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Anzac Memories: Living with the Legend [New Edition]

INDEX

(Note: page reference followed by ‘p’ indicates photograph; page reference followed by ‘f’ indicates figure)

absence without leave 38, 39, 48, 94, 166

Adam-Smith, Patsy 53, 222, 225, 226, 227, 320

Adams, Phillip 223

Age [newspaper] 70

AIF see Australian Imperial Force (AIF)

All Quiet on the Western Front (Remarque) 168, 201

Allen, Judith 130

Allen, Walter 111

Anti-Anzac Day Collective 231

anti-war literature 168, 201

anti-war movement 160, 202

The Anzac Book (Bean)

‘An Anzac Alphabet’ 74, 76, 79f

cartoons 74, 75f, 77f

content 72, 746, 78

contributors 72

excluded material 72

front cover 73f

illustrations by Bean 75f

poems 76

sales of 76, 78

Anzac Cove

Prime Ministers at Anzac Day Dawn Services 316, 317

return visits by veterans 224, 315

visits by young pilgrims 31920

see also Gallipoli Campaign

Anzac Day

attendance figures 1, 153, 220

Christian references 1545

Dawn Services 1, 17, 153, 229, 315, 316

dissent about form and meaning 15361, 31617

egalitarian symbolism 1589

ethnic and community involvement 230, 316, 319

feminist protests against 92, 93, 2312

first commemoration 149

form of ceremonies 1578

growth of public participation since 1980s 224, 229, 31517

inclusion of previously excluded groups in marches 230

institutionalisation 1501, 1523, 2323

loss of interest in early 1920s 150

marches by returned servicemen 155, 229

meaning for returned servicemen 1602, 2345

media interviews with veterans 2345

in Melbourne in 1987 22935

mourning and celebration 1557, 31617

as National Day 1501, 1534

national and military symbolism 15960

observance in schools 150

participation of veterans 7, 11, 16, 1812, 1935

place in Australian history 221

politicisation of commemoration 31617

as public holiday 151, 1556

and Remembrance Day 7

reputation during 1950s and 1960s 220

rituals and rhetoric 149, 161, 2334

RSL control over 231, 2323

services at Anzac Cove 224, 315, 316, 31920

young people marching alongside veteran relatives 229

Anzac Day Commemoration Committees 149, 150

Anzac and Empire: The Tragedy and Glory of Gallipoli (Robertson) 226, 250

Anzac histories

accuracy of 241

and Australian popular memory 2259, 248, 318

critical analysis 24952

critical reinterpretations 227

dramatisations 9, 11, 85, 118, 2234, 2279, 241, 247

emphasis in new histories 2256

influence on Anzac legend 162

influence of Bean’s work 534, 61, 78, 177, 225

postmemory 31819

Anzac legend

challenges to essentialist view of 24951, 253f

content of 312

creation of 534

decline in warrior elements 3201

and digger culture and identity 52, 54

emphasis on infantry experience 41

extension to Indigenous resistance 316

and family war history 510

influence of Bean’s writings 32, 534, 61, 78, 177, 250, 251

influence of political culture 1378, 251, 315

influence of war literature and histories 162

interplay between individual subjectivity and public myth 243, 247, 248, 249, 318, 322

meaning in twenty-first century 314, 316

and national identity 7, 32

plasticity of 321

process of creation 54

public meanings and identities to articulate war experience 119

rejection in 1960s and 1970s 221

reworking in 1980s 2289, 247, 320

reworking during Second World War 21920

and RSSILA 1478

subjective identification with 89, 243, 318

Anzac memoirs, publication of 151

‘Anzac oral history’ project

memory biographies 16, 3412

overview 3279

popular memory interview approach 1517, 33741

relationship between researcher and interviewees 3327

see also interviewees

Anzac revival

Anzac histories and Australian popular memory 2259

contribution of historians 222

during Second World War 21920

since 1980s 21718, 2224, 31415, 31517

Anzac spirit 233

Anzac to Amiens (Bean) 163

Anzacs see Australian soldiers; New Zealand soldiers

The Anzacs (Adam-Smith) 53, 222, 224, 320

‘Anzacs’ (television series) 9, 85, 118, 2278, 2378, 241, 245

Argus [newspaper] 70

Armistice (Remembrance) Day 7, 154

Army to Fight Bolshevism 139

Arthur, Dr Richard 298, 301, 304, 306, 312

artillery bombardments

fatalism about 104

traumatic effects 85, 86, 11213, 1978, 245

Ashmead-Bartlett, Ellis 601, 67, 68

‘Australia Remembers’ 315

Australian history, militarisation of 321, 322

Australian Imperial Force (AIF)

1st Battalion 48, 114

1st Brigade 38

1st Division 42

2nd Brigade 99p

3rd Division: 8th Brigade 93

5th Battalion 16, 17, 835, 87, 889, 181, 182, 239, 289, 343

10th Battalion 71

14th Battalion 41

55th Battalion 17, 190, 297, 344

Australian Army Corp 31, 63

campaign to support conscription 53, 105

casualties 31, 43, 45, 99p

desertions 46, 47, 48, 172, 173, 228

disciplinary problems 38

as ‘happy-go-lucky army’ 3840

Light Horse brigades and units 5, 31, 35, 42, 44, 163, 220, 224, 257, 260

military effectiveness and success 43

mutinies 166

officers 43

reputation as fighting force 31, 43

‘strike’ by 1st Battalion 48, 114

tensions between officers and diggers 401

under British command 31

use by British 47

as volunteer force 31

Australian Labor Party

attitude towards war 25, 138

expulsion of Billy Hughes 138

see also Labor movement

Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) 4

Australian soldiers

absence without leave 38, 39, 48, 94, 166

attitudes to discipline and authority 3841, 60, 11617, 170

desertions 46, 47, 48, 172, 173, 228

digger culture and identity 502

lost medical records 2856, 312

qualities of 45, 7, 8, 32, 434, 601, 69, 89, 2267

relations with women 38

self-inflicted wounds 467, 67, 105, 172

view of British officers 40, 47

view of British soldiers 40, 43, 51

see also digger culture and identity; front-line experiences; returned servicemen

Australian War Memorial

author’s visits as a child 45

calls for gallery on Aboriginal resistance 315

creation of 53

digitisation of original interview transcripts and audio xv, 3

financing of Bean’s official history 174

fostering of military history 223

interment of Unknown Australian Soldier 315

as Peace Memorial 246, 247

research and publications section 223

role 247

as tourist attraction 224

Australian Workers Union 108

Australians in Action: The Story of Gallipoli [pamphlet] (Bean) 61

‘Australians at War’ (Time-Life series) 225

Barker, David 74

Barrett, John 250

Bean, Charles

articulation of Anzac legend 534, 61, 78

at Gallipoli 636

at Helles, Gallipoli 99p

on Australian character and identity 567, 58, 61

and Australian War Memorial 53

on Australians at Pozières 689, 70

on British propaganda 67

criticism of British High Command 612, 165, 166

diaries 59, 612, 656, 68, 6970

on evacuation from Gallipoli 6970

family background and education 545

on heroism of Australian soldiers 6870, 1689

imperialism 62

influence 534, 225

involvement in AIF political campaigns 53

as journalist 53, 54, 556

on landing at Anzac cove 61, 1712

literary and didactic aims of war journalism 6970

on men of Second AIF 219

on military history 163

on misbehaviour of Australians in Cairo 5860

nationalist advocacy of diggers and AIF 623

neglect of his historical work in 1950s and 60s 220

as official war correspondent 53, 57, 6372

public and soldiers’ responses to his war journalism 701, 104

on purpose of official history 1678

on qualities of Anzacs 16770

renaissance of his historical work 222

representation of Australians at war 54

response to larrikinism 5960

self-censorship 678, 166

sketch by Will Dyson 64f

values and ideals 55, 567, 169

as war historian 53, 54, 71, 16277, 220, 222

writings and publications 53, 56, 163

see also Anzac Book (Bean); The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918 (Bean)

Beard, Jack 101p

Beattie, Lieutenant 96p

Belgium see Western Front

Benjamin, Walter xv

Bird, Eva (née Linklater) 82, 83, 183p, 184p

Bird, Percy

at home in 1983 188p

biographical details 16, 1718, 237, 343

childhood and youth 812

death 283

discharge from AIF 179f, 288, 289

enlistment 35, 823, 238

with Eva 183p, 184p

form and content of memories 1819, 813

with friends after war 184p

gassing at Lagnicourt 83, 288, 289

letter of commendation 84f

masculine and military identity 869, 180

medical file from Repat 28890

move to veterans home 21112

participation in Anzac Day 1812

performance of memories 1819, 813, 23940

postwar experiences and memories of war 17882, 203, 288, 290

renegotiation of memories and identity 23741, 289

returning to Australia 102p

reunions 1812

RSSILA membership 180

transition to civilian life 17880

in uniform 95p, 102p

visits to schools to relate war experiences 217

wartime experience 39, 839, 131

Birdwood, General Sir W. R. 63, 76

‘black armband history’ 317

Blackmore, Kate 286

Blake, Harold 144, 343

Bolshevism 138, 13940

Booth, Mary 157

Bourdieu, Pierre xvi

Bowden, Charles

on Anzac Day 161, 162

biographical details 343

enlistment 36, 215

health in old age 210

life review 215

postwar experiences 129, 144

on son’s enlistment 208

wartime experiences 42, 131

Bridgeman, Bill

on Anzac Day 160

biographical details 343

call-up for Second World War 207

postwar experiences 127

support in old age 211

wartime experience 41

Bridges, Major-General Sir W. T. 58, 163

British Army, discipline 40

British High Command

Australians’ criticism of 47, 612

concerns over indiscipline of Australians 38

British Historical Section 166, 173

British soldiers, Australians’ views of 43

The Broken Years: Australian Soldiers in the Great War (Gammage) 222, 224, 320

brothels 38, 39, 59, 88, 103, 117, 129

Bruner, Jerome 311

Brunswick 10, 150, 153, 334

Brunswick RSSILA, Anzac Day services 153

‘burnt out diggers’ 300

Burstall, Terry 254

Butler, A. G. 285

cadet military training 34, 91

Cairo

bad behaviour of Australians 378, 5860

soldiers’ experiences 378

Campbell, Alec 315, 323

Campbell, Dr 2613, 265, 266, 267

Carroll, Jack 109

Cassells, Kyla 294

Cathcart, Michael 233

Catholic Church, view of Anzac Day

services 158

Catholics, opposition to conscription 138

censorship

basic rules 66

of misbehaviour by troops 60

Centre for Soldiers’ Wives and Mothers 157

Charlton, Matthew 159

Charlton, Peter 244

Chauvel, General 158

civil unrest 134

Clancy, Bernard 230

Coleman, Peter 221

combat fatigue 45

communicative memory 313

Communist Party 23, 200, 202, 294, 301, 302, 309

comradeship 4950

conscription

AIF campaign for 53, 105

opposition to 47, 51, 138

referenda 31, 1378

support for 53, 1389

Crean, Frank 307

Cuddeford, E. L. 345, 47, 129, 343

D’Altera, Stan

Anzac Day practices 161

biographical details 343

disability pension 126

enlistment 33

health in old age 20910

postwar experiences 127, 128, 129, 131, 132, 133, 135, 146

public recognition of his achievements 215

in Second World War 208

support in old age 211

wartime experiences 37, 389, 51

writings 135f, 216

Dane, Dr Paul 2656

David, Leslie

biographical details 344

enlistment 367

wartime experience 37, 42, 131

Dennis, C. J. 53, 151

Department of Veterans’ Affairs (DVA), war commemoration 315

Depression in 1930s 131, 145, 146, 192, 194

desertion 46, 47, 172, 173, 228

digger culture and identity

code of appropriate masculine behaviour 106, 113, 128

discomfort of some soldiers with 878, 11718, 238

formation and articulation 502, 54

‘genuine diggers’ 136, 140

larrikinism 3940, 11718

RSSILA control over 1478

‘diggers’, coining and use of term 51

discipline, in AIF 3841

Dixon, John 227, 228

The Dreadnought of the Darling (Bean) 57

Duncan, Tim 249

Dyson, Will 62, 64, 71, 151, 152

Edmonds, Brigadier James 166

egalitarianism 31, 40, 57, 141, 1589, 317

Egypt see Cairo

Ellery, Reg 306, 310

Ely, Richard 70

Empire Day 91, 150, 154

The Empire of Trauma (Fassin & Rechtman) 320

encephalitis lethargica 262

enemy aliens 137

Englander, David 142

enlistment

choice between competing demands 82

‘Kangaroo’ enlistment marches 17, 96, 108, 116, 296, 311, 344

motives for 326, 903

Evans, Raymond 139

ex-servicemen see returned servicemen

Falklands War 223, 331

family history

and Anzac remembrance in 21st century 31920

and family mythology 5, 6, 8, 258, 259, 2812

and postmemories 31819

and remembrance 2802

Farrall, Dot (née Palmer) 23, 190, 190p, 200, 203, 211, 243, 302

Farrall, Fred

in 1926 187p

adversarial relationship with Repat 296314, 312

on Anzac Day commemoration 199200, 2012, 246

at Goulburn Training Camp 96p

at home in 1983 190p

attitude towards officers 11617

biographical details 17, 224, 2434, 344

breakdown of first marriage 200, 302, 309

childhood and youth 1078

death 283

dependence on pension in 1930s 302

disability pension 197, 298, 299

enlistment 1089, 296

form and nature of his remembering 247, 110

front-line experience 46, 48, 295

hindsight and political critique 11112, 11314

Labor movement involvement 2003, 294, 301, 309

life review 214

masculinity and military identity 109, 111, 113, 1979, 2023, 2446

on mateship 50

on May Day 1940 187p

medical files from Repat 294, 296311

membership of RSSILA 144

on national character 11516

nervous breakdowns 197, 198, 299, 306

personal papers 2946

political conversion 114, 296

postcard from France 100p

postwar experiences and war memories 127, 128, 195203, 203

private commemoration 198

public reactions to his lifestory 294

renegotiation of memories and identity 2447, 296, 302, 30911

on RSSILA 202

self-image 109, 111, 113

silences about war 110, 1989, 244

trauma-induced nervous condition 46, 109, 1978, 297, 298, 301

visit to Australian War Memorial 2456

war injuries and illnesses 109, 110, 1957, 2945, 2979

war service pension 306

wartime experience 39, 10918, 296

as widower 211

Fassin, Didier 320

fatalism 49, 86, 1034, 233

Fathers and Mothers of Ex-servicemen 1323

Feathers, Cyril 234

feminist protests against Anzac Day 92, 93, 2312

Fewster, Kevin 65, 67

First World War

centenary of 3223

contestation over interpretation of Australian participation 2256

Middle East campaign 42

popular and academic interest in 2224

trench warfare 45, 70, 85, 110, 118, 1656, 1978, 2412, 244, 245

see also Australian Imperial Force (AIF); Australian soldiers; Gallipoli campaign; Western Front

Fisher, Andew 25

Flannery, Jack

biographical details 344

discharge code 126

enlistment 34

health in old age 209

postwar experiences 129

RSSILA membership 146

wartime experiences 40, 43

Fleming, Harry 111

Fogarty, Percy

biographical details 344

involvement in ex-servicemen’s associations 216

postwar experiences 131, 133

service during Second World War 208

wartime memorabilia 21617

Footscray 146, 194, 210, 212, 217, 328, 340

For Valour [play] (Throssell) 220

‘Forgotten Anzacs’ project 340

Forward with the Fifth (Keown) 182

France see Western Front

Fraser, Bill 26, 201

Fraser, Malcolm 317

Fraser, Ronald 330

Fremantle 125, 134

Freud, Sigmund 14

Friedlander, Saul 323

Fromelles 445, 67, 109, 110, 11112

front-line experiences

comradeship 4950, 103

conditions on Western Front 834

coping mechanisms 4950, 85, 86, 103

desertion 46, 48, 105, 115

disillusionment 478, 11415

and embattled manhood 4550, 867, 106, 113, 119

end of innocence 425

endurance 489, 689, 105, 1689, 226

horrors 85, 86, 1034

nervous collapse 456

self-inflicted wounds 467, 67, 105

Fussell, Paul 68

Gallipoli campaign

evacuation 6970

front-line experiences 44, 67

landing at Anzac Cove 42, 601, 656, 253f

life in trenches 98p

nature of 42

self-inflicted wounds 47, 67

Gallipoli Correspondent [edited collection] (Fewster) 65

Gallipoli (film) 11, 2234, 227

Gallipoli Legion 216

Gammage, Bill xvii, 222, 224, 225, 2267, 320

Garland, David (Anglican Canon) 149

gassing, damage caused by 83, 286, 289

Gellibrand, General Sir Jon 166, 167, 171, 176

German soldiers, Australians’ view of 47, 92, 103, 1045, 114, 2956

German spring offensive 43

Gerster, Robin 162, 219, 227

Gieske, Harold 176

Gillard, Julia 316

Gilmore, Mary 159

Ginger Mick 53

Glew, Jack

biographical details 344

enlistment 35

front-line experience 49

home-coming 125

postwar experiences 128

wartime experiences 40

glorification of war 22, 68, 70, 156, 160, 161, 195, 220, 221, 232

Godfrey, Dr Clarence 264, 265, 303, 304, 305, 306

Goodbye To All That (Graves) 168

Gough, Tony 227

Goulburn Training Camp 96p, 109

Graham, Dr 298

Grant, Roy 235

Great War see First World War

Grey, Jeffrey 227

Guthrie, Doug, biographical details 207, 216, 344

Hagenaur, Chaplain 153

Haig, General Douglas 43, 62

Hall, Les 96p, 111

Hall, W. W. (‘Bing’) 96p, 111

Hamilton, General Sir I. S. M. 76

Harney, Bill 40, 150

Hawke, Bob 317

Henderson, Gerard 221, 2256

Herald (Melbourne) 150, 151

Heyes, Tas 175

Hindenburg Line 48, 115

Hirsch, Marianne 318

‘History as a Kangaroo Court’ (Duncan) 249

Hogan, Paul 228, 238

Holland, Harry 201

Holocaust remembrance 318, 320, 323

Howard government 314

Howard, John 317, 319, 323

Hughes government 142

Hughes, William Morris (Billy) 137, 138, 142, 150, 165, 200, 302, 304

humour, as coping mechanism 78, 85, 86

identity

definition and affirmation 21618

and memory 1314

see also military identity; national identity

Indigenous servicemen and women 231, 316

industrial action, by ex-servicemen 134

Inglis, Ken 155, 222, 232, 315

interviewees

brief details about 3435

characteristics of 3278

deaths 1, 337

health in old age 20910

interview process 3289

material circumstances 21011

place in history 1, 3

primary relationships of care and support 21112

relationship with researcher 3327

self-image and identity 213

support networks 212

wartime memorabilia 21617

widowers 21112, 212

Jacka, Albert 23, 94, 116, 117

John Bull’s Other Island (Shaw) 201

Johnston, George 219, 221

Joynt, W. D. 237

‘Kangaroo’ enlistment marches 17, 96, 108, 116, 296, 311, 344

Keating, Paul 317

Kent, David 72, 76, 227, 250

Keown, A. W. 182

King, Terry 134

Labor movement

friction with RSSILA 143

racist and sexist heritage 141

strikes over wages and hours 137

veterans’ organisations 141

views on ex-servicemen 139

Lake, Marilyn 142, 227, 321

Langham, Bill

in Armentières 101p

at home in 1983 189p

attempts to claim disability pension 1923, 2923, 311

biographical details 1617, 1920, 241, 344

celebrating mate’s 21st 100p

childhood and youth 90

death 283

death of first wife 2901

enlistment 903

with George Macumber 186p

impact of Second World War 208

masculine and military identity 914, 1037

on mateship 50

medical file from Repat 2903

membership of RSSILA 194

multi-faceted nature of his remembering 212

participation in Anzac Day 1935, 241

postwar experiences and memories of war 1915, 203, 2923

renegotiation of memories and identity 2413

self-image and world view 201

service record 290

in uniform before embarkation 97p

on value of war service 923

war injury 93, 290, 2913, 311

wartime experiences 934, 1036

wearing RSSILA badge 185p

larrikinism

on Anzac Day 157, 158

of Australian soldiers 3940, 58, 117, 170

Bean’s response to 5960, 74

celebration in film 228, 238, 245

Lean, R. L, 176

Letters from France (Bean) 53

life review, process of 21415

Light Horse brigades and units 5, 31, 35, 42, 44, 163, 220, 224, 257, 260

The Lighthorsemen [film] 227

Linton, Albert

biographical details 3445

on Cairo 37

front-line experiences 445

on mateship 50

postwar experiences 132

support in old age 211

wartime experiences 38, 3940

wartime memorabilia 217

Louit, Lieutenant Noel 71

loyalist paramilitaries 136, 139

loyalists

recruitment of ex-servicement 13941

versus disloyalists 1378

McAuley, Lex 221

McCannon, Jack 100p

McCaughey, Reverend John Davis 229, 233

McDonald, Dr 26970

McGillivray, A. J.

biographical details 345

front-line experience 49

membership of RSILLA 144, 145

postwar experiences 1289, 132

wartime experiences 2078

Mackay, Private K. S. 59

McKenna, Mark 314

McKenzie, Ted 37, 128, 208, 216, 345

McKernan, Michael 175

McKernan, Sam 111

McNair, James

biographical details 345

enlistment 34, 35

front-line experiences 45

on home-coming 124, 125

relationship with researcher 334

wartime experiences 412, 131

Macumber, George 186p

Macumber, Phil 101p

Mannix, Archbishop Daniel 138

Marshall, M. E. 175

masculinity

larrikin masculinity vs. moral manhood 88

and military identity 869, 914, 1037, 11114, 180, 1979, 2446

mateship

Bean’s view of 567, 1689

in wartime 50, 51, 103, 105, 11012, 11516, 317

Meaney, Neville 321

Melbourne Labor History Group 22, 23

memory

‘common memory’ vs. ‘deep memory’ 323

communicative memory 313

composure of 1115, 901, 119, 182, 2401, 242, 2489, 31011, 31213, 3312

emotional value of remembering 240

and identity 1314, 869

in old age 209, 21318

recognition and affirmation 1415, 90, 1802, 1925, 238, 23940, 243, 2446

renegotiation with public accounts 2389, 2401, 2447

silences and repression of xvxviii, 856, 1989, 203, 238, 2412

and story-telling 313

memory biographies, writing of 3412

memory studies 1

Mena Camp 59

mental illness

among returned servicemen 109, 110, 127, 1978

nervous collapse 456

neurasthenia 264, 267, 305

shell shock 45, 166

silence about xvixvii

stigma associated with 2578

underestimation of sufferers among ex-servicemen xvii

and war damage 258, 305

war neurosis 286, 305, 309

Middle East campaign 42

military history

Bean’s style of 1635

Bean’s views on 163

critical approach to 24954, 3212

demand in 1980s 222

relationship between personal and public histories 2512, 31821

use of soldiers’ testimony 251, 323

uses of 24950

of Vietnam War 252, 254

and ‘zombie myths’ 322

see also Anzac histories

military identity

lack of public recognition 1923

and masculinity 869, 88, 914, 1037, 11114, 180, 1979, 2446

public recognition and affirmation of 1802, 1935

military police (MPs) 39, 146

military training

for boys post-1911 34, 57

cadets 34, 91

Minesweepers Association 216

Monash, General Sir John

on Anzac Day 153, 155, 158

August offensive at Gallipoli 166

competence 43

direction of demobilisation 123

leadership 43

Morton, Ern

actions during Second World War 208

on Anzac Day 160, 162

biographical details 345

enlistment 35

front-line experiences 44, 47, 49

invitation to speak about war experience 217

life review 214

membership of RSILLA 144

opposition to conscription 47

opposition to war 47

postwar experiences 127, 129, 131, 132

recognition of his achievements 215

RSSILA membership 144, 147

wartime experiences 38, 40

Mosse, George 151

Movement Against War and Fascism 202

Murdoch, Keith 62

The Myth of the Digger (Ross) 225

National Aboriginal and Islander Ex-Service Association 231

national identity

and Anzac legend 7, 32

and Anzac revival in 1980s 222, 2234

gendered construction 232

and personal experience 89

National Political Federation 141

National War Memorial Committee of Victoria 160

Nationalist Party 138

neurasthenia 264, 267, 305

New Zealand soldiers 43, 51

Nicholson, G. H. 176

Nolan, Jack 235

non-combatants 412

Norris, Sid

biographical details 22, 345

enlistment 35

front-line experience 49

postwar experiences 1267

on RSSILA 145

O’Donnell, Roy 196

The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918 (Bean)

content 1657

influence 175, 225

marginalisation of aberrant behaviour 1723

as military history 1635

naming of soldiers in text 164, 1756

plan for 1623

on qualities of Anzacs 16770

range and use of sources 1645, 1701

selling campaigns and sales 174

success of 1747

writing of 163, 165, 171

old age, and remembering 209, 21318

The One Day of the Year [play] (Seymour) 220

oral history

and Anzac memories 1017

Anzac oral history project 3279

by Bean 64, 165

contesting ‘the voice of the past’ 32932

as four-way conversation xvxvi

and popular memory 32742

popular memory interview approach 33741

preservation of deep memories 323

relationship between researcher and interviewee 3327

as three-way conversation xv

writing memory biographies 3412

and written records 31113

Owens, Bill 234

pacifism 169

Palmer, Nettie 139

parks and playgrounds movement 167

Passchendaele 43

Passerini, Luisa 11, 330

Peace Day riots (Melbourne) 134, 16970

People’s History of Australia 249, 257

Pettiford, Bob 111

Pioneers’ Unit Association 216

Pitman’s College 42

political culture, influence on Anzac legend 1378

Polygon Wood 46, 64, 109, 112, 114, 294, 311

Popular Memory Group 11, 3301

Portelli, Alessandro 11

post-traumatic stress disorder 320

Pozières: Australians on the Somme 1916 (Charlton) 2445

Pozières 43, 689, 70, 83, 85, 166, 168, 2445

propaganda: Bolshevik 140

propaganda: British

Bean’s criticism of 67

control over 667

experiences putting lie to 105

guidelines for literary propaganda 66

impact of 114

nature of 67

Protestants

attitude towards Anzac Day services 154, 158

support for conscription 138

racial violence, by Australian soldiers 38

radical diggers

alienation from RSSILA 145

appeal of reworked Anzac legend of the 1980s 247

exclusion from RSSILA 147

loyalty to Labor movement 145

surveillance and restraint of 140

view of Bean’s official history 177

Rechtman, Richard 320

Red Flag riot (Brisbane) 134, 136

Remarque, Erich 168, 201

remembering, in later life 209, 21318

Remembrance Day 7, 154

reminiscence work 209

Repatriation Act 142, 306

Repatriation Committee 142

Repatriation Department (‘the Repat’)

administration of repatriation schemes 284

assessment of incapacity 259, 260, 261, 262, 2647, 283, 2857, 2913, 298301, 308, 312

enhancement of entitlements from 1950s to 1970s 287

generosity of benefits 2845

grievances of veterans 127, 1923, 1967

medical files on ex-servicemen 258, 283, 287

proportion of ex-servicemen requiring support in interwar years 284

rorting of system 308

repatriation policy, influence of RSSILA 142

repatriation schemes

disability pensions 123, 126, 178, 1923, 285

employment schemes 124, 132

housing assistance 123

preference in employment 1323, 145

small-business assistance 123, 132

soldier settlement scheme 123, 132, 143

vocational training 123, 132

war service pensions 285

Returned Sailors’ and Soldiers’ Australian Democratic League 141

Returned Sailors’ and Soldiers’ Imperial League of Australia (RSSILA) (later RSL)

benefits of membership 1456, 147

bipartisan policy 140, 141

campaign against antiwar literature 168

control over dissent 1467

demand for public holiday on Anzac Day 156

demands for institutionalisation of Anzac Day 150

formation 140

influence over repatriation policy 142

law and order stance 142

loyalist politics 141

membership numbers 143, 144, 145

organisation of Anzac Day marches 155

promotion of recruiting and conscriptions 141

promotion of special treatment for exservicement 143

reasons for joining 1434, 145

recruitment of members 143

role of sub-branches 1456

State patronage 1412

see also Returned and Services League (RSL)

returned servicemen

attitudes to repatriation 1267, 1923, 1967

divorce 130

employment 1303

experiences of repatriation 1234

health problems 1256

home-coming 1245

mental disorders 127

political allegiances 13948

psychological damage 127

public concerns over behaviour 1578

public disorder 10, 134, 1346, 16970

readjustment to domestic life 12730, 17880

reception by civilians 1289

rehabilitation 1257

relations with women 129, 130

riots 10, 134, 142, 16970

role in industrial action 134

suicides 127, 129, 220

unemployment 1303, 145, 146, 196

see also veterans of Great War

Returned and Services League (RSL) (formerly RSSILA)

control over Anzac Day commemorations 231, 2323

membership figures 220, 224

social and political conservatism 220

see also Returned Sailors’ and Soldiers’ Imperial League of Australia (RSSILA)

Returned Soldiers’ Associations 134, 140

Returned Soldiers’ National Party 141

riots, by ex-servicemen 10, 134, 142, 16970

Robertson, John 226, 250

Robson, Lloyd 222, 227, 250

Rogers, John 7, 8, 10, 98f, 99f, 99p, 131, 174, 176

Roper, Michael 311

Ross, Jane 225

Rowe, Bombardier Frederick 59

Royal Australian Navy 41, 163

Royal Australian Regiment 221

Russian revolution 138

Ruxton, Bruce 231, 233

Sacred Places (Inglis) 315

sailors 41

Sailors’, Soldiers’ and Airmen Fathers’ Association of Victoria 216

Saving the Channel Ports (Joynt) 237

Scates, Bruce 319

Sciacca, Con 315

Scotch College (Melbourne) 5, 7, 270

scrofula 288

Second AIF, and Anzac qualities 21920

Second World War 192, 2078

secret armies see loyalist paramilitaries

self-inflicted wounds 467, 67, 105, 172

Sewell, Dr Sidney 262

Seymour, Alan 220, 221

Shaw, George Bernard 201

shell shock 45, 166, 262, 286, 294, 3045

Shute, Carmel 227

silence

about mental ilness xvixvii

and memory xvxviii

Slater, Bill 302

Smith’s Weekly 135, 150, 305

Society for the Preservation of Anzac Standards 167, 169

Somme offensive 43, 68, 83, 85, 87, 109, 110, 112, 222, 244, 246, 281, 299

spirit soldiers 151

Stabb, Alf

biographical details 345

enlistment 334

on family interest in his war experience 217

front-line experiences 46, 48, 49

postwar experiences 128

RSSILA membership 144, 145

wartime experiences 39, 40

Stevens, Gus 110, 111

Stockings, Craig 322

subjective identification, and resonance of Anzac legend 89

taboo subjects xvi

temperance movement 157

Thirkell, Angela 124

Thompson, Paul 331

Thomson, Alistair 249

Thomson, Colin 267, 269, 270, 271, 272p, 273p, 279

Thomson, David 257, 2678, 269, 270, 272p, 273p, 279, 280

Thomson, Boyd 5, 7, 8, 23

Thomson, Hector 281

absence from family mythology 5, 6, 8, 258, 281

award of Military Medal 6, 260

breakdowns 262, 263, 265, 266

death 279

death of wife Nell 267, 270

documents in medical file 2748p

eligibility for disability pension 261, 2627, 26970, 279, 284, 285

enlistment and service in Great War 56, 25960, 260

enlistment and service in Second World War 271

larrikinism 260

malaria attacks 6, 257, 2601, 26970

malarial encepalitis 6, 257, 2625

medical history from enlistment to death 258

memory loss 2612, 263

with Nell 271p

with Nell and sons Colin and David 272p

permanent incapacity 265

repatriation story 2589

return from war 131, 2601

service record 260

as single father 26770

with sons Colin and David 273p

stigma of mental illnes 2579, 270

in uniform in Cairo 271p

war damage xvixvii, 6, 23, 261, 262, 265

Thomson, Nell

character 268, 269

death 267, 270

with Hector 271p

with Hector and sons Colin and David 272p

letters to Repat on husband’s behalf 262, 2634, 266, 275p

marriage to Hector 261, 280

responsibility for family, farm and livelihood 2634, 266, 267, 280, 284

Throssell, Ric 220

trade unions 1089, 134

trauma of war, recognition of 320

Treloar, John 174

trench foot 109, 110, 297, 306

trench newspapers 52, 74

trench warfare 45, 70, 85, 110, 118, 1656, 1978, 2412, 244, 245

tuberculosis 288, 289

Tweedie, Jill 223

Two Men I Knew (Bean) 163

Twomey, Christina 320

Unemployed Association, ex-servicemen’s section 146

Unemployed Self Help Association 192, 194

Unemployed Soldiers’ Association 158

Unemployed Workers Movement 200, 202

Vader, John 225

venereal disease 38, 47, 88, 129

veterans of Great War

commemorative visits to former battlefields 224, 315

as media celebrities 217

media interviews on Anzac Day 2345

participation in Anzac Day 7, 11, 16, 1812, 1935, 2345

resurgence of public interest in 21718, 244

state funerals in early 2000s 315

veterans’ organisations 1403

Victorian Returned Soldiers’ No Conscription League 141

Vietnam veterans 221, 2301, 320

Vietnam War 221, 252, 254

War and Armageddon (Holland) 201

war cemeteries 9, 148, 315

war commemoration

Bill for a National War Memorial 159

debate over forms 1489

functions of 148

need for public commemoration 148

and political nationalism 31415

politicisation 31617

public investment in 31617

role of Department of Veterans’ Affairs 315

role of RSL 231, 2323, 315

role of RSSILA 148

war correspondents

inventions by ‘Cairo correspondents’ 68, 70

use of ‘high diction’ 68

see also Ashmead-Bartlett, Ellis; Bean, Charles

war damage

exaggerated claims 300

generational nature of xvii, 259, 280, 284

impact 284

and medical understanding in early twentieth century 286

war memorials 148, 151, 315

war neurosis 286, 305, 309

War Precautions Act 1914 (Cwlth) 138

war remembrance

in absence of witnesses of war 314

extent and influence of 1

of First World War 1

politicisation of 31617

selective nature of 7

War Service Homes 123

‘war on terror ‘ 317

Ward, Russell 220

warrior culture, of Australian boyhood 4

wartime memorabilia, in veteran’s homes 216

wartime stories, evolution of 181

Weir, Peter 223, 225

Western Front

battle for Polygon Wood 46, 64, 109, 112, 114, 294, 311

casualties 43

Fromelles 445, 67, 109, 110, 11112

Hindenburg Line 48, 115

Passchendaele campaign 43, 104, 176, 241

Pozières 43, 689, 70, 83, 85, 166, 168, 2445

Somme offensive 43, 68, 83, 85, 87, 109, 110, 112, 222, 244, 246, 281, 299

Ypres 43, 60, 295, 345

see also front-line experiences

What’s Wrong with Anzac? (Lake et al.) 321

white feathers 34

White, General Sir C. Brudenell 159, 163

White, Richard 32, 227

Wieland, James 228

Williams, Bill (pseudonym)

on Anzac Day 160

biographical details 345

discomfort with digger culture 39, 51

postwar experiences 127

voluntary work 216

wartime experiences 39

as widower 211

Williams, Raymond 12

Williamson, David 223

women

impact of returned servicemen 12930

impact of war-damaged husbands 280

Women’s Land Army 230

Woodward, Jack 221

World War I see front-line experiences;

Gallipoli campaign; Western Front

World War II 192, 2078, 315, 317

Ypres 43, 60, 295, 345

Yupanqui, Atahualpa xvii

Anzac Memories: Living with the Legend [New Edition]

   by Alistair Thomson