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A Home Away from Home? International Students in Australian and South African Higher Education

Index

Abbott, Tony 107

academic writing, cultural norms 128

African values 134

Albrechtsen, Janet 105–6

All India Students Federation 108

Arkoudis, Sophie 58, 158

assault rates 79, 81

Association of African Universities 11

Association of Commonwealth Universities 11

asylum seekers, debate on 104, 105–7

Australian dollar, rise in value 117, 118

Australian Education International (AEI)

Follow-up International Student Survey on Vocational Education and Training 67–8

International Student Survey 67

survey results relating to student safety and security 80

Australian higher education

commercial orientation versus education and research missions of universities 27–9

public funding of 22, 29

student–staff ratio 29

tuition revenues 21, 29

Australian Institute of Criminology 79

Australian international education

commercial focus 24, 28–9, 31, 35, 62–3, 94

community engagement strategies 98–9

decline in South Asian demand 22

decline in student numbers 22, 23–4, 111, 118

draft protocol for regulation of rights of international students 37–41

growth of student numbers 21–4, 77–8, 117–18

key tensions 24–5

lack of balance, range and depth 30–1

marketing of 63–5

migration scams 22

private vocational training colleges 23, 111

promotion of unrealistic expectations to prospective students 68, 70–2

quality of programs in vocational sector 23

Study in Australia website 63, 64, 70, 71

under Colombo plan 61–2, 94–5

as world’s ‘dumb blond’ 111

Australian universities

commercial orientation versus education and research mission 27–9

global positioning strategies 30–1

Babacan, Hurriyet 80

Baillieu, Ted 85

Baird, Bruce 66–7, 98

Beazley, Kim 96

Bhullar, Harpreet 102

bigotry 86–7

Bommrasipet, Vinodh 86

Bradley Report 29, 31

‘brain gain’/’brain drain’ theory 95

Brockie, Jenny 109

Brumby, John 77, 85, 108

bullying 71

Castells, Manuel 11

Chimurenga 136, 137

Chinese students

in Australia 77, 117

violence against 78

Colombo Plan 61–2, 94–5

community engagement

fostering 97–100

and learning opportunities 98–9

need for 96–7

Community Relations Commission (NSW), Multicultural Policies and Services Program 92

Community Relations Commission and Principles of Multiculturalism Act 2000 (NSW) 92

conflict resolution, cultural differences 138

Confucius Institutes, in South African universities 17

Connell, Raewyn 99–100

Cooksley, Bill 106

Cosgrove, Peter 85, 108

Council of Australian Governments’

International Students Strategy for

Australia 97

Council for the Development of Social Research in Africa (CODESRIA) 157–8

Council of International Students Australia

(CISA) 67

crime statistics 79, 81

cross-cultural communication 134

cross-cultural teaching and learning programs

and campus residences 141–2

importance of empathy 139–40

language difficulties 141

language policy 142–4

policy considerations 135–9

principles for 139–41

relationships between staff, students and parents 139

resources 140–1

use of cultural interpreters 140

cross-cultural understanding 99

cultural accommodation 135

cultural differences in the classroom

conflict resolution 138

epistemology 136–7

non-verbal communication 137

problem-solving 137

teaching and learning styles 137–8

use of symbols 138–9

cultural diversity

and multiculturalism 112

in NSW 93

in research practice and curriculum content 99

cultural interpreters 140

‘curry bashing’ 86

Davis, Glyn 95

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Cwlth) 79

Department of Immigration and Citizenship (Cwlth) (DIAC) 79

method of administering people movement 25–6

support for export of higher education 22, 25

treatment of international students 26–7

DiFD (UK) 15

discrimination

against international students 34–5

patterns by ethnicity 83–4

Doctoral Consortium 11

Dunn, Kevin 84

education export policy

tension with education and research missions of universities 27–9

tension with immigration policy 25–7, 95

Education Services for Overseas Students Act 2000 (Cwlth) (ESOS Act) 33, 63, 65

Education USA website 64

Edwards, Bernie 103

Emblem, Rody 106

Emory University 13–14

employment, for international students 71–2

English

as a global commodity 123

global spread 119–22

linguistic imperialism 122–3

plural Englishes 122

role in higher education 127–8

role in international education 118, 124–7

in South African universities 142–3

epistemology, cultural differences 136–7

European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia 84

European values 134

Evans, Chris 77

Finding Common Ground (Arkoudis) 58

Flemish Inter-University Council (Belgium) 12–13

Flinders University, ‘Going Home’ program 58

foreign policy, contribution of higher education 61–2, 94–5, 96

Fraser, Malcolm 109

Garg, Nitin 102–3, 109

Georgia State University, International Student Associations Council (ISAC) 57

Gillard, Julia 65, 66–7, 77, 104, 107–8

global public good, and national political economy 35–7

globalisation

and higher education and research 29–30

and spread of English language 119–20

glocalisation 57–8

Graham, Pat 12

Griffith (NSW) 102

Gukurahundi in Zimbabwe/Breaking the Silence (report) 141

Hanson-Young, Sarah 107

harassment, of international students 71

higher education

internationalisation of 3

role of English 127–9

see also Australian higher education; South African higher education

Hills Circle of Friends 106

Hizb ut-Tahrir 105

hostility, towards international students 34–5

Howard Government 111

human rights of international students 35

hyperglobalisers 119

immigration policy

and cultural diversity 93

and permanent residency for graduates 22, 23, 95, 111, 118

student visas 22–3, 83, 111–12

tension with education export policy 25–7

Indian media, coverage of violence against Indian students 85, 104, 108

Indian students

interaction with local Indian communities 97

numbers in Australia 77–8, 82

protests against violence aimed at 108

violence against 22, 65, 68, 78–9, 96, 110–12

Insight (television program) 109

Interaction for Learning Framework 136

international academic partnerships

collaborations between ‘southern’ countries 14–15

critical review of 13–14

funding of 15

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 37–8

international doctoral education 30–1

international education

Australia as world’s ‘dumb blond’ 111

distance education and foreign campuses 126–7

growth of 118, 125

link with immigration and permanent residency 62

major Anglophone host nations 118

need for global protocol for mobile students 37

need to re-norm 36

number of students studying in Anglophone countries 118, 129

role of English 124–7

tension between commercial exploitation and global knowledge flows 29–32

value of student mobility for host countries 5

see also Australian international education; South African international education

International English Language Testing System (IELTS) 117, 118, 127–8

international student experience

African students in South Africa 151–6

critical incidents 69

current concepts in Australia 63–5

development in Australia 61–3

dichotomy of on- and off-campus experiences 65–6

dichotomy between positive and negative experiences 68–72

educational aspects 97

host country as ‘home away from home’ 60, 158–60

issues in social and cultural interactions 161–5

language proficiency and socialisation 46–7, 158–9

limitations of current Australian experience 65–8

local group stratifications 162

need for study/work/life balance 47–8

origins of concept in Australia 61

sense of belonging 161

social aspects 97

under Colombo Plan 61–2

US approach to defining 64–5

International Student Security (Marginson et al.) 26, 32, 33, 34, 80

international students

detention of 26, 27

draft protocol for those studying in Australia 37–41

formation of diasporic groups on campuses 54–5, 160

future prospects in home country after graduation 57–8

job-seeking 71–2

need for global protocol 37

personal and academic challenges and responsibilities 47–8, 72

as potentially dangerous aliens 26, 34

rights of 32–6, 39–40

security of 22, 32, 33–4, 37, 65

services for 40

social identity 45–7, 161–2

transport concessions 66–7

intolerance, in Australian society 84–5

Inverbrackie (SA) 106–7

job seeking 71–2

Krishna, S. M. 77, 109

language proficiency, and socialisation of students 46–7

learning opportunities, and community engagement 98–9

learning styles, cultural differences 137–8

Liberal Party, stance on refugees 105, 107

linguistic diversity 93, 112, 129, 142–3

linguistic imperialism 122–3

‘Live, Learn and Grow’ 63–5

Macquarie University, Participation and Community Engagement (PACE) initiative 98

Madikizela-Mandela, Winnie 104

Malu Sara (ship) 105

Mamdani, Mahmood 16

Marginson, Simon 80, 102

media see Indian media; news media; SBS; talkback radio

Migration Occupations in Demand List (MODL) 111

migration scams 22

Ministerial Committee into Transformation and Social Cohesion in Higher Education (MCTHE) 8, 16

Monash South Africa (MSA)

academic staff backgrounds 133

commitment to international education 52

composition of student body 52, 53–5, 133

cross-cultural teaching and learning policy 135–9

encouraging the international experience 56–7

Foundation Program 142

language policy 142–3

principles for a cross-cultural program 139–41

prospects for graduates 57–8

Monash University, number of international students 21

Monash University South Africa Student Association (MUSASA) 55, 56, 133

Morrison, Scott 105

multiculturalism 92–3, 98, 112

multilingual teaching 142–3

Murdoch, Mark 102

National Code of Practice for Registration Authorities and Providers of Education and Training to Overseas Students 69, 70

National Community Engagement Strategy for International Students 96–7

National Liaison Committee for Overseas Students in Australia (NLC) 66

national political economy, and global public good 35–7

New South Wales

commitment to multiculturalism 92–3, 99

cultural and linguistic diversity 93

New South Wales Ministerial Taskforce on International Education 96

news media, and sensationalism 102–3

non-verbal communication, cultural differences 137

NSW Premier’s Council on International Education 96

Oakes, Laurie 108

Oakeshott, Rob 104

Office of Police Integrity 87

Outlook India (magazine) 77

Overland, Simon 79, 86, 110

police

bigotry 86–7

response to violence against international students 79, 85, 86

private vocational training colleges 23, 111

problem solving, cultural differences 137

public transport

concessions for international students 66–7

safety concerns in Victoria 81–2, 85

racialism

deracialisation of South African higher education 7

racial ordering in South African higher education 6–7

and social identity 161–2

racism, in Australian society 84, 104, 108–9, 110–11, 112

refugee policy 26, 104

refugees

community attitudes towards 104, 105–7

resettlement 105–6

Rhodes University 6, 143

Rhodesian Bush War 136

Richardson, Graham 104

rights of international students

draft protocol 39–40

inferior status of non-citizen 32–5

RMIT University 21, 135

robbery statistics 79, 81

Rudd, Kevin 77, 104, 107, 108

Rudd Labor Government 111

SBS (Special Broadcasting Service), coverage of attacks on Indian students 108–12

Scanlon Foundation surveys 83, 84

scholarships, for international doctoral education 30–1

security of international students

experience of prejudice and hostility 34–5

threats to 22, 32

sensationalism, in news media 103–4

Shooting Dogs (film) 140

Sikhchic.com 110–11

Simons, Margaret 111

Singh, Gurpeet 102

Singh, Jaspreet 103

Singh, Manmohan 77

Singh, Manpreet 109, 110–11

Singh, Ranjodh 102

Singh, Sukjraj 86

Smith, Chris 105

Smith, Stephen 77

social identity 45–7

Solidarity Peace Trust 141

South Africa

racial and class divisions 162–3

relationship with Africa 149

South Africa Netherlands Research Programme on Alternatives in Development (SANPAD) 13

South African Development Community (SADC) region 3, 5

South African exceptionalism 16

South African higher education

appointment of African scholars and interns 147–8

critical issues 7–9

curriculum 15–17

deracialisation 7

empirical/structuralist approach to transformation 8–9

financial support structure 7

institutions and enrolments for 2007 4–5

internationalisation versus Africanisation 164–5

‘Mamdani Affair’ 16

prioritising the local 8–9

racial ordering 6–7

transformation of system 7–9

South African Higher Education Act 1997 7

South African international education

bifurcated form of internationalisation 5–6

cost of studying for international students 7

Flemish Inter-University Council partnership 12–13

international partnerships 11–15

internationalization 3, 5, 6–7, 18

nationalities of students 3, 4–5, 5, 146

semester study-abroad experience 9–11

Spencer Foundation’s Research Training Grant (RTG) 12, 13

South African universities

academic culture 153

admission quotas 148, 163

African international students 147–8

African students 146–7

experiences of African international students 149, 151–6

international student numbers 146

international students’ reasons for enrolling 151–2

linguistic diversity 143, 153–4

performance of local students compared with international students 157–8

preference for non-SA black students 148

standard of education 155–6

student culture 154

treatment of students by academic staff 154

Southern Theory (Connell) 99–100

Spencer Foundation 11

Research Training Grant (RTG) 12, 13

student associations

celebration of diversity 57

involvement of international students 56, 66, 67

and national coalitions 54–5

restrictions on involvement of international students 66

special-interest portfolios 56

student visas

cancellations and appeals 26–7

difficulties obtaining 22

and permanent residency 111–12

and under-reporting of crimes against students 83

Study Adelaide 71–2

Study in Australia (website) 63, 64, 70, 71

study/work/life balance

international student’s need for 47–8

and time management 49–50

symbols, cultural differences 138–9

talkback radio 104–5

taxi drivers, public protests against violence 78

Taylor, Lenore 107

teaching and learning styles, cultural differences 137–8

terrorism, and international students as dangerous aliens 26

Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) 127–8

time management, guidelines 49–50

transformationalist view of globalisation 119–20

transnational mobility 134

transport concessions 66–7

A UK Guide for Enhancing the International Student Experience 56

undergraduate learning, seven principles for 56

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 105

Universal Declaration of Human Rights 37

Universities Australia 65–6

University of Cape Town (UCT) 9–10

Confucius Institute 17

curriculum 16–17

Global Citizenship Program (GCP) 17

international partnerships 11, 12, 14, 15

‘Mamdani Affair’ 16

University of Durban-Westville 12

University of Fort Hare (UFH) 6, 9

University of the Free State 8

University of Melbourne 135

University of Natal 12

University of Pretoria 143

University of Rhodes 17

University Science, Humanities, Engineering Partnership in Africa (USHEPiA) 15

University of Stellenbosch 17

university, the, social role of 93–4, 96, 99–100

University of Western Cape (UWC) 9, 12–13

University of the Witwatersrand 12, 14–15

US, promotion of international education 64–5

USAid 15

Victoria

crime and policing as a political issue 81, 82, 85

crime statistics 81

crimes against South Asian students 78–9, 110

government response to attacks on international students 87

number of international students 110

safety on public transport 81–2

Victoria University 135

Victorian Perceptions of Justice Survey (2008) 81

‘Vindaloo against Violence’ 108

violence

against Indian students in Australia 22, 65, 68, 78–9, 83–4, 86, 110–12

in Australian cities 80–2

extent of violence against overseas

students 82–3, 110–11

inter-ethnic violence 85–6

police response to attacks on international students 79, 85, 86, 103

student perceptions of 79–80

vocational education sector

decline in international student numbers

and immigration policy 111

and migration scams 22, 111

quality of programs 22, 23

websites

Education USA

Study in Australia

White Australia policy

Withers, Glenn

Woodside (SA)

xenophobia, in Africa

The Zanzibar Chest (Hartley)

Zimbabwe, heterogeneity of students

A Home Away from Home? International Students in Australian and South African Higher Education

   by Ilana Snyder and John Nieuwenhuysen