Bean, Anzac to Amiens, p. 538; Bean, Vol. vi, p. 1085. See also C. E. W. Bean, ‘Sidelights of the War on Australian Character’, Royal Australian Historical Society, Journal and Proceedings, xiii, iv, 1927, pp. 211–17; Gerster, Big-noting, pp. 134–9; White, Inventing Australia, p. 134.

74  See, among the Bean Papers at the AWM: Historical Notes, 3DRL 8042/2–7; Extract Books, 3DRL 1722/2; Official History Manuscripts, AWM 44. See letters from Edmonds to Bean, 1927–28, 3DRL 7953/34, to see how the manuscript for Vol. iii was virtually unaffected by Edmonds’ requests for amendments.

75  Bean to Gellibrand, 5 September 1930, 29 June 1933, Gellibrand Papers, AWM, 3DRL 6405/14.

76  Bean, Vol. i, pp. 462–3.

77  Bean Papers, Diary 4, 25 April 1915, p. 24 and Diary 5, 25 April 1915, pp. 33–4, AWM, 3DRL 606.

78  Bean’s diary of 26 September 1915, quoted in Fewster, Gallipoli Correspondent, p. 157; Bean, Vol. i, pp. 297–8, 425, 453, 462 and 492–3; Bean, Vol. ii, p. 658; Bean, Vol. iii, pp. 940–1; Bean, Vol. v, pp. 27–30; Bean, Anzac to Amiens, p. 287. For examples of how Bean also defined away the AIF mutinies as the responsibility of a small number of ‘bad soldiers’, see Bean, Vol. vi, pp. 875–6 and 933; Bean, Anzac to Amiens, p. 487.

79  ‘Report on the Work of the Historical Section’, 21 November 1924 and 22 February 1933, Memoranda 12 and 33, Sub-Committee for the Control of the Official History, CAB 16/52, Public Records Office, Kew, London. See also James Edmonds, ‘Memoirs’, pp. 675–77, Edmonds Papers 3/16, Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives, King’s College Library, University of London; Bean to Gellibrand, 4 July 1943, Gellibrand Papers, AWM, 3DRL 6405/14.

80  Bean to Treloar, 28 December 1923, Bean Papers, AWM, 3DRL 6673/249.

81  To trace these marketing campaigns, see Bean Papers, AWM, 3DRL 6673/249–253. The quotation citations are as follows: Bean to the Secretary, Department of Defence, 17 January 1921, 3DRL 6673/249; Treloar memo, 11 September 1928, 3DRL 6673/251; Bean to Treloar, 10 August 1933; and Treloar to Bean, 6 January 1934, 3DRL 6673/252.

82  Bean, ‘Our War History’, p. 2. Quotes from Sydney Sun (quoting the London Observer) 13 February 1922, and Westralian Worker, 6 January 1922. See generally, Bean Papers, AWM, 3DRL 8043, ‘Reviews of Official History’.

83  Gavin Long, ‘The Australian War History Tradition’, Historical Studies, 6, 23 November 1954, p. 259; A. P. Rowe, ‘Anzac’, The Australian Quarterly, 29, 1, March 1957, p. 73; McKernan, Here Is Their Spirit, passim.

84  Heyes to Bean, 27 May 1938 and 18 March 1938, 3DRL 8040/2. For other such letters, see generally Bean Papers, AWM, 3DRL 6673/352 and 3DRL 8040.

85  Leane to Bean, 11 July 1933; Gieske to Bean, 16 July 1933; Nicholson to Bean, n.d.; Gellibrand to Bean, 2 June 1933, all in Bean Papers, AWM, 3DRL 8040.

86  McGillivray, p. 20; Cuddeford, p. 27; D’Altera, p. 31; Farrall 1, p. 29; Langham 1, p. 39. Bill Williams (Interview 2, p. 36) was the only one who expressed strong reservations about the accuracy of Bean’s history.

87  The history nourished Stan D’Altera’s ‘mad Aussie pride’ (p. 16), and was used by Fred Farrall to show social mobility in the AIF (Interview 1, p. 29).

6 Talk and taboo in postwar memories

1    Bird 1, pp. 23–4 and 27.

2    ibid., p. 26.

3    Bird p. 26; Bird 2, p. 22.

4    Bird 1, pp. 19–20 and 28–9.

5    Bird 2, pp. 15 and 18; Bird 1, p. 30.

6    ibid., p. 15.

7    Bird 2, pp. 11–12; Keown, Forward with the Fifth, p. 6.

8    Bird 2, pp. 9 and 23; cf. Keown, Forward with the Fifth, pp. 182 and 176.

9    Langham 2, p. 33; Langham 1, p. 23.

10  Langham 1, pp. 20–1 and 29.

11  Langham 1, pp. 41 and 30; Langham 2, p. 33.

12  Langham 1, pp. 27–8 and 31.

13  Langham 2, p. 20.

14  Langham 1, pp. 31–2 and 37–9; Langham 2, p. 21. For funny stories that were told at smoke nights: Langham 1, pp. 39–40; Langham 2, pp. 14–15.

15  Langham 1, p. 35.

16  Langham 1, p. 23; Langham 2, pp. 23–4.

17  Farrall 2, p. 23.

18  Farrall 1, pp. 32, 33–4, 54.

19  ibid., p. 44.

20  ibid., p. 45.

21  Farrall 1, p. 46; Farrall 2, pp. 24–5.

22  Farrall 2, pp. 28–9.

23  Farrall 1, p. 27.

24  Farrall 2, p. 28.

25  ibid., p. 26a.

26  See, O’Neill, Bill Harney’s War, p. 54; Farrall 1, p. 49.

27  Farrall 1, p. 49.

28  ibid., pp. 31 and 60.

29  Farrall 1, p. 63; Farrall 2, p. 26a.

30  Farrall 2, p. 24.

31  Farrall 1, pp. 40 and 48.

32  ibid., Précis notes, p. 1. For a similar experience see Sid Norris (Interview, pp. 29–30), but contrast Ern Morton who tried to combine labour and digger politics (Interview 1, p. 32).

33  The historian Janet McCalman grew up as a neighbour of Fred and remembers this tension in his identity.

7 Old diggers

1    Doug Guthrie, Interview, 8 May 1983, p. 27; Bridgeman, p. 22; McGillivray, pp. 18–23.

2    McKenzie, p. 33; Fogarty, p. 23; Bowden, p. 39.

3    D’Altera, pp. 51–2; Morton 1, p. 42; Langham 1, p. 30.

4    See Peter Coleman, Ageing and Reminiscence Processes, Wiley, London, 1986; Joanna Bornat, ‘Oral History as a Social Movement: Reminiscence and Older People’, Oral History, 17, 2, Autumn 1989, pp. 16–25.

5    Bird 1, pp. 7–8; Langham 2, p. 35. For this analysis of ‘nostalgia’, I am indebted to Graham Dawson, Nostalgia, Conservatism and the Politics of Memory, unpublished manuscript, 1984; and see Coleman, Ageing and Reminiscence Processes.

6    Farrall 1, p. 52. See Joanna Bornat (ed.), Reminiscence Reviewed: Achievements, Evaluations, Perspectives, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1993.

7    Morton 2, p. 30.

8    Bowden, p. 39.

9    Club News (Official Newsletter of the Yarraville Club), February 1985, Western Times, 19 January 1983 and 23 January 1985; Labor Star, May 1986; Maryborough Advertiser, 23 April 1986.

10  Fogarty, p. 26; McKenzie, p. 34.

11  Stabb, pp. 29–30.

8 The Anzac revival (1939–1990)

1    Bean, War Aims of a Plain Australian, pp. 162–3; George Johnston, ‘ANZAC … a myth for all mankind’, Walkabout, 31, April 1965, p. 15; Gerster, Big-noting, pp. 180–90; Ross, The Myth of the Digger, p. 101.

2    See Peter Stanley, ‘Reflections on Bean’s Last Paragraph’, Sabretache, xxiv, 3, July / September, 1983, pp. 4–11; R. O’Neill, ‘Soldiers and Historians: Trends in Military Historiography in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries’, Journal of the Royal Historical Society, 56, 1, March 1970, pp. 36–47; M. McKernan, ‘Writing about War’, in Australia: Two Centuries of War and Peace, M. McKernan & M. Browne (eds), AWM and Allen & Unwin, Canberra, 1988.

3    Alan Seymour, The One Day of the Year, Penguin, 1963, p. 40; Ric Throssell, For Valour, Currency Press, Sydney, 1976.

4    Alex Carey, ‘What Australian Troops Are Doing in Vietnam: The New Anzac Legend’, Outlook, 14, February 1970, p. 8; Lex McAuley, The Battle of Long Tan — The Legend of Anzac Upheld, Hutchinson, Melbourne, 1986. See Gerster, Bignoting, pp. 237–57.

5    Johnston, ‘ANZAC’, p. 13; Peter Coleman, ‘Death and the Australian Legend’, The Bulletin, 27 April 1963, pp. 18–19; Jack Woodward, ‘Anzac and Australian Patriotism’, Advance Australia, March 1973, pp. 24–5.

6    Gerard Henderson, ‘The Anzac Legend after Gallipoli’, Quadrant, July 1982, p. 62.

7    K. S. Inglis, ‘The Anzac Tradition’, Meanjin Quarterly, 24, 1, 1965, pp. 25–44; Geoffrey Serle, ‘The Digger Tradition and Australian Nationalism’, Meanjin Quarterly, 24, 2, 1965, pp. 149–58; Michael Roe, ‘Comments on the Digger Tradition’, Meanjin Quarterly, 24, 4, 1965, pp. 357–8; Noel McLachlan, ‘Nationalism and the Divisive Digger’, Meanjin Quarterly, 27, 3, 1968, pp. 302–8. See my bibliography for other, relevant publications by Inglis.

8    ‘Our Men, Other People’s Wars’, Time-Life Books publicity brochure, c. 1992. See bibliography for Lloyd Robson’s valuable contributions to Australian military historiography.

9    McKernan, ‘Writing about War’, p. 13.

10  Age, 7 August 1981, 22 August 1981, and 1 December 1981.

11  Alan Attwood & Mark Dando, ‘New Generation Can Bear to Look at War’, Age, 10 October 1981.

12  See John Vader, Anzac, New English Library, London, 1972, p. 44; Adam-Smith, The Anzacs, p. 358; Joynt, Saving the Channel Ports, acknowledgements; Gammage, The Broken Years, p. xi.

13  Adam-Smith, The Anzacs, p. 352.

14  Henderson, ‘The Anzac Legend after Gallipoli’, pp. 62–4; John Robertson, Anzac and Empire: The Tragedy and Glory of Gallipoli, Hamby Australia, Port Melbourne, 1990, pp. 264–7; John Carroll, ‘C. E. W. Bean and 1988’, Quadrant, 32, 6, June 1988, pp. 47–9.

15  Adam-Smith, The Anzacs, p. vii.

16  Gammage, The Broken Years, pp. 58, 101, 198 and 237.

17  Tony Gough, ‘The First Australian Imperial Force: C. E. W. Bean’s Coloured Authenticity’, World Review, 16, September 1977, p. 48.

18  ‘Anzacs: The Background’, Age Green Guide, 24 October 1985, p. 1; John Cribben, The Making of ‘Anzacs’, Collins/Fontana, Sydney, 1985, p. 49.

19  ‘Anzacs: The Background’, p. 1.

20  James Wieland, ‘The Romancing of Anzac’, Overland, 105, 1986, p. 150.

21  Newspapers and magazines cited for the week from 24 April to 30 April 1987 include: Herald, Canberra Times, Age, Australian, Sun, Times on Sunday and Bulletin.

22  Ken Inglis, ‘ANZAC and the Australian Military Tradition’, Current Affairs Bulletin, 64, 11, April 1988, p. 15.

9 Living with the legend

1    Bird 2, p. 24.

2    ibid., p. 2.

3    ibid., pp. 2–6.

4    ibid., p. 25.

5    ibid., p. 16.

6    Percy Bird, untaped conversation, 7 April 1987.

7    Bird 2, pp. 7 and 9.

8    Langham 2, p. 30.

9    ibid., pp. 21–2 and 32.

10  Farrall 1, p. 52.

11  Farrall 2, p. 41. He praises Lloyd Robson’s histories, Patsy Adam-Smith’s The Anzacs and Lynn McDonald’s books about the British on the Western Front.

12  ibid., p. 28.

13  Fred Farrall, Précis of untaped discussion, Anzac Day 1985.

14  Farrall 2, p. 35.

15  ibid., p. 35.

16  Farrall, Précis of untaped discussion, Anzac Day 1985.

17  IPA Review, 42, December/February 1988/89, p. 53.

18  Barrett, ‘No Straw Man’, p. 108. For my response to Barrett, see ‘“Steadfast Until Death”? C. E. W. Bean and the Representation of Australian Military Manhood’, Australian Historical Studies, 23, 93, October 1989, pp. 462–78.

19  Robertson, Anzac and Empire, pp. 259–67.

20  To be fair, the historians who have written the introductions to the University of Queensland Press edition of Bean’s history, have often been particularly sensitive to issues about Bean’s Anzac legend-making. See, in particular, Peter Pederson (Vol. iii), Bill Gammage (Vol. iv) and Geoffrey Serle (Vol. vi)

21  Lex McAuley, The Battle of Long Tan. See also Patrick Hagopian, ‘Oral Narratives: Secondary Revision and the Memory of the Vietnam War’, History Workshop Journal, 32, Autumn 1991, pp. 134–50.

22  Terry Burstall, A Soldier Returns, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, 1990, p. 172.

10 Searching for Hector Thomson

1    Alistair Thomson, ‘Passing Shots at the Anzac Legend’, in Verity Burgmann and Jenny Lee (eds), A Most Valuable Acquisition: A People’s History of Australia Since 1788, McPhee Gribble/Penguin, Melbourne, 1988, pp. 190–204. The unpublished manuscript of ‘Forgotten Anzacs’ is in the Australian War Memorial, Manuscript 1180.

2    David Thomson, letter to Alistair Thomson, 27 September 1986 (in the author’s possession).

3    Marina Larsson, Shattered Anzacs: Living with the Scars of War, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, 2009; Damien Hadfield, ‘The Evolution of Combat Stress: New Challenges for a New Generation’, in Martin Crotty and Marina Larsson (eds), Anzac Legacies: Australians and the Aftermath of War, Australian Scholarly Publishing, North Melbourne, 2010, pp. 233–46; John Cantwell, Exit Wounds: One Australian’s War on Terror, Melbourne University Publishing, Melbourne, 2012.

4    Larsson, Shattered Anzacs; Stephen Garton, The Cost of War: Australians Return, Oxford University Press Australia, Oxford and New York, 1996; Peter Stanley, Men of Mont St Quentin: Between Victory and Death, Scribe, Melbourne, 2009. For details of the National Archives of Australia (NAA) series B73, see, http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/DetailsReports/SeriesDetail.aspx?series_no=B73, accessed 30 April 2013.

5    Bart Ziino, ‘“A Lasting Gift to his Descendants”: Family Memory and the Great War in Australia’, History and Memory, 22, 2, 2010, pp. 125–46.

6    Mr Louis D. Witts, letter to the Deputy Commissioner for Repatriation, 7 August 1929, Hector Thomson Repatriation Medical file, M58164, Series B73, NAA. All file references in this chapter are from this M58164 file, unless otherwise noted. The poem, ‘Lament of the Ladies of the Lake’ (referring to Lake Wellington near the Thomson farms) is in the Thomson family possession. The author signed him or herself off as ‘R. Kipling’.

7    Hector Thomson, First AIF Personnel Dossier, 1914–1920, Series B2455, NAA.

8    Casualty Form, Thomson, First AIF Personnel Dossier; Record of Evidence Form, 24 July 1929, M58164; Mrs Johnston Thomson, letter to Major Lean, 1 September 1917, Thomson, First AIF Personnel Dossier.

9    Hector Thomson, Record of Evidence Form, 24 July 1929.

10  Medical Report, 21 December 1918; Hector Thomson, Record of Evidence Form, 24 July 1929; Dr Hagenauer, extract from a letter dated 14 May 1919, Evidence File, 1929; Dr Campbell, extract from a letter dated 27 November 1919, Evidence File, 1929; Dr Campbell, letter to the Deputy Commissioner, 13 November 1929.

11  David Thomson, letter to Alistair Thomson, 27 September 1986 (author’s possession); N. Thomson (Mrs H.G.L. Thomson), letter to Deputy Commissioner, 19 September 1929. It is not clear if the property was named after the local district of Bungeleen or the nineteenth-century Aboriginal elder of that name (also called ‘Bunjaleene’ or ‘Bungalene’), whose story is recounted in Don Watson, Caledonia Australis: Scottish Highlanders on the Frontier of Australia, Collins, Sydney, 1984, pp. 175–8.

12  Hector Thomson, Record of Evidence Form, 24 July 1929; Dr Campbell, letter to Deputy Commissioner, 13 November 1929; Mr Witts, letter to Deputy Commissioner, 7 August 1929. My father recalls his parents hosting Mr Witts and his wife at a dinner party at Bungeleen: David Thomson, ‘The Thomson Story: Childhood Memories, 1924–1941’, 1999, Papers of the Thomson Family, MS8600, National Library of Australia (NLA).

13  Dr Sidney Sewell, letter to Deputy Commissioner, 19 August 1929; see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encephalitis_lethargica, accessed 16 March 2013.

14  Hector Thomson, Record of Evidence Form, 24 July 1929; Dr Campbell, letter to Deputy Commissioner, 13 November 1929. See John V. Hurley, ‘Sewell, Sir Sidney Valentine (1880–1949)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/sewell-sir-sidney-valentine-8388/text14727, accessed 30 April 2013.

15  Nell Thomson, letters to Deputy Commissioner, 15 May 1929 and 19 September 1929.

16  Larsson, Shattered Anzacs; Marilyn Lake, The Limits of Hope: Soldier Settlement in Victoria, 1915–38, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1975.

17  Dr Scott, Medical Report, 8 November 1929; Dr Godfrey, Minute Paper, 22 November 1929; Deputy Commissioner, letter to Mr H. Thomson, 14 January 1930. For Godfrey, see Joy Damousi, Freud in Australia: A Cultural History of Psychoanalysis in Australia, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, 2005, pp. 46–7.

18  Dr Campbell, letter to Deputy Commissioner, 5 February 1931; Dr Godfrey, Medical Notes, 6 February 1931.

19  Dr Dane, Medical Report, 20 March 1931. Thyroid treatment was a common response to mental illness in this period. On Dane, see Damousi, Freud in Australia, pp. 50–1.

20  Dr Dane, Medical Report, 31 March 1931, H58164, B73, NAA; Nell Thomson, letter to Deputy Commissioner, 1 July 1931.

21  Dr Garrett, Case Sheet, Repatriation General Hospital, Caulfield, 14 November 1931, H58164, B73, NAA; Deputy Commissioner, letter to Medical Superintendent, Royal Park Receiving House, 15 November 1931; Medical Superintendent, Royal Park Receiving House, letter to Deputy Commissioner, 19 November 1931.

22  Dr Bawm, Royal Park, Repatriation Commission Minute Paper, 24 December 1931; Dr Garrett, Repatriation Commission Minute Paper, 29 December 1931.

23  David Thomson, interview by Alistair Thomson, 4–8 August 1985, Australian Parliament’s Oral History Project, TRC4900/35, NLA. David’s younger brother Colin died in 2011. He found it even more difficult than my father to recall his childhood at Bungeleen and rarely talked about those times.

24  David Thomson, letter to Alistair Thomson, 27 September 1986; David Thomson interview, 1985. The Repatriation files show what Hector would not have known: that Dr Campbell had been a tardy expert witness for his pension claims, and that Nell had spent months chasing Campbell to complete a report for the Repat. See Nell Thomson, letter to Deputy Commissioner, 19 September 1929.

25  David Thomson interview, 1985.

26  David Thomson interview, 1985; David Thomson, letter to Alistair Thomson, 27 September 1986.

27  Johnny Bell, ‘Needing a Woman’s Hand: Child Protection and the Problem of Lone Fathers’, History Australia, 9, 2, 2012, pp. 90–110.

28  David Thomson interview, 1985.

29  Dr Withington, Medical Report, 3 August 1933; Dr Macdonald, Medical Reports, 10 October 1934 and 15 December 1936; Dr Beveridge, Medical Report, 24 December 1936; Dr A. McKay, Medical Report, 24 December 1936. In 1937 the weekly Basic Wage for a man, dependent wife and two children was between £3.9.6 and £3.18.0 (depending on the state): Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics, Official Year Book of the Commonwealth of Australia, 30, 1937, p. 578.

30  Dr Tyrer, Medical Report, 4 February 1937; Hector Thomson, letter to Deputy Commissioner, 25 August 1938; Dr Macdonald, Medical Report, 8 September 1938; Deputy Commissioner, letter to Dr Campbell, 8 November 1938; Dr Macdonald, Medical Report, 9 October 1939.

31  On reading a draft of this chapter, Frank Bowden (Professor of Medicine at the Australian National University and Senior Staff Specialist, Infectious Diseases, ACT Health, email to the author, 13 April 2013) suggested that Hector would now probably be diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome and depression — neither of which has a straightforward diagnostic test for an underlying pathological cause — and he would be given a trial of anti-depressants.

32  Dr Stephenson, Medical Case Sheet, 30 June 1948; Dr Barrett, Medical Report, 4 July 1948.

33  David Thomson interview, 1985; Hector Thomson, Medical History Sheet, 24 May 1941, Second AIF Service Records, VX56596, Series B883, NAA.

34  Dr Maxwell, Medical Report, 1 May 1947; Dr Borland, Medical Report, 10 November 1955, H58164, B73, NAA; Mrs Robertson, Social Work Report, 27 July 1956; Medical Report, 11 June 1957, H58164, B73, NAA.

35  David Thomson, letter to Alistair Thomson, 6 February 1992 (in author’s possession).

36  See Ziino, ‘“A Lasting Gift to his Descendants”’. Note that Peter Stanley suggests that we too readily overestimate this family connection with Australians at war, arguing that in the First War more than half the men of eligible age did not volunteer to enlist, and that post- World War II migrants have no direct family connection. See Peter Stanley, ‘Monumental mistake? Is war the most important thing in Australian history?’, in Craig Stockings (ed.), Anzac’s Dirty Dozen: 12 Myths of Australian Military History, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, 2012, p. 266.

11 Repat war stories

1    Dr Godfrey, Medical Report, 24 July 1939, Fred Farrall Repatriation Medical file, M101649, Series B73, NAA.

2    Farrall 1, p. 45.

3    Larsson, Shattered Anzacs, pp. 18 and 104; Lake, Limits of Hope.

4    Garton, The Cost of War, pp. 83–4, 92 and 74; Clem Lloyd and Jacqui Rees, The Last Shilling: A History of Repatriation in Australia, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 1994, p. 419.

5    Garton, The Cost of War, p. 102; Larsson, Shattered Anzacs, p. 95; Kate Blackmore, The Dark Pocket of Time: War, Medicine and the Australian State, 1914–1935, Lythrum Press, Adelaide, 2008, p. 115. Larsson cites the 1920 Royal Commission on the Basic Wage which recommended £5.16.0 per week for a family of four to live in a ‘reasonable standard of comfort’. By comparison in that year the 100 per cent war disability pension was set at £4.2.6 per week for a comparable household. This new research questions my assertion in the first edition (chapter 4) that Australian war pensions were more generous than those of most other combatant nations.

6    Larsson, Shattered Anzacs, p. 95.

7    See Blackmore, The Dark Pocket of Time.

8    Larsson, Shattered Anzacs, p. 162.

9    Blackmore, The Dark Pocket of Time, pp. 147 and 156.

10  Garton, The Cost of War, pp. 112–14; Lloyd and Rees, The Last Shilling, pp. 227–276 and 318.

11  Focussing on the fat Repat files might cause historians to overstate veterans’ postwar difficulties, because problem cases generated the most claims and correspondence and because ex-servicemen sometimes exaggerated their ill-health. My original interview sample was selective in the opposite direction, shaped by the fact of survival and the desire to talk about the war. Though the men I interviewed in the 1980s were sometimes battered by both war and peace, they were still in reasonable mental and physical health 70 years after the war. The worst affected did not live so long.

12  Medical History Sheet, 21 December 1967, Percy Bird Repatriation Medical file, M28666, Series B73, NAA (hereafter M28666). The file is closed after 1981, and Percy’s Hospital file H28666 (which covers the years after 1981) is also closed.

13  Bird, ‘The 5th Battalion’; Bird 1, p. 14; Medical Report, 11 September 1917, M28666; Medical Board Report, 14 September 1917, M28666; Medical Report, 11 September 1917, M28666. With antibiotic treatments for tuberculosis since the 1950s scrofula is now rare, though it made a comeback amongst AIDS patients in the 1980s: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberculous_cervical_lymphadenitis, accessed 13 January 2013.

14  Medical Report 11 September 1917, M28666; Larsson, Shattered Anzacs, p. 183; E. Jones et al, ‘Psychological effects of chemical weapons: a follow-up study of First World War veterans’, Psychological Medicine, 38, 2008, pp. 1419–26.

15  Bird 1, p. 21.

16  Claim for Medical Treatment and War Pension, 2 December 1967, M28666; War Pension Statement, 7 February 1918, Percy Bird, First AIF Personnel Dossier, Series B2455, NAA.

17  Bird, letter to Deputy Director of Repatriation, 16 November 1967, M28666; Claim for Medical Treatment and War Pension, 2 December 1967, M28666; Medical Report, 23 February 1968, M28666; Bird, letter to Deputy Director of Repatriation, 26 May 1975, M28666.

18  Bill Langham, Pension Application, 18 July 1933, Bill Langham Repatriation Medical file, M53178, Series B73, NAA (hereafter M53178); Langham, Interview 1, p 41. After the interview in 1987, Bill and his wife said they had just celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary, and I did not do the maths to realise that they married in 1937 and it must have been Bill’s second marriage. Thanks to Bill’s great-niece Margaret Paulsen for updating the family history.

19  Medical Case Sheet, 5 October 1918, M53178; Medical History Form, 28 October 1918, M53178. The M53178 file is closed from 1984, as is Bill’s Hospital file H53178.

20  Medical Report, 31 March 1919, M53178; Langham 2, p. 33 and Langham 1, p. 23.

21  Langham, letter to Deputy Commissioner, 8 September 1927, M53178; Dr Craig, 25 August 1927, M53178; Dr O’Brien, 7 September 1927, M53178; Repatriation Board Decision, 5 October 1927, M53178.

22  Repatriation Board Notes, 17 May 1933, M53178; Langham 1, p. 31.

23  Yarraville RSL President, letter to the Deputy Commissioner, 7 April 1975, M53178; Pension Application, 10 April 1975, M53178.

24  Medical Report, 21 April 1980, M53178.

25  Kyla Cassells, ‘Anzac Day is a celebration of war’, Socialist Alternative, 23 April 2010, at http://www.sa.org.au/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=4716:anzac-day-is-a-celebration-of-war&Itemid=393, accessed 9 April 2013. My reprinted articles about Fred Farrall include: ‘The Return of a Soldier’, Meanjin, 47, 4, 1988, pp. 709–716, reprinted in Penny Russell and Richard White (eds), Memories and Dreams: Reflections on Twentieth Century Australia, Pastiche II, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1997, pp. 60–76; and ‘Anzac Memories: Putting Popular Memory Theory into Practice in Australia’, Oral History, Spring 1990, 18, 1, pp. 25–31, reprinted in A. Green and M. Troup (eds), The Houses of History: A Critical Reader in Twentieth Century History and Theory, Manchester University Press, 1999, pp. 239–252, and in Robert Perks and Alistair Thomson (eds) The Oral History Reader, Routledge, London and New York, 2006, pp. 244–54. Most years I receive a Copyright Licencing Agency fee for the use of the ‘The Return of a Soldier’ article in course readers.

26  Farrall, letters to ‘My Dear Mother’, 20 December 1917; to ‘My Dear Laura’, 16 October 1917; and to ‘Dear Sam’, 10 October 1917: Box Miscellaneous 2/1/1/ – 2/3/2, Series 1987.0418, Farrall Papers, University of Melbourne Archives. On soldiers’ wartime letters, see Joy Damousi, The Labour of Loss: Mourning, Memory and Wartime Bereavement in Australia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999, pp. 9–25; Michael Roper, The Secret Battle: Emotional Survival in the Great War, Manchester University Press, Manchester and New York, 2009, pp. 58–63; Michael Roper, ‘Re-remembering the Soldier Heroes: The Psychic and Social Construction of Memory in Personal Narratives of the Great War’, History Workshop Journal, 50, Autumn 2000, pp. 181–204; and Alistair Thomson, ‘Anzac Stories: Using Personal Testimony in War History’, War and Society, 25, 2, 2006, pp. 1–21.

27  E.F. Hill, Bryan Kelleher, Alan Miller and Ralph Gibson, with Fred Farrall, Celebration of Fred Farrall’s 90th Birthday, Australian Society for the Study of Labour History, Melbourne, 1987, p. 20.

28  Farrall, Claim Form, 15 May 1939, Fred Farrall Repatriation Medical file, M101649, Series B73, NAA (hereafter M101649); Evidence File,1939, M101649. The M101649 file is closed from 1984, as is Fred’s Hospital file H101649. The 1939 Evidence file brought together most of Fred’s available wartime and interwar records. Between 1920 and 1938 the files refer to Fred’s dealing with Repatriation officials in Sydney; from 1939 they cover his dealing with the Repat in Melbourne.

29  Lois Farrall, The File on Fred: A Biography of Fred Farrall, High Leigh Publishing, Carrum, 1992, pp. 90–98; Medical Case Sheet, 22 January 1917, Veterans Affairs Tribunal Box, Series 1987.0418, Farrall Papers; Medical Case Sheet, 15 July 1917, M101649; Farrall, letter to ‘My Dear Laura’, 20 December 1917; Farrall, letter to the Minister for Repatriation, 5 February 1968, M101649.

30  Medical Report, 22 October 1917, Evidence File, 1939, M101649.

31  Case Note, 15 January 1920, Evidence File, 1939, M101649; Dr Rutledge, 26 October 1920, M101649; Dr Graham, 6 November 1926, M101649; Farrall, Appeal, 26 March 53, M101649.

32  Farrall, Claim, 15 May 1939, M101649; Dr Freedman, 23 September 1949, M101649; Michael Roe, ‘Arthur, Richard (1865–1932)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/arthur-richard-5061/text8437, accessed 10 January 2013. On Arthur, see also Damousi, Freud in Australia, p. 26.

33  Meadowbank Manufacturing Company, Reports, 23 May 1939 and 5 November 1926, M101649; H.J. Da Silva, Report, 4 November 1926, M101649.

34  Farrall 2, pp. 24–5 (the use of the pronoun ‘You’ in the interview extract suggests that Fred may have been generalising about a condition he only came to understand in later years); Farrall, Appeals, 23 October 1926 and 30 October 1926, M101649; Dr Graham, 6 November 1926, M101649.

35  Doctors Willis and Smith, Medical Report, 16 December 1926, M101649.

36  Farrall, letter to the Deputy Commissioner, 12 March 1927, M101649.

37  Dr Willcocks, 31 January 1927, M101649; Dr Allen, 14 July 1928, M101649; Dr Francis, 10 February 1927, M101649; Dr Parkinson, 1 March 1927, M101649; Dr Arthur, Insurance Report, 3 March 1927, in the Evidence File, 1939, M101649. It is not clear if this is the same Dr Arthur who may have treated Fred for nerves in 1920.

38  Larsson, Shattered Anzacs, pp. 206–33; Lloyd and Rees, The Last Shilling, pp. 144 and 251–2.

39  Dr Willcocks, 31 January 1927, M101649; Dr Allen, 14 July 1928, M101649; Dr Parkinson, 1 March 1927, M101649; Clinical assessment, 17 January 1939, M101649; Dr Smith, 22 March 1927, M101649; Dr Minty, 25 January 1927, M101649; Out Patient Notes, 13 October 1931 and 11 January 1937, M101649. Fred’s political development is described in our 1983 interview, but is also detailed in the intelligence report produced by Commonwealth intelligence officers in response to a request from the Public Service Board in 1949, when Fred was a Communist public servant in Melbourne: Deputy Director, Australian Security Intelligence Organization, Central Office, Canberra, Secret Report to Secretary of Public Service Board, 23 August 1949, Control Symbol C89597, Series A367, NAA, at http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/scripts/Imagine/asp, accessed 10 January 2013. The report lists Fred’s activities from 1931, when he was arrested carrying a ‘loaded hose pipe’ in his pocket during an anti-eviction rally outside a court.

40  Dr Minty, 25 January 1927, M101649; Dr Willcocks, 10 February 1927, M101649; Dr Smith, 22 March 1927, M101649.

41  Manager, State Labour Exchanges, Sydney, letter to Deputy Commissioner, 22 June 1939, M101649; Farrall, Sustenance Application, 14 February 1939, Evidence File, 1939, M101649; State Secretary, NSW RS&SILA, letter to Deputy Commissioner, 23 August 1935, M101649; Minister Rt Hon W.N. Hughes, letter to Deputy Commissioner, 9 July 1937, M101649. The League made a separate, confidential enquiry about the nature of Farrall’s accepted and rejected disabilities, perhaps wary of Fred’s politics and suspicious of malingering: State Secretary, NSW RS&SILA, letter to Deputy Commissioner, 9 December 1936, M101649.

42  Farrall, letter to Base Records, Canberra, 14 October 1938, Farrall, First AIF Personnel Dossier, Series B2455, NAA; Farrall, Claim Form, 17 January 1939, M101649; Michael Cannon, ‘Slater, William (Bill) (1890–1960)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/slater-william-bill-11709/text20929, accessed 25 January 2013.

43  Farrall, Claim Forms, 27 October 1938, 16 November 1938 and 17 January 1939, M101649; Dr Constable, 16 November 1938, M101649; Clinical Assessment 17 January 1939, M101649.

44  Farrall, Claim, 9 May 1939, M101649; Dr Klug, 11 May 1939, M101649; Dr Minty, 25 January 1927, M101649.

45  Dr Arthur, Medical Report for Mutual Life and Citizen’s Assurance Co., 3 March 1927, Evidence File, 1939, M101649; Australasian Temperance and General Mutual Life Assurance Society, letter to Deputy Commissioner, 29 May 1939, Evidence File, 1939, M101649.

46  Dr Godfrey, 24 July 1939, M101649; Dr Crowe, 15 August 1939, M101649; State Board, 28 August 1939, M101649. Fred’s appeal against the 1939 decision was rejected in August 1942.

47  This synthesis draws on the studies of shell shock in Larsson, Shattered Anzacs, pp. 151 and 149–77; Garton, The Cost of War, pp. 158 and 143–75; and Blackmore, The Dark Pocket of Time, pp. 173–80. See also Michael Tyquin, Madness and the Military: Australia’s Experience of the Great War, Australian Military History Publications, Canberra, 2006.

48  Farrall, undated notes (circa 1978), Veterans Affairs Tribunal Box, Series 1987.0418, Farrall Papers; Farrall 1, p. 37; Case Sheet, Repatriation General Hospital Heidelberg (RGHH), 27 July 1944, H101649; Case Sheet, 6 July 1950, RGHH, H101649. See Sebastian Gurciullo, ‘Ellery, Reginald Spencer (Reg) (1897–1955)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/ellery-reginald-spencer-reg-10110/text17847, accessed 10 January 2013. On Ellery’s ‘homespun psychotherapy’, see also Damousi, Freud in Australia, pp. 70–73.

49  Dr Freedman, 23 September 1949, M101649. Medical convention in the 2000s is that duodenal ulcers are caused by bacteria and not by stress, though the link between ulcers and stress has had a strong popular purchase and was likely believed by Fred (Frank Bowden, Professor of Medicine at the Australian National University and Senior Staff Specialist, Infectious Diseases, ACT Health, email to the author, 13 April 2013).

50  Case Sheet, RGHH, 6 July 1950, H101649; Case Sheets, RGHH, 1 June 1961 and 8 June 1961, H101649; Mr Godley, Medical Report 24 March 1983, H101649; Farrall, letter to ‘John, Margie and Helen’ (in England), 7 June 1987, Personal Letters Box, Series 1987.0418, Farrall Papers. Fred’s correspondence with family and friends in the 1980s often mentioned his ‘nerves’, which were assumed to be war-caused.

51  Farrall, Pension Claim, 26 March 1953, M101649; Medical Officer Report, 12 October 1971, M101649; Farrall, Pension Claims, 1 December 1977 and 26 January 1981, M101649; Dr Bennett, Letter of Support for Fred Farrall, 13 August 1982, and Repatriation Review Tribunal Notice of Decision, 20 July 1983, Veterans Affairs Tribunal Box, Series 1987–0148, Farrall Papers.

52  Frank Crean, letter to the Minister for Repatriation, 28 March 1955, M101649; Farrall, letter to the Editor, The Age, 26 July 1961, and Deputy Commissioner Stephens’ response to Farrall, 18 August 1961, M101649; Farrall, letter to the Minister for Repatriation, 5 February 1968, M101649.

53  Dr Hayes, Medical Report, 12 May 1953, M101649; Dr Morrissey, 12 October 1955, M101649; Clinical Notes, 16 June 1961, M101649; File Note, 12 October 1961, M101649; Drs Trinca and Summons, 26 January 1956, M101649; Dr Kennedy, Medical Report, 12 May 1961, M101649.

54  Lloyd and Rees, The Last Shilling, pp. 323–37.

55  Dr May, Report, 25 May 1950, M101649. Several publications, and new online and paper archives, offer a detailed picture of Fred’s peacetime activism: Maureen Bang, ‘Toorak’s Pensioner Mayor’, Australian Woman’s Weekly, 3 October 1973, pp. 4–5; Lois Farrall, The File on Fred; Dorothy Farrall, ‘Autobiography’, unpublished transcript of an interview by Wendy Lowenstein, transcribed by Fred Farrall, no date, Manuscript Collection, State Library of Victoria; Hill, et al, Celebration of Fred Farrall’s 90th Birthday; Series 1983.0113 and 1987.0148, Farrall Papers.

56  Case Sheet, RGHH, 6 July 1950, H101649; Farrall, Claim, 1 December 1977, M101649; Farrall 1, p. 27.

57  Fred Farrall, ‘Trade Unionism in the First A.I.F. – 1914–1918’, Recorder, 54, October 1971, pp. 3–8; Medical Officer’s Report, 12 October 1971, M101649; Dr Freed, Notes, 4 May 1972, H101649.

58  Michael Roper, ‘Review of Anzac Memories’, Oral History, 22, 2, 1994, p. 92. Jerome Bruner, ‘The Narrative Construction of Reality’, Critical Inquiry, 18, 1, 1991, p. 16. On memory, healing and composure, see: Charlotte Linde, Life Stories: The Creation of Coherence, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993; Sean Field, ‘Beyond “healing”: trauma, oral history and regeneration’, Oral History, 34, 1, 2006, pp. 31–42.

59  See for example: Michael Roper, ‘Re-remembering the Soldier Heroes’; Mark Roseman, ‘Surviving Memory: Truth and Inaccuracy in Holocaust Testimony’, The Journal of Holocaust Education, 8, 1, 1999, pp. 1–20; and Alistair Thomson, Moving Stories: an Intimate History of Four Women Across Two Countries, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney and Manchester University Press, Manchester, 2011. Of course sometimes oral history is the main available source and we have to work with what we’ve got – as for example Christopher Browning does, magnificently, in his oral history of a Nazi slave labour camp: Christopher R. Browning, Remembering Survival: Inside a Nazi Slave-Labor Camp, W.W. Norton, New York, 2010.

60  Fred Farrall, undated notes (circa 1982), Veterans Affairs Tribunal Box, Series 1987.0418, Farrall Papers.

61  Alessandro Portelli, ‘The Peculiarities of Oral History’, History Workshop Journal, 12, Autumn 1981, pp. 96–107 (first published in Italian in 1979). See also: Alessandro Portelli, The Death of Luigi Trastulli and Other Stories: Form and Meaning in Oral History, State University of New York Press, Albany, 1991; Alessandro Portelli, The Order Has been Carried Out: History, Memory, and Meaning of a Nazi Massacre in Rome, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2003. For examples of other oral history books that take a similar approach, see: Penny Summerfield, Reconstructing Women’s Wartime Lives, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1998; Natalie Nguyen, Memory Is Another Country: Women of the Vietnamese Diaspora, Praeger, Santa Barbara, California, 2009. Key recent texts on oral history theory and method include: Lynn Abrams, Oral History Theory, Routledge, London, 2010; Donald A. Ritchie (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Oral History, Oxford University Press, New York, 2011; Valerie Raleigh Yow, Recording Oral History. A Guide for the Humanities and Social Sciences, 2nd edition, Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, California, 2005; Thomas L. Charlton, Lois E. Myers and Rebecca Sharpless (eds), Handbook of Oral History, Altamira Press, Lanham, MD, 2006; Alexander Freund, and Alistair Thomson (eds), Oral History and Photography, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2011; Perks and Thomson, The Oral History Reader. For developments over the past 20 years in my own understandings of and approaches to oral history, see: Alistair Thomson, ‘Four paradigm transformations in oral history’, Oral History Review, 34, 1, 2007, pp. 49–70; Alistair Thomson, ‘Memory and Remembering in Oral History’, in Ritchie, The Oxford Handbook of Oral History, pp. 77–95; Thomson, Moving Stories.

62  On ‘particular publics’ see Dawson and West, ‘“Our Finest Hour”?’, pp. 10–11. On communicative memory see: Jan Assman, ‘Collective Memory and Cultural Identity’, New German Critique, 65, 1995, pp. 125–33; Alexander Freund, ‘A Canadian Family Talks about Oma’s Life in Nazi Germany: Three-Generational Interviews and Communicative Memory’, Oral History Forum, 29, 2009, pp. 1–26; Graham Smith, ‘Beyond Individual / Collective Memory: Women’s Transactive Memories of Food, Family and Conflict’, Oral History, 35, 2, 2007, pp. 77–90.

63  The best oral history interviews affirm the value of the life story told whilst at the same time encouraging the narrator to elaborate and stretch their story in less well-rehearsed directions (as we saw, this was not always easy with Percy Bird or Fred Farrall). On the communicative relationship of the oral history interview, see Valerie Raleigh Yow, ‘“Do I Like Them Too Much?” Effects of the Oral History Interview on the Interviewer and Vice-Versa’, Oral History Review, 24, 1, 1997, pp. 55–79; Michael Roper, ‘Analysing the analysed: transference and counter-transference in the oral history encounter’, Oral History, 31, 2, 2003, pp. 20–32; Daniel James, Dona María’s Story: Life History, Memory and Political Identity, Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 2000; Della Pollock (ed.), Remembering: Oral History as Performance, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2005; Abrams, Oral History Theory, pp. 54–77.

64  For overviews about memory and oral history, see Abrams, Oral History Theory, pp. 78–105; Thomson, ‘Memory and Remembering in Oral History’; Yow, Recording Oral History, pp. 35–67.

Postscript: Anzac postmemory

1    Graeme Davison, ‘The Habit of Commemoration and the Revival of Anzac Day’, Australian Cultural History, 23, 2003, p. 81.

2    Jay Winter, ‘Shell-shock and the Cultural History of the Great War’, Journal of Contemporary History, 35, 1, 2000, p. 10; Dan Todman, The Great War: Myth and Memory, Hambledon and London, London, 2005, pp. 173 and 223–24. For a critique of Todman, see Ziino, ‘“A Lasting Gift to His Descendants”’, pp. 125–26.

3    Mark McKenna, ‘Anzac Day: How Did it Become Australia’s National Day?’, in Marilyn Lake and Henry Reynolds, with Mark McKenna and Joy Damousi (eds), What’s Wrong With Anzac? The Militarisation of Australian History, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, 2010, p. 126 (McKenna’s is the stand-out chapter in the book). The most comprehensive account of the Anzac resurgence is Ken Inglis, ‘Epilogue: Towards the Centenary of Anzac’, Sacred Places: War Memorials in the Australian Landscape, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 3rd edition, 2008 (first published 1998), pp. 458–583.

4    Inglis, Sacred Places, p. xvi.

5    On ‘Australia Remembers’: Liz Reed, Bigger than Gallipoli: War, History and Memory in Australia, University of Western Australia Press, Crawley, 2004; and Inglis, Sacred Places, pp. 390–457.

6    Howard’s speech quoted in Inglis, Sacred Places, p. 549.

7    Julia Gillard, speech at Anzac Cove Dawn Service, Gallipoli, 25 April 2012, quoted in Carolyn Anne Holbrook, ‘The Great War in the Australian Imagination Since 1915’, D.Phil. thesis, University of Melbourne, 2012, p. 240.

8    Elizabeth Furniss, ‘Timeline History and the Anzac Myth: Settler Narratives of Local History in a North Australian Town’, Oceania, 71, 4, 2001, p. 279.

9    See McKenna, ‘Anzac Day’.

10  Holbrook, ‘The Great War in the Australian Imagination Since 1915’, p. 203.

11  For Hawke’s speech and a century of politicians’ use and abuse of Anzac, see Holbrook, ‘The Great War in the Australian Imagination Since 1915’, pp. 203–40.

12  Howard speaking in 2003 and 2002, quoted in Matt McDonald, ‘“Lest We Forget”: The Politics of Memory and Australian Military Intervention’, International Political Sociology, 4, 2010, p. 297. On Howard and Anzac, see also: Holbrook, ‘The Great War in the Australian Imagination Since 1915’, pp. 228– 38; McKenna, ‘Anzac Day’; Inglis, Sacred Places, p. 550.

13  Paula Hamilton and Paul Ashton, ‘At Home With the Past: Initial Findings From the Survey’, Australians and the Past, A special edition of Australian Cultural History, 22, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, 2003, pp. 5–30; Paul Ashton and Paula Hamilton, ‘Connecting with History: Australians and their Pasts’, in Paul Ashton and Hilda Kean (eds), People and their Pasts: Public History Today, Palgrave, Basingstoke, 2009, pp. 23–38.

14  Jay Winter, ‘Forward to the Third Edition’, Inglis, Sacred Places, p. iv.

15  For an account of the popular memory theory related to war remembrance, see T.G. Ashplant, Graham Dawson and Michael Roper, ‘The politics of war memory and commemoration: contexts, structures and dynamics’, in Timothy Ashplant, Graham Dawson and Michael Roper (eds), The Politics of Memory: Commemorating War, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, 2004, pp. 3–85. See also: Jay Winter, Remembering War: The Great War between History and Memory in the Twentieth Century, Yale University Press, New Haven, 2006; Jay Winter, Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European Cultural History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995; Jay Winter, and Emmanuel Sivan (eds), War and Remembrance in the Twentieth Century, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999; Jenny Edkins, Trauma and the Memory of Politics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003.

16  Damousi, The Labour of Loss; Tanja Luckins, The Gates of Memory: Australian People’s Experiences and Memories of Loss in the Great War, Curtin University Books, Fremantle, 2004.

17  Marianne Hirsch, ‘The Generation of Postmemory’, Poetics Today, 29, 1, Spring 2008, pp. 103–28; Marianne Hirsch, The Generation of Postmemory: Writing and Visual Culture After the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, New York, 2012.

18  Hirsch, ‘The Generation of Postmemory’, p. 108, citing Aby Warburg.

19  Jay Winter, ‘Writing war’, public lecture, State Library of Victoria, 22 August 2012.

20  See Peter Stanley, ‘Monumental mistake? Is war the most important thing in Australian history?’, in Craig Stockings (ed.), Anzac’s Dirty Dozen: 12 Myths of Australian Military History, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, 2012, pp. 260–86.

21  Dominic Bryan and Stuart Ward, ‘The “Deficit of Remembrance”: The Great War Revival in Australia and Ireland’, in Stuart Ward and Katie Holmes (eds), Exhuming Passions: The Pressure of the Past in Ireland and Australia, Irish Academic Press, Dublin and Portland, Oregon, 2011, p. 169.

22  Ziino, ‘”A Lasting Gift to his Descendants”’, p. 139. For a review of Australian family histories of the Great War, see Holbrook, ‘The Great War in the Australian Imagination Since 1915’, pp. 173–202.

23  Bruce Scates, Return to Gallipoli: Walking the Battlefields of the Great War, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2006.

24  Mark McKenna and Stuart Ward, ‘“It was really moving, mate”: The Gallipoli Pilgrimage and Sentimental Nationalism in Australia’, Australian Historical Studies, 38, 129, 2007, p. 151; Anna Clark, History’s Children: History Wars in the Classroom, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, 2008, p. 62.

25  Christina Twomey, ‘Trauma and the Reinvigoration of Anzac: An Argument’, History Australia, forthcoming, December, 2013; quoting Didier Fassin and Richard Rechtman, The Empire of Trauma: An Inquiry into the Condition of Victimhood (2007), translated by Rachel Gomme, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2009, p. xi.

26  Winter, ‘Writing war’.

27  Peter Stanley critiques the ‘turgid nationalist epics’ of ‘storians’ like Les Carlyon and Peter Fitzsimmons, in his chapter, ‘Military history: over the top’, in Paul Ashton and Anna Clark (eds), Australian History Now, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, forthcoming, 2013.

28  Thomson, Moving Stories.

29  Marilyn Lake. ‘Introduction: What have you done for your country?’, in Lake and Reynolds, What’s Wrong With Anzac?, p. viii.

30  Among many others, see: Jeffrey Grey, A Military History of Australia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and Port Melbourne, 3rd edition, 2008; Craig Stockings, Bardia: Myth, Reality and the Heirs of Anzac, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, 2009; Christopher Pugsley, ‘Stories of Anzac’, in Jenny Macleod (ed.), Gallipoli: Making History, Frank Cass, London and New York, 2004, pp. 44–58; Peter Pedersen, ‘The AIF: as good as the Anzac Legend says?’, Sydney Papers, Autumn 2007, pp. 168–177.

31  Craig Stockings, ‘Myths and Australian Military History’, in Stockings (ed.), Anzac’s Dirty Dozen, p. 5; Neville Meaney, A History of Australian Defence and Foreign Policy 1901–23: Volume 2, Australia and the World Crisis 1914–1923, Sydney University Press, Sydney, 2009.

32  Peter Stanley, Bad Characters: Sex, Crime, Mutiny, Murder and the Australian Imperial Force, Pier 9, Miller’s Point, 2010, cover quote.

33  Craig Stockings. ‘Epilogue: Returning Zombies to their Graves’, in Craig Stockings (ed.), Zombie Myths of Australian Military History, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, 2010, pp. 234–38.

34  Garton, The Cost of War; Lloyd and Rees, The Last Shilling; Blackmore, The Dark Pocket of Time.

35  Larsson, Shattered Anzacs; Crotty and Larsson, Anzac Legacies.

36  See, among many others: Damousi, The Labour of Loss; Joy Damousi, Living with the Aftermath: Trauma, Nostalgia and Grief in Post-war Australia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001; Holbrook, ‘The Great War in the Australian Imagination Since 1915’; Inglis, Sacred Places; Luckins, The Gates of Memory; Macleod, Gallipoli: Making History; Reed, Bigger than Gallipoli; Graham Seal, Inventing Anzac: The Digger and National Mythology, University of Queensland Press with API Network and Curtin University of Technology, St Lucia, 2004; Scates, Return to Gallipoli; Bruce Scates, A Place to Remember: A History of the Shrine of Remembrance, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2009; Alistair Thomson, ‘The “Vilest Libel of the War”? Imperial Politics and the Official Histories of Gallipoli’, Australian Historical Studies, 25, 101, 1993, pp. 628–36; Bart Ziino, A Distant Grief: Australians, War Graves and the Great War, University of Western Australia Press, Crawley, Western Australia, 2007.

37  For example: historian Bruce Scates at Monash University is leading several collaborative public history projects about Australians at war and in remembrance, including a major study of the history of Anzac Day (http://profiles.arts.monash.edu.au/bruce-scates/research/, accessed 4 May 2013); feminist historian Clare Wright is co-scripting a four-part television series for the First World War centenary (see http://www.screenaustralia.gov.au/news_and_events/2013/mr_130405_funding.aspx, accessed 4 May 2013); Marilyn Lake continues to debate what’s wrong with Anzac in many different public contexts (see http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/sundayextra/newsmaker3a-marilyn-lake/3925520, accessed 5 May 2013); and the author is among several historians advising Museum Victoria as it creates a new exhibition for the centenary of 1914–18.

38  Annette Wieviorka, The Era of the Witness, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 2006.

39  Inglis, Sacred Places, p. 549.

40  Saul Friedlander, ‘Trauma, Memory, and Transference’, in Geoffrey H. Hartman (ed.), Holocaust Remembrance: The Shapes of Memory, Blackwell, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1994, pp. 252–63. Thanks to my Monash University colleague Noah Shenker for this reference.

Appendix 1: Oral history and popular memory

1    Alistair Thomson, The Forgotten Anzacs, unpublished manuscript, 1986, MS1180, AWM.

2    For a summary of conservative criticisms, see Paul Thompson, The Voice of the Past: Oral History, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1988, pp. 68–71, and his editorial in Oral History, 18, 1, Spring 1990, p. 24. For the Australian debate see the ‘Oral History: Facts and Fiction’ exchange in Oral History Association of Australia Journal, 5, 1983–84.

3    Popular Memory Group, ‘Popular Memory: Theory, Politics, Method’, in Making Histories: Studies in History Writing and Politics, Richard Johnson et al. (eds), Hutchinson, London, 1982. See also Ronald Fraser, Blood of Spain: The Experience of Civil War 1936–1939, Allen Lane, London, 1979; Luisa Passerini, ‘Work Ideology and Consensus under Italian Fascism’, History Workshop Journal, 8, 1979, pp. 82–108; ‘Editorial — Oral History’, History Workshop Journal, 8, Autumn 1979, pp. i–iii. For reprints of the 1977 and 1978 film debates see Tony Bennett, et al. (eds), Popular Television and Film, BFI Publishing / The Open University Press, London, 1981.

4    The Group’s Second World War studies include: Graham Dawson & Bob West, ‘“Our Finest Hour”? The Popular Memory of World War Two and the Struggles over National Identity’; and Graham Dawson, ‘History-Writing on The Second World War’, both published in National Fictions: World War Two in British Films and Television. On issues of popular nationalism and the national past see Patrick Wright, On Living in an Old Country: The National Past in Contemporary Britain, London, Verso, 1985. Part A of the unpublished draft of a Popular Memory book (loaned by Richard Johnson) discusses memory work, ‘inner stories’ and the narrative form.

5    Oral History, 17, 2, Autumn 1989, p. 2. For criticism of the Popular Memory Group, see Trevor Lummis, Listening to History, Hutchinson, London, 1987, pp. 117–40. For new approaches see the ‘Popular Memory’ issue of Oral History, 18, 1, Spring 1990; the revised discussion of memory and subjectivity in Thompson, The Voice of the Past, 1988, pp. 150–65; the debates in the International Journal of Oral History, 6, February 1985; and the international anthology edited by Raphael Samuel & Paul Thompson, The Myths We Live By, Routledge, London, 1990. For similar developments in the United States see David Thelen, ‘Memory and American History’, Journal of American History, 75, 4, March 1989, pp. 1117–29; and Michael Frisch, A Shared Authority: Essays on the Craft and Meaning of Oral and Public History, State University of New York, Albany, 1990. For Australia see John Murphy, ‘The Voice of Memory: History, Autobiography and Oral Memory’, Historical Studies, 22, 87, October 1986, pp. 157–75. For ways in which psychology has also taken on these ideas, see David Middleton & Derek Edwards (eds), Collective Remembering, Sage, London, 1990.

6    A. Thomson, ‘Shrapnel and Smiles: Memories of a Strange and Bloody Youth’, Shades, 1, 1983, pp. 11–13; and Shades, 2, 1983, pp. 11–12.

7    Bridgeman, p. 27.

8    On ethical issues see Sherna Berger Gluck & Daphne Patai (eds), Women’s Words: The Feminist Practice of Oral History, Routledge, New York, 1991; Frisch, A Shared Authority.

Anzac Memories: Living with the Legend [New Edition]

   by Alistair Thomson